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1 | Page Unit II: Pedagogy of Computer Science ver 1.0 COURSE CODE: FCPCS PEDAGOGY OF COMPUTER SCIENCE - PART I UNIT - II: AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF TEACHING COMPUTER SCIENCE Need and significance of teaching Mathematics- Aims: Practical, Social, Disciplinary and Cultural- Instructional Objectives: General Instructional Objectives (G.I.Os) and Specific Instructional Objectives (S.I.Os) relating to the Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor Domain based on Bloom‘s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives – Revised Bloom‘s Taxonomy.

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  • 1 | P a g e Unit II: Pedagogy of Computer Science ver 1.0




    Need and significance of teaching Mathematics-




    Disciplinary and


    Instructional Objectives:

    General Instructional Objectives (G.I.Os) and

    Specific Instructional Objectives (S.I.Os) relating to the


    Affective and

    Psychomotor Domain

    based on Blooms Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

    Revised Blooms Taxonomy.

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    Blooms Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

    "Taxonomy simply means classification, so the well-known taxonomy of learning objectives

    is an attempt (within the behavioural paradigm) to classify forms and levels of learning. It

    identifies three domains of learning (see below), each of which is organised as a series of

    levels or pre-requisites. It is suggested that one cannot effectively or ought not try to

    address higher levels until those below them have been covered (it is thus effectively serial in

    structure). As well as providing a basic sequential model for dealing with topics in the

    curriculum, it also suggests a way of categorising levels of learning, in

    terms of the expected ceiling for a given programme. Thus in the

    Cognitive domain, training for technicians may cover

    knowledge, comprehension and application, but not

    concern itself with analysis and above,

    whereas full professional training may

    be expected to include this and

    synthesis and evaluation as



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    The Cognitive Domain: concerned with the area of Subject matter knowledge and mental skills

    the basic concern of educational and training programs.

    Cognitive Domain

    KNOWLEDGE. The simplest cognitive behavior, involves the recall of information. Objectives

    concerned with terms and facts, knowledge of methods and criteria for handling terms and facts,

    and knowledge of the abstractions of a field are properly classified in this category.

    COMPREHENSION. Objectives classified as "comprehension" require the ability to

    reorganize, restate, and interpret the facts, the methods and criteria for handling facts, and the

    generalizations and abstractions of a field.

    APPLICATION. Utilization of knowledge in a new and different situation. Application covers

    things as rules, methods, concepts, principles, laws, and theories. Learning outcomes in this area

    requires a higher level of understanding than those under comprehension.

    Analysis: Require the individual to determine the elements of some problem or theory under

    consideration, the relationship among the elements, and the relationship of the elements to the

    whole. This level can be characterized as taking the "whole" of a problem and breaking it down

    into its various parts to extract meaning from the situation.

    Synthesis: Include behaviors like the development of a plan or a set of abstract relations. This

    level can be characterized as taking the various parts of a problem and putting them together to

    derive meaning from the situation.

    Evaluation: Objectives requiring the evaluation or judging of theory or products according to

    internal evidence or external criteria are properly classified as evaluation objectives.

    Measurement at this level requires utilization of the lower level mental skills (knowledge,

    comprehension). The student is required to decide between right and wrong, good and bad,

    relevant and irrelevant. These decisions require knowledge and ability to analyze and synthesize

    data in the forming of sound, logical judgments. Items of this type are often quite difficult to

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    construct because the necessity of being able to defend one alternative as a better response to an

    item than all other possible alternatives.

    The model above is included because it is still common currency, but Anderson and

    Krathwohl (2001) have made some apparently minor but actually significant

    modifications, to come up with:

    Blooms Revised Taxonomy Model

    The rows of the table (below) represent each of the six levels of the Cognitive Process

    Dimensionranging from lower-order thinking skills at the bottom to higher-order thinking

    skills at the top. The columns represent the Knowledge Dimensionranging from concrete at the

    left through abstract at the right.

    Each cell of the table provides an example of a learning objective that corresponds generally to

    the intersection of the levels of the Cognitive Process and Knowledge dimensions of the

    taxonomy. The verb (in bold) refers to [actions associated with] the intended Cognitive Process.

    The object of each sentence (not bold) describes the Knowledge students are expected to acquire

    or construct.

