turkey's perspective of wwi &wwii

Download Turkey's perspective of WWI &WWII

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WORLD WARS AND THEIR EFFECT ON TURKEY

WW1 and the Ottoman Empire

This is the map of the Ottoman Empire at its prime.#

Nationalism in the WW1Many nationalities gathered with the need for independence and attempted to break away from the Ottoman rule. Because of its multi-national state, this movement caused a great loss of territory for Ottoman Empire.Turkish nationalism rose and Turkish Republic formed based on ethnic union instead of having Islam as its base.

This is the map of the Ottoman Empire just before the WW1, showing how much it lost its power.#

How Ottoman Empire got into the war?

Two German warships, Goeben and Breslau, were escaping from the British naval forces and seeked protection from the Ottoman Empire by coming to Istanbul.

They were renamed Yavuz and Midilli and had Ottoman flags on them to justify not giving them back to the British Navy.

The German commanders of the ships ordered to attack on the Russian positions, thus Ottoman Empire went into the war.

Goeban (Left) and Breslau (Right)#

How Ottoman Empire lost the war?

Ottoman Empire fought with:English and French powers in the Middle East, which was eventually lost due to the lack of manpower.Russian forces in the Caucasia, which was also lost due to the bad leadership, but Ottoman Empire didnt lose much territory since Russian Empire had to leave the war because of the regime shift.Allied forces on Gallipoli, which was defended successfully with the commandership of successful generals, one of them being Mustafa Kemal Atatrk.

Ottoman Empire lacked the proper equipment for the war, which was one of the reasons the war was lost.In the Sarkam, 60000 people died, many of who didnt even see the Russian forces and died from hypothermia.#

Gallipoli WarThe sum of the casualties from the Gallipoli campaign from both of the sides is about half a million.One of the key campaigns in WW1, if the Gallipoli was lost the Ottoman Empire would fell instantly.

A scene from the Turkish trenches in Gallipoli#

After WW1

The Armistice of Mudros and The Treaty of Svres The Ottomans with their armies being destroyed in the field agreed to an armistice of Mudros, ending the fighting.The Armistice of Mudros officially brought hostilities to an end between the Allies and the Ottoman Empire. However, incursions by the Italians and Greeks into Anatolia in the name of "restoring order" soon came close to an outright partition of the country. The incursions started with the armistice made official by The Treaty of Svres in 1920. However, the treaty never put into effect since the Turkish War of Independence (191923) started at that time.

The Svres treaty marked the beginning of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire, and its ultimate annihilation.

Turkish War of Independence

The lands of the motherland within the national boundaries is a whole, and cannot be partitioned. Mandates and patronages are unacceptable.

In the Erzurum Congress, the Turkish people manifested its determination for national independence to the whole world.#

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CH42eJZhBDk

ResultsTurkey became a republic with Kemal Atatrk as the first president. Turkey abolished the Ottoman sultanate and persued a policy of modernization, reform, and industrialization under Atatrk's direction.

World War 2 and Turkish Republic

Turkey stayed neutral in the WW2

WWII started in 1939, a year after Mustafa Kemal Ataturk passed away, when modern Turkey was founded 16 years ago. The country was still economically and socially healing after WWI and wasn't strong enough to enter a war.Turkey did not want the territories it lost in WW1. Main priority was to protect Turkey's current boundaries that were drawn at the Conference of Lausannece after the Independence War. WHY?

Declaration of the warTurkey declared war on Germany and Japan (February 23, 1945). This was, however, largely cosmetic. It was a diplomatic step needed to participation in the Conference on International Organization, held in San Francisco (April 1945). Turkey thus obtained a seat in the new United Nations but initiated no military action.

Thank you all for listening :)

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