turkey's indigenous wine varieties n otes 11812

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  • 1.Welcome to what I hope will be a stimulating look at the spectrum of Turkeys moreimportant indigenous varieties.I spent a month last year driving 7000km around the country visiting most keyregions, producers and many intriguing archaeological and other historical sites thatbear relevance to our book: Divine Vintage: Following the Wine Trail from Genesis tothe Modern Age, which is officially published on 13 November.Most of the images and, virtually all of the material we will discuss derive from mylast 3 years or so intensive look at Turkeys modern wines and ancient geographybased on 4 trips here. I am of course indebted to Wines of Turkey, Taner gtoglDirector, and for a lot of the back-round research, certainly Patrick Mcgovern andJos Vouillamoz works.We will look in turn during this program at;The basic geography of Turkey which influences the climate and where grapes aregrownTurkeys role as a key protagonist in the domestication of wine grapes and relevanceto todays wines.The modern turkish grapes of importance and their chief characteristicsAnd lastly, taste through a range of wines I have chosen that will illustrate theircharacter, style and quality.Questions are welcome throughout, of course.Let s start with this photo. ... Noah supposedly landed the Ark here and planted hisvineyard near Mt Ararat! .These vineyards are on the northern side of the mountain, facing Armenia, butillustrate that wine and grapes in this area is not just a mythical notionIn Biblical times, Turkey/Asia Minor was a major supplier of wine, and great quantities 1

2. As in France, the fine wine regions of Turkey are spread the length and breadth of thecountry West of Istanbul and along the Aegean seacoast, the climate is Mediterranean andmoderate. Moving eastward the climate becomes colder, and harsh continental conditionsprevail in the interior Anatolian regions, from Ankara in the northwest to Diyarbakir and Mardin in the southeast. As example,this past January much of Cappadoccia suffered a killing frost from temperaturesdown to -32C, destroying most of the potential crop and killing vines. Highland regions around Denizli/Gney, east of Izmir, are Mediterranean at the lowerelevations andSemi-continental at the higher elevationshot summers, cold winters, and littlerainfall.While western Turkeys vineyards have limestone-rich soils, central Anatolia typicallyhas volcanic soils. Many areas feature terra rossa, the iron-laden gritty soils with finesand that were created from the erosion of iron-rich, ancient limestone seabeds.Many of the better Turkish vineyards are located several hundred feet or metersabove sea level and have poor soils withexcellent drainage, which can be stressful to the vines in hotter years.2 3. This map from Vouillamoz presentation last year illustrates further the importance ofSE Turkey/Anatolia as a cradle of civilization, if you will, for everything fromlanguage, to wine, domesticated plants and establishment of human settlements.Archaeological, paleo-botanical and other research supports the hypothesis that SETurkey was one of the most unique places on earth where all of these aspects cametogether. 3 4. Taking Vouillamozs work I created for our book this map that puts the area of originaldomestication including much of SE Turkey into the wider regional context of majorwine growing regions of ancient Turkey, the Levant, to provide a historical context forwhere modern Turkish wines, and the key cultivars are grown, as noted on the nextmaps.4 5. is map comes courtesy of my friend Murat Yanki in Cappadoccia who has done a lotof homework (www.vinatolia.com) to create this map showing the ancient vineyardlocations in detailI use this map merely to indicate that When you Compare an ancient map of Turkeythat shows wine regions with a modern map of grape-growing areas and the locationof top producers today, (click now)you will find a high degree of correlation.Ancient Turkey produced fine wines primarily along the Aegean and Mediterraneancoasts. Outposts of quality wines can be found in Kapadokya ( Cappadocia) and nearfamous southern and eastern cities like Zeugma on the Euphrates and areas aroundAntakya (ancient Antioch 5 6. Turkey does not yet have a formal Appellation System for their wine regions. Yetthere are a number of areas that are effectively considered as such, like Tokat orGney/Denizli. We will refer to them regularly in our discussion. What is clear fromthis map is that like California, Turkey is a vast winegrowing country, and that onecannot speak holistically of Turkeys vintage conditions for example, given thenearly 1050 miles /1700 km distance from east to west and half that distance northto south.But we can group the key zones into Regions, such as the Thrace area in the NW oreastern Anatolia districts, which share general climatic conditions in large part,geological attributes perhaps a bit less so, and increasingly, diverse varieties. 