    Revised taxonomy of the cognitive domainfollowing Anderson and Krathwohl (2001)

    Note the new top category, which is about being able to create new knowledge within the

    domain, and the move from nouns to verbs.

    In higher education, "understand" is stillin my viewproblematic in its positioning. There is a

    higher, contextualised level of "understanding" which comes only with attempting to evaluate

    ideas and to try them out in new ways, or to "create" with them. It is what I expect at Master's

    level. The taxonomy is an epistemological rather than psychological hierarchy, but it also has a

    basic chronological element: you achieve certain levels before others. This higher, Gestalt, level

    of understanding comes last, in my experience: my principal evidence is in the use of research

    methods. The "real", intuitive, contextualised, critical, strategic understanding only happens

    when you have tried to be creative within the field... Argue with me (use the "comments

    welcome" link below). And thanks to all the people who have done so; I hope you found it a

    useful activity. I did! See more notes at the bottom of the page arising from those discussions.


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    The Knowledge Dimension

    Factual (The basic elements a

    student must know to be

    acquainted with a discipline or

    solve problems in it.)

    Conceptual (The

    interrelationships among the basic elements within

    a larger structure that enable them

    to function together.)

    Procedural (How to do something, methods of inquiry, and

    criteria for using skills, algorithms, techniques, and


    Metacognitive (Knowledge of

    cognition in general as well as awareness

    and knowledge of ones own cognition.)

    The Cognitive

    Process Dimension

    Create (Put elements together to form a coherent or functional whole; reorganize elements into a new pattern or structure.)

    Generate a log of daily activities.

    Assemble a team of experts.

    Design an efficient project workflow.

    Create a learning portfolio.

    Evaluate (Make judgments based on criteria or standards.)

    Check for consistency among sources.

    Determine relevance of results.

    Judge efficiency of sampling techniques.

    Reflect on ones progress.

    Analyze (Break material into constituent parts and determine how parts relate to one another and to an overall structure or purpose.)

    Select the most complete list of activities.

    Differentiate high and low culture.

    Integrate compliance with regulations.

    Deconstruct ones biases.

    Apply (Carry out or use a procedure in a given situation.)

    Respond to frequently asked questions.

    Provide advice to novices.

    Carry out pH tests of water samples.

    Use techniques that match ones strengths.

    Understand (Construct meaning from instructional messages, including oral, written and graphic communication.)

    Summarize features of a new product.

    Classify adhesives by toxicity.

    Clarify assembly instructions.

    Predict ones response to culture shock.

    Remember (Retrieve relevant knowledge from long-term memory.)

    List primary and secondary colors.

    Recognize symptoms of exhaustion.

    Recall how to perform CPR.

    Identify strategies for retaining information.

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    The Affective Domain: deals with feelings, attitudes and values the proper concern of

    education. Because these are internal behaviors, objectives have to be written in term of

    external indicator performances, which show the desired internal behavior has attained.

    Affective Domain

    Preparing objectives in this domain is more difficult than in the cognitive domain:

    Vagueness of terminology used

    Covert intended outcomes

    Different description of outcomes

    Internalized and integrated with other behaviors

    Higher levels overt responses are less dependable as evidence of internal states

    Description of the Major Categories In the Affective Domain

    1. Receiving: Receiving refers to the students willingness to attend to particular phenomena or

    stimuli (classroom activities, textbook, music, et,.) From a teaching standpoint, it is

    concerned with getting, holding, and directing the students attention.

    a. Awareness: The learner is aware of a certain situation, phenomenon, or problem. It is the

    first step towards learning in this domain.

    b. Willingness to receive: It describes the behavior he wants to acquire. The learner is

    paying a real attention to the situation. (listens attentively to ... )

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    c. Controlled or Selected Attention: The learner would positively control his attention.

    While having different motives, he would choose the best one to him and attend to.

    2. Responding: Responding refers to active participation on the part of the student. At this level

    he or she NOT only attends to a particular phenomenon but also reacts to it in some way.

