turban chapter 13

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GROUP 6Pingkan Mayosi F (15/387178/PEK/20728)Reynaldo Krissancha A(15/387186/PEK/20736 ) Reza Mark Manusiwa (15/387187/PEK/20737)

Chapter 13

PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND SDLC13.1 Project Management and Projects PortfolioEnterprise face challenge of deciding which investment to make and how to allocate scare resources to competing projects. Senior manager composes business case that identifies an oportunity, problem, need and the desired business outcomes of the project.Project analysis methods are used prioritize proposed projects and allocate the budget for maximum returnProject Portofolio Managemet :is a set of business practises to manage projects as a strategic portofolio. PPM ensures the allignment of programs and projects with organizational objectives.

Cont`d..Without the necessary data, management is incapable of making informd decision to approve the right new projects and to shut down projects with no hope for success :

Map proposed projects to organizational strategiesAsses the value that a proposed project brings to the companyAsses the complexity of proposed projectsPriorituze project proposals for project selection

Cont`d..A project has the following characteristics:Clearly defined scope, deliverables, and resultAn estimated time frame or schedule that is subject to a high degree of uncertaintyAn estimated budget that is subject to a high degree of uncertainty The requirement of extensive interaction among participantsTask that may compete or conflict with other business activities, which makes planning and schedulling difficultRisky but with a high profit potential or benefits

Cont`d..The triple Constraints refers to the three atributes that must be managed effectively for successful completion and closure projects :Scope measured in terms of the project size, goals and reuirements.Time the duration of a project extends from the start date of the first task to the finish date of the last task.Cost the estimation of the amount of money that will be rewuired to complete the project.

Cont`d..A standard approach for managing projects provides the following benefits : It established ground rules and expectation for the project teamIt provides project managers, functional managers, the operational staff with a common language that eases communication and helps ensure that everyone is on the same pageManagers can quickly determine which ones are proceeding smoothly and which are not when all projects follow the same processes and approaches and use the same metrics for measuring projects performanceProject management helps keep projects on schedule and on budget. 13.2 Project Stages : Planning, Execution, BudgetingCont`d..After the projects objectives and scope have been defined, the next step is to identify all work or activities that need to be performed, the schedule of work and who will perform the work. This is done by creating a work breakdown structureThe work breakdown structure breaks a project down into the task or activities that must be performed, and in what order, to produce the deliverables at each milestone.Cost estimationsProject management software computes the cost of the project on basis of labor time ( duration) of each task in the work breakdown structure and the cost of labour or other resources.Responsibility MatrixShows who has pimary responsibility and who has support responsibility for the activities listed in work breakdown structureGant ChartA bar chart that shows the timeline of the project schedule.

Cont`d..Project BaselineBaseline : a specification of the project plan that has been formally reviewed and agreed upon. It should be changed only through a formal change control process.

13.3 Project Stages : Monitoring, Control, ClosingMonitoring and control process are intended to occur continuously and continually while the project work being executed.Project cntrol depends on systems and decision rules for managing variances between the projects scope, cost, schedule, quality and the realities of project implementationIntegrated change control process help to amnage the disruption resulting from requested changes and corrective actions across the project life cycle.All project have a critical path that extends the length of the project. Each task or activity on the critical path is called a critical task or activity.

13.4 System Development Life CycleSystem development life cycle strating with an initial idea, the System Development Life Cycle processes are requirement analysis, systems analysis and design, development and testing, implementation, maintenance. In general system development life cycle methodology follows the following steps :Requirement analysisSystem analysis and feasibility studies The various feasibility analyses also give the stakeholders an oportunity to decide what metrics to use to measure how a proposed system meets their objectives.Technical feasibilityEconomic feasibilityLegal and organizational feasibilityBehavioral feasibility

Cont`d..3. system development and testingSystem developers utilize the design specification to acquire the software needed for the system to meet its functional objectives and solve the business problem. Testing verivies apps, interfaces, data transfer, and so on work correctly under all possible conditions.4. ImplementationProcess of converting from the old system to the new system5. MaintenanceOnce of the new systems operations are stabilized, audits are performed during operation to asses the systems capabilities and determine if it is being used correctly. Maintenance must be kept up rigorously at all times.