6 7. Turkey has twelve hundred to fifteen hundred indigenous grape varieties, six to eighthundred of which are genetically different. There are about 60 which can used forwine production, but effectively, only about 25 of the indigenous varieties are used insignificant quantities. Of these, there are really the 8 noted on this map of realsignificance, and really just the five we are focusing on for quality wines.7 8. A comparative view of the key varieties and a couple more of definite interest 8 9. Emir means order or command in Turkish. Originally from central Kapadokya, emir produces a crisp, lively, dry white wine withherbal, green melon, or apple flavors; with age it takes on a buttery note like chardonnay. Emir is traditionally grown as a bushvine; it lies low to the ground and is not trellised. Some vines are one hundred years old.Cappodocia, the climate is continental, with desert-like rainfall of 12 to 16 inches (300 to 400 mm), cold snowy winters, and a lotof wind; it is located nearly 3,300 feet (1,000 m) above sea level and has decomposed calcareous loam -clay soils over volcanicrock that are quite poor and free drainingHseyin Yazgan, who was born in Greece, established one of Turkeys oldest and largest wineries in Izmir in 1943. He movedthere during the great exchange of populations between Turkey and Greece in the 1920s and 1930s.WINERY : Yazgan ESTABLISHED : 1943 WINE MAKER : Mr. Antoine Bastide dIzardWINE : Yazgan Emir TYPE (color) : White VINTAGE : 2011GRAPES : EmirREGION : Cappadocia SUBREGION : Nevsehir ALCOHOL LEVEL : 12%FIRST VINTAGE : 2010 MEDALS :Masters of Wine 2012, 88 points PRODUCTION QUANTITY: 30000 bottlesVITICULTURE VINEYARDS (CONTRACTED/OWN/AGE): ContractedSOIL :YIELD : 70 hl/ha PICKING DATES : 16/10/2011VINIFICATIONFERMENTATION : In stainless steel FERMENTATION TEMP: 17C YEAST TYPE (WILD/CULTURED): CulturedBARREL AGEING : NoneTOTAL ACIDITY : 3.6 g/l (in sulfuric acid) VOLATILE ACIDITY : 0.27 g/l PH : 3.47 SUGAR : 2.9 g/l TOTAL SO2 (mg/l) : 31/89RELATIVE DENSITY 20C/20C:CLOSURE TYPE : Synthetic corkTASTING NOTESCOLOUR : Light straw colourAROMA : Peach, pear, apricot aromas9 10. Yapncak is an indigenous variety that is native to arky area in Thrace.Paaeli is a family owned estate that was founded by Seyit Karagzolu in 2000.Recognizing the potential of Kaynaklar (near Izmir) as an area of exceptionalviticultural promise, and with the help of an Italian based friend and consultantAndrea Paoletti, he took on the challenge. After careful site studies and mapping, theappropriate rootstocks and varieties (with appropriate clones) were chosen and avineyard was planted in March of 2002. Serez vineyard is located 20 km from zmir. Itswarm Aegean climate is balanced with cool night airs that are chanelled from near byNif Mountain. It is a site that is perfectly suited to big Bordeaux style wines. Thewines reflect the terroir that is Kaynaklar, the warm Aegean climate delivering rich,mature fruit with ripe rounded tannins. Paaeli wines emphasize fruit intensity, andbalance. Lush and enticing upon release, they will age well for a number of years andwill continue to develop complexity with cellaring.Seyit Karagzolu also believes strongly in the potential of indigenous varieties ofTurkey. So for the next challenge Hoky (near Tekirda) was selected, as itspotential for the production of wines of noteworthy quality was well known for manyyears. And various indigenous varieties have existed there for centuries. After manysite studies an exceptional site was purchased. Plantation started in 2003 andcontinued in 2004 and 2005. This terroir delivers delicious wines that are balanced,and complex but also elegant. They too will age well for many years.Hoky, TekirdaOur vineyards in Hoky have partly clay and limy soil with high mineral content. Theyare at an altitude of 140 meters, and open to the winds blowing from Sea ofMarmara.It has a pale gold colour. It was fermented at 17C for 21 days. It was kept sur lie for3 months with 2 batonnage a week. And it was partially barrel aged for 3 months to10 11. Narince means delicate/ Narince, originally from the Tokat region in north-central Turkey near the Black Sea. In character itseems to be a composite of sauvignon blanc, the rare Italian variety arneis, and Spanish albario. We find citrus, pink grapefruit,herbal and mineral or chalky flavors with excellent fresh acidity and crisp finish.Vineyards in Tokat are around 500-750m. Kazova district of Tokat is considered one of the best zones west of the city, but Erbaaarea to northeast also quite good, but rather lower. And milder temperatures around 300m.The vineyards around Kalecik are higher altitude, closer to 670+m near the Red River.WINERY : Vinkara ESTABLISHED : 2003 WINE MAKER : Tuna lacinWINE : reserve narince 2010 GRAPES : 100 % narinceREGION : ankara/ tokat SUBREGION : kalecik/ erbaa ALCOHOL LEVEL : 13,5FIRST VINTAGE : 2010MEDALS : mundus vini, germany, 2012, goldPRODUCTION QUANTITY : 2300 bottlesVITICULTURE VINEYARDS (CONTRACTED/OWN/A