    The higher levels of this category are classified under interest stressing the seeking out

    and enjoyment of particular activity.

    a. Acquiescence to respond: The learner reacts to a certain situation / stimulus although he

    is completely adhered to it. (Read an assigned material, Follow health maintaining


    b. Willingness to Respond: The behavior required is optional and voluntarily as the learner

    is willing to show his reaction with no fear of punishment. (Read additional material,

    Participate in classroom discussion.)

    c. Satisfaction in Response: The learner goes beyond the previous levels to be satisfied,

    pleased, and fulfilled to undergo a certain behavior.


    Participate in classroom activities (Receiving and responding):

    Listens attentively.

    Asks relevant questions.

    Participates in classroom discussion.

    Volunteers for special tasks.

    Contributes material for the bulletin board.

    Helps others when requested.

    3. Valuing: Valuing is concerned with the worth or value a student attaches to a particular

    object, phenomenon, or behavior. The essential element characterizing the learner's behavior

    here is that he is not forced to respond rather it is a result of his adherence to a particular

    value. Learning outcomes in this area are concerned with behavior that is consistent and

    stable enough to make the value clearly identifiable. Instructional objectives that are

    commonly classified under attitudes and appreciation would fall into this category. It

    reflects upon the learners' attitudes and adopted concepts. Valuing also deals with the

    progression of attitudes and appreciation and the values attached to oneself, others and the

    society. It also has to do with one's self consciousness. Valuing is based on the

    internalization of a set of specified values, but clues to these values are expressed in the

    students overt behavior.

    a. Acceptance of a Value: The learner attaches a value to a certain phenomenon or object.

    The situation of accepting the valuing initially is somehow temporary. ( Appreciates

    cooperation with his classmates in class discussions)

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    b. Preference for a Value: The learner is more adhered to the related aspects of his value

    or attitude adopted. (Proposing some situation demonstrating the idea of cooperation

    among classmates in classroom discussion.)

    c. Commitment for a value: The learner is committed and loyal to the value, goal or

    principle he has. (Bear responsibility of effective learning in groups, Appreciates the

    teacher's role in school daily life.)


    Shows concern for the welfare of others (valuing)

    Asks others if they need help.

    Helps others with their problems.

    Shares materials with others.

    Encourages others to do well.

    Meets obligations in doing group work.

    Assists those reluctant to participate in group work.

    Obtain permission before using others materials.

    Thanks and commends others, when appropriate.

    4. Organization: Organization is concerned with bringing together different values, resolving

    conflicts between them and beginning the building of an internally consistent value system.

    Thus the emphasis is on comparing, relating, and synthesizing values. Learning outcomes

    may be concerned with the conceptualization of a value (recognizes the responsibility of

    each individual for improving human relations) or with the organization of a value system

    (develops a vocational plan that satisfies his or her need for both economic security and

    social service). Instructional objectives relating to the development of a philosophy of life

    would fall into this category.


    Formulates a rationale concerning the role of society in conserving natural resources


    Relates the needs of society to the conservation of resources.

    Describes the probable effects on society if resources are wantonly used

    Describe the probable effects on society if the use of resources is overly


    States personal position reflecting a reasonable balance between the needs

    of society and the needs to conserve resources.

    5. Characterization by a Value or Value Complex: At this level the individual has a value

    system that has controlled his or her behavior for a sufficiently long time for him or her to

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    have developed a characteristic life-style. Thus the behavior is pervasive, consistent, and

    predictable. Learning outcomes at this level cover a broad range of activities, but the major

    emphasis is on the fact that the behavior is typical or characteristic of the students.

    Instructional objectives that are concerned with the students general patterns of adjustment

    (personal, social, emotional) would be appropriate here.

    There are two subcategories under this Level:

    A. Generalized Set of Values: It refers to the generalization of self-behavior control which can describe the learner through these behaviors. This set of generalized

    values can be subconscious. (Revises his judgment about a certain phenomenon

    according to some given evidences.)

    B. Characterization: the unity of beliefs, ideas, attitudes, and values in a harmonious life philosophy. It is very inclusive of different affective aspects of behavior

    which ultimately make the learner as a unique individual. (Maintain healthy

    practices, Practice cooperation in cooperative working atmospheres)


    Respects the scientific process (Characterization).

    Favors evidence that results from scientific studies.

    Seeks objectivity in the interpretation of evidence

    Changes opinions when evidence is contrary to beliefs

    Suspends judgment when evidence is inadequate.

    Shows skepticism when statements are unsupported

    Questions evidence derived from inadequate studies.

    Bases ideas and opinions on the best scientific evidence available.

    Basing Statements on Traditional Categories

    Affective domain is described under the categories of attitudes, interests,

    appreciations, and adjustments.

    Apart from the cognitive outcomes, attitudes are the probably the most common

    affective outcome stressed by teachers


    Display scientific attitude

    Demonstrates curiosity in identifying problems

    Seeks natural causes of events

    Demonstrates openmindness when seeking answers

    Suspends judgments until all evidence is available

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    Respects evidence fro credible sources.

    Shows objectivity in analyzing evidence and drawing conclusions.

    Shows willingness to revise conclusions as new evidence becomes



    Demonstrates interest in English.

    Asks questions that indicate curiosity about English.

    Asks for extra language homework to do.

    Complete assignments on time.

    Brings examples, sentences, and paragraphs to class.

    Helps other with language tasks.

    Seeks ways to improve language learning.

    Uses the language in out of school activities.

    Asks about careers in English.

    Psychomotor Domain

    Psychomotor skills are classified under unspecified number of types. They range from simple

    skills that dont require many muscles (organs/senses) to be used, the skills that many muscles

    are used, and circulation skills that requires a body-to-body activity.

    What's a skill:

    The ability to perform kinesthetic activity in an easy, precise, harmonious way with the

    constant changing circumstances. This requires three elements in the skill:


    Precision (accuracy)


    There are some features that help constructing the main characteristics of a skill:

    Time of training

    Systematic Practice


    Quality of performance


    Complex tasks (play a musical instrument)

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    Three main characteristics of a skill:

    Response chains: (muscle movements, stimuli/response)

    Mutual kinesthetic collaboration: (organs of movement and organs of


    Response patterns: (organizing the stimuli and response chains in a

    bigger patterns which requires learning the sub-category of the skill)

    Place a direct call to one of her relatives in the UK.

    Classification of Psychomotor Domain (Simpson 1972)


    Concerned with the use of the sense organs to obtain cues that guide motor activity. Ranges from

    sensory stimulation (awareness of stimulus), through cue selection (selecting task-relevant cues),

    to translation (relating cue perception to action in a performance)

    Realizes the importance of the internet as a powerful source for gathering the information he

    needs for his assignment about Islamic Architecture.


    Readiness to take a particular type of action. It includes mental set (mental set to act), physical

    set (physical readiness to act), and emotional set (willingness to act). Perception is prerequisite

    for this level.

    Starts practicing typing on the PC through typing tutor program to be used in doing his


    Guided Response

    Includes imitation (repeating an act demonstrated by teacher) and trial and error (using a

    multiple-response approach to identify an appropriate response). Adequacy of performance is

    judged by an instructor or by a suitable set of criteria. There is an actual doing of the skill (after-

    readiness stage).

    Imitates the teachers pronunciation of the question.


    Concerned with performance acts where the learned responses have become habitual and the

    movements can be performed with some confidence and proficiency. Learning outcomes are

    concerned with performance skills of various types, but the movement patterns are less complex.

    Writes sentences using the simple past tense smoothly and correctly.

    Complex Overt Response

    Skillful performance of motor acts that involve complex movement patterns. Proficiency is

    indicated by a quick, smooth, accurate performance, requiring a minimum of energy. This

    category includes resolution of uncertainty (without hesitation) and automatic performance

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    (movements are make with ease and good muscle control). Highly coordinated motor activities

    are included in the learning outcomes.)

    Organizes an exhibition about amazing animals in the world in the school open day.


    Concerned with skills that are so well developed that the individual can modify movement

    patterns to fit special requirements or to meet a problem situation.

    Alters instructional visual aid about modern mosques in Oman made by some of his

    classmates based on his experience in making such aids.


    Creating new movement patterns to fit a particular situation or specific problem. Learning

    outcomes at this level emphasize creativity based upon highly developed skills.

    After watching a documentary program about paper industry, designs a model for how to

    make a small piece of Omani pottery using the available basic materials .

    The Psychomotor Domain: concerned with the learning of physical skills, manipulative

    ability and neuromuscular co-ordination.

    Instructional Objectives:

    General Instructional Objectives (G.I.Os) and

    Specific Instructional Objectives (S.I.Os) relating to the


    Affective and

    Psychomotor Domain

    based on Blooms Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

    Revised Blooms Taxonomy.

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    Introduction to Instructional Objective:

    A statement of proposed changes in the thoughts, feelings and actions of the students. They can

    be very specific and precise statements or they can be written in quiet general term depending on

    where they are going to be used. Accordingly, the instructional intent will be clear.

    Specific Students should be able to differentiate between hard woods and soft

    woods in terms of their cell structure.

    General Students should be able to identify the composition and principal

    properties of timber.

    Student Performance:

    Any measurable or observable student response that is a result of learning.


    Clear objectives ease planning which paves the path towards effective instructional

    accomplishment. It is also evident that instruction can be more clearly delivered when the

    teacher knows where s/he is heading and the main stations s/he is stopping at. Accordingly,

    having clear and straightforward instructional objectives makes it clear to both the teacher and

    his / her students about what, when, and how they will learn. That's why instructional objectives

    had a very heavy weight in the teaching and learning processes.

    "Instruction that doesn't change anyone has no effect, no power. if it changes students in

    undesired directions, it isn't called effective; instead it is called poor, undesirable, or even

    harmful instruction. Instruction is successful, or effective, to the degree that it accomplishes what

    it sets out to accomplish." Robert F. Mager (1997)


    Use the appropriate section on the beginning of the chapter to navigate to the section of the

    course that you are interested in.

    Instructional objectives as intended learning outcomes types of performance students

    are able to demonstrate at the end of instruction Generality of instruction:

    Too Narrow Ideal Too Broad

    Lists of specific learning tasks

    students are able to do

    Descriptions of expected

    students performance at the

    end of instruction

    Statements of general goals

    Adds two numbers that are less

    than 10

    Adds whole numbers Develops proficiency in


    There is a need for a limited manageable set of instructional objectives in the lesson.

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    Why do we need to use instructional objectives:

    Instructional Objectives

    Provide direction for instruction

    Provide guidelines for testing

    Convey instructional intent to others

    Focusing on intended learning outcomes

    Teaching procedures: to explain how to use the preposition on.

    Intended learning outcomes: Use the preposition on before days, journey, etc.

    The focus shifts from teacher to learner and from process to product authentic and

    more reliable evaluation.

    The verb used in the objective determines who is being engaged into the activity.

    Generality of objective verbs:

    Different verbs can be used: understand, know, list, distinguish, etc

    Two types: Single statement (1 )Funnel statements

    Relation of learning outcomes to learning experiences:

    Which of one of the following objectives is stated as a product (learning outcome):

    1. Improves his/her writing skills about national topics.

    2. Composes a well-organized 500 words paragraph about tourism in Oman.

    Two ways of stating instructional objectives:

    A statement of specific student performance:

    Lists at least three disadvantages of eating junk food.

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    General objective clarified by a sample of specific student performance.

    Understand the meaning of terms

    1.1 Defines the terms in their own words.

    1.2 Identifies the meaning of the term when used in context.

    1.3 Distinguishes between terms that are similar in meaning.

    The list of specific learning outcomes for each general instructional objective clarifies the

    types of performance students should be able to demonstrate when they have attained the


    General Instructional Objective:

    An intended outcome of instruction that has been stated in appropriate general terms to

    encompass a domain of student performance. It must be further defined by a set of specific

    learning outcomes.

    Stating General Instructional Objectives

    Teachers tend to focus on the teaching process and the learning process rather than on the

    expected outcomes of instruction

    Common Errors in stating GIOs:

    1. Focusing on teachers performance

    a. Explain the meaning of some difficult words

    b. Comprehend the meaning of some difficult words

    2. Stating the objective in terms of learning process rather as learning product

    a. Gains knowledge of basic principles

    b. Applies basic principles to new situations.

    3. Listing the subject matter to be covered

    a. Principles of writing process paragraphs

    b. Understand the principles of writing process paragraphs

    4. Include more than one type of leaning outcome in each GIO.

    a. Differentiates between regular and irregular past verbs.

    b. Knows how to use the comparative form adj. + er and applies is effectively.

    The leaning outcome will indicate the type of reactions or performance that the students

    are expected to achieve by the end of the instruction.

    These errors can be avoided by focusing attention on the student and the type of

    performance he or she is expected to demonstrate at the end of instruction.

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    State and define each objective in terms of the type of student performance:

    1. Understands the comparative form (adj + er)

    1.1 Defines the form.

    1.2 Identifies an example of the form.

    1.3 Describes how the form is constructed after enough practice.

    1.4 Uses the form appropriately in sentences from his/her own.

    The verbs provide a clue to the desired level of generality of the main objectives. They

    should be specific enough to provide direction for instruction without overly restricting

    the teacher. They are also specific enough to be easily defined by a brief list of the

    types of students performance.

    Which of the following represent the most GIO?

    1. Communicates effectively in English.

    2. Writes clear, effective English.

    3. Punctuates sentences properly.

    Which of the following represent the most SIO?

    1. Develops effective reading skills.

    2. Identifies the topic sentence in the paragraph.

    3. Reads the paragraph for specific details.

    Specific Learning Outcome (Specific Objective):

    An intended outcome of instruction that has been stated in terms of specific and observable

    student performance. It describes the type of performance that learners will be able to exhibit

    when they have achieved a general instructional objective.

    Stating Specific Instructional Objectives

    SIOs should be defined in terms of students performance:

    1. Knows specific facts about the American History:

    1.1 Identifies important dates, events, places, and persons.

    1.2 Describes the characteristics of a given historical period.

    1.3 Lists important event in chronological order.

    1.4 Relates events to their most probable causes.

    Each SIO starts with an action verb that indicates observable students responses

    (intended learning outcome).

    Performance vs. nonperformance terms:

  • 17 | P a g e Unit II: Pedagogy of Computer Science ver 1.0

    1. Predicts the end of the story.

    2. Sees the moral of the story.

    Begin each specific learning outcome with a verb that specifies definite, observable

    student performance.

    How many SIOs do I need for each single GIO I state?

    There is no a clear-cut number of SIOs for all the GIOs we write. Its obvious that simple

    knowledge and skill outcomes will require fewer and less complex GIOs but may be a big

    number of SIOs. Note the types of students performance in the following SIOs:

    1. Knows the meaning of terms.

    A. Writes a definition of the term.

    B. Identifies a definition of the term.

    C. Identifies the term that fits a given description.

    D. Identifies a synonym of the term.

    E. Identifies an antonym of the term.

    F. Identifies an example of the term

    G. Identifies the term represented by a symbol (e.g., +, -)

    H. Draws a picture that represents the term (e.g., circle, square).

    I. Describes the procedure the term represent.

    J. States the concept or principle that fits the term.

    K. Describes the relationship of the term to a second term

    L. Differentiates between the term and a second term

    M. Differentiates between the technical meaning and the common meaning of the term.

    N. Identifies the best meaning of the term when used in sentence.

    O. Distinguish between proper and improper usage of the term.

    The specific outcome that are most representative of a GIO will be modified by both the

    nature of the subject taught and the grade level oat which the instruction is given.

    We should select the action verbs that:

    1. Most clearly convey our instructional intent.

    2. Most precisely specify the student performance we are intended to see.

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    Which of the following convey the instructional intent:

    1. List the different types of auxiliary verbs.

    2. Identifies the auxiliary verb in the given sentences.

    Making sure that the specific learning outcomes are relevant

    1. Understands the basic formation of past passive sentences (be + past participle)

    a. Differentiates between passive and active sentences according to the rule.

    b. Names the different auxiliaries used in forming the passive voice sentences.

    Adapting Statements to Levels of Instruction

    Knows basic concepts (lower primary level)

    Selects picture indicating relative position (first, last)

    Selects picture indicating relative size (biggest, smallest)

    Selects picture indicating relative amount (most, least)

    Selects picture indicating relative distance (farthest, nearest)

    Knows basic concepts (upper secondary level)

    Describes the characteristics of the concept

    Identifies an example of the concept

    Identifies symbols representing the concept.

    Distinguishes between the concept and similar concepts.

    Objectives Applicable to More Than One Instructional Level

    Comprehends a reading passage.

    Identifies the main thought of a passage.

    Identifies details stated in a passage.

    Identifies the order of events stated in a passage.

    Identifies relationships between events in a passage.

    States inferences about the contents of a passage.

    There are many instances where we can find objectives are stated to fit the content

    more closely and use the knowledge, comprehension, and application categories only

    as a general frame of reference.

    Writes a well-organized paragraph (Application)

    States a main idea.

    Relates sentences to the main idea.

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    Uses complete sentences.

    Uses descriptive words to emphasize points.

    Arranges sentences in a meaningful sequence.

    Uses capitals and punctuation correctly.

    Spells words correctly throughout paragraph.

    Maintains correct grammatical usage throughout paragraph.

    Adapting Statements to Areas of Instruction

    The nature of the course being taught affects the types of learning outcomes to be

    identified and how they are to be stated. English has its own:

    Understands the comparative form (adj. + er)

    Defines the form.

    Identifies an example of the form.

    Describes how the form is constructed after enough practice.

    Uses the form appropriately in sentences from his/her own.

    Characteristics of a GOOD objective

    1. Performance: What the learner is expected to be able to DO.

    2. Condition: Important conditions under which the performance is expected to occur.

    3. Criterion: The quality or level of performance that will be considered acceptable.


    Visible (overt) Performance:

    * Develops a critical understanding of the importance of effective

    argumentative writing.

    * Given a table of information about Medical utilizations of Genetic

    engineering, be able to write a well-organized argumentative essay of

    around 700 words. The essay must describe and define the adopted side

    using not less than four supporting examples.

    Whats the performance stated in the objective?

    You can see someone drawing but you cannot see him appreciating or understanding art.

    See if you can tell the difference between performances (doing words) and abstractions (being


    stating writing valuing drawing

    appreciating internalizing smiling listing

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    Covert (invisible) performance:

    How can we call these performances when nobody can see them? Although some performances

    are not visible to the naked eye such as solving, discriminating, and identifying. We as teachers

    have to use such instructionally indispensable abstract performances in our objectives, what shall

    we do? Add an indictor behavior to reveal how the covert performance can be directly detected.

    An indicator behavior is one that will tell us directly whether a covert performance is happening

    to our satisfaction. Its simple, direct, and easily manageable.

    Be able to discriminate uncountable nouns.

    Be able to discriminate (sort) uncountable nouns.


    Place a check mark beside those expressions that describe performances that you can see or hear

    directly (overt). Then for those expressions describing covert performances, write the simplest,

    most direct indictor behavior you can think of that would tell whether the covert performance


    1. Drive a bulldozer. _________

    2. Identify transistors on a wiring diagram. ___circle___

    3. Recognize tactless statements. __point to___

    4. Discriminate between normal and abnormal X-rays. ___sort_____

    5. Paint a trombone __________

    6. Dissect a politician. __________


    (in the annual awards in Whyners Club). Imagine that you are the master of the ceremony and

    you call me up from the audience and bet me a carload of broccoli that I cant lift 500-pound

    barbells sitting on the stage. I agree to the bet and then quickly get two burly types from the

    audience to help me, and we lift the barbells with ease.

    Wheres my broccoli? I ask. Wait a minute you reply. You were supposed to lift those

    barbells by yourself. Oh? You didnt say that there were any conditions attached to this

    performance, I reply.. Why didnt you say so? You should have known that I meant for you

    to do it by yourself. Sorry. My crystal ball hasnt come back from the cleaners. Youll just

    have to keep your broccoli, I say, snickering all the way back to my seat.

    Be able to hammer a nail is different from one that says, given a brick, be able to hammer

    a nail Miscommunications can be avoided by adding relevant conditions to your objective.

    How? Simply by describing the conditions that have a significant impact on the performance.

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    Given a standard set of tools and the TS manual

    Using your service revolver

    In the presence of an irate customer

    Without the aid of references

    With only a screwdriver

    On an obese patient, be able to

    On a fully functioning wrist computer

    Your description of the performances conditions should be detailed enough to describe each one

    of them as to allow the performance to happen.


    1. Given a list of factors leading to significant historical events, be able to identify (underline) at least five factors.

    2. Without the aid of a dictionary, be able to spell all the five new vocabulary items presented in the lesson.

    3. Given a list of three language tenses, be able to write two sentences for each one.

    4. Given a malfunctioning radio motor, a kit of tools, and references, be able to repair the motor.


    To increase the communication power of your objective: Add a criterion of acceptable

    performance. This will tell students how well they will have to perform to be considered

    competent. Using criteria in your objectives, you will gain some advantage:

    1. Standard to test success of instruction

    2. Students can tell when they have met or exceeded the performance expectations.

    3. Prove that students can do what you set out to teach them.

    Instructor: You Flunk!

    Student: But I ran the hundred-yard dash, like you said.

    Instructor: True. But you were too slow

    Student: But you didnt say how fast we had to run.

    Instructor: Would I ask you to run if I didnt want you to run fast? You should have known

    that speed was important.

    Conditions: Dry, level track.

    Performance: Run the hundred-yard dash.

    Criterion: Within fourteen seconds.


    Given eight pictures and some supporting phrases and vocabulary, be able to

    write a 500 word paragraph about the discovery of tea within 15 minutes.


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    With the help of a dictionary, be able to look up the meaning of a new vocabulary

    item within one minute of accuracy.


    In an interview, and without references or notes, be able to respond correctly to

    questions relating to English Language Teaching.

    a. All personal information offered is factual.

    b. All academic information if relevant to the literature

    c. Information is pertinent to the questions.

    d. Questioners are treated courteously (They are not insulted or demeaned).

    e. Jargon is defined when it is first introduced.


    Examples about the IO characteristics:

    Given six pictures about the discovery of tea, they will be able to order them

    chronologically in less than 3 minutes.

    When giving a table of information about the Aztecs, they will be able to write an

    organized paragraph of eight sentences about them within 10 minutes.

    Given three wrongly punctuated sentences, they will be able to edit them for capital

    letters, full stops, commas, and apostrophes with more than 90% accuracy.

    They will be able to pronounce the five given new vocabulary items with no


    Educational Aim:

    General statement of intent with usually not much precision or direction. It doesnt help much to

    the teacher in the teaching-learning situation simply because it cannot be used to decide on a

    teaching or learning strategy or some form of evaluation.

    1. To enable the student to acquire a flexible mind and the ability to think.

    2. To enable to student to understand History appropriately.

    Components of a Good Instructional Objective

    Behavioral Term: an action verb that indicates what the student should be able to do.

    Condition (s): an indication of the circumstances under which the action is to take place.

    Standard (s): a description of the degree of skill to be reached in performing the action.


    Concise: at the most, objectives should be one or two sentences in length.

    Singular: An objective should focus on one and only one aspect of behavior.

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    Describe Expected behaviors: An objective should indicate the desired end product, not

    merely a direction of change or a teacher activity.

    Realistic: An objective should focus on observable behavior, not on teacher illusions or

    indefinable traits.

    Definite Terms (VERBS!!!): Terms such as "write, define, list and compare" have

    definite meanings, whereas terms such as "know, understand, and apply" have a

    multitude of meanings.

    Example of a properly written IO

    When given nine Styrofoam balls, each labeled to represent a planet, and a basketball on the

    table to represent the Sun (condition), the child (audience) will correctly place the Styrofoam

    balls in order as the planets are from the Sun (the measurable performance), with 80 percent

    accuracy (the criterion).

    When given nine Styrofoam balls, each labeled to represent a planet, and a basketball on the

    table to represent the Sun (condition), the child (audience) will correctly place the Styrofoam

    balls in order as the planets are from the Sun (the measurable performance), with 80 percent

    accuracy (the criterion).

    Mager-Type Objectives

    1. Identify the terminal behavior by name; i.e. specify the type of behavior that provides

    acceptable evidence that the students has achieved the objectives.

    2. Try to further define the desired behavior; i.e. identify and describe any important

    conditions under which the student is expected to perform.

    3. Specify any acceptable performance criteria. I.e. identify and state the standards to which

    the student must perform to be acceptable.

    By the end of the lesson the students will be able to:

    Translate the poem (Behavior)

    using an English-Arabic dictionary (Condition)

    with no more than three grammatical mistakes. (Standard)

    Activity: Prepare a document for the: Need and significance of teaching Mathematics-

    Format: Aims: Practical, Social, Disciplinary and Cultural