underwater depth imaging using time- correlated single ... underwater depth imaging using...
Post on 01-Jun-2020
Embed Size (px)
Underwater depth imaging using time- correlated single-photon counting
Aurora Maccarone,1 Aongus McCarthy,1 Ximing Ren,1 Ryan E. Warburton,1 Andy M. Wallace,2 James Moffat,3 Yvan Petillot,2 and Gerald S. Buller1
1Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, and Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (SUPA), Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
2Institute of Sensors, Signals & Systems, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
3Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Portsdown West, PO17 6AD, UK
Abstract: A depth imaging system, based on the time-of-flight approach and the time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) technique, was investigated for use in highly scattering underwater environments. The system comprised a pulsed supercontinuum laser source, a monostatic scanning transceiver, with a silicon single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) used for detection of the returned optical signal. Depth images were acquired in the laboratory at stand-off distances of up to 8 attenuation lengths, using per-pixel acquisition times in the range 0.5 to 100 ms, at average optical powers in the range 0.8 nW to 950 μW. In parallel, a LiDAR model was developed and validated using experimental data. The model can be used to estimate the performance of the system under a variety of scattering conditions and system parameters. ©2015 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (110.6880) Three-dimensional image acquisition; (280.3640) Lidar; (030.5260) Photon counting; (110.0113) Imaging through turbid media; (010.4450) Oceanic optics.
References 1. S. Reed, Y. Petillot, and J. Bell, “An automatic approach to the detection and extraction of mine features in
sidescan sonar,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 28(1), 90–105 (2003). 2. J. S. Jaffe, M. D. Ohman, and A. De Robertis, “OASIS in the sea: measurements of the acoustic reflectivity of
zooplankton with concurrent optical imaging,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 45(7), 1239–1253 (1998).
3. M. Evangelidis, L. Ma, and M. Soleimani, “High definition electrical capacitance tomography for pipeline inspection,” Prog. Em. Res. 141, 1–15 (2013).
4. A. Bellettini and M. A. Pinto, “Theoretical accuracy of synthetic aperture sonar micronavigation using a displaced phase-center antenna,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 27(4), 780–789 (2002).
5. J. R. V. Zaneveld and W. Pegau, “Robust underwater visibility parameter,” Opt. Express 11(23), 2997–3009 (2003).
6. R. D. Richmond and S. C. Cain, Direct-Detection LADAR Systems (SPIE, 2010). 7. D. M. Kocak, F. R. Dalgleish, F. M. Caimi, and Y. Y. Schechner, “A focus on recent developments and trends
in underwater imaging,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 42(1), 52 (2008). 8. J. S. Jaffe, K. D. Moore, J. McLean, and M. P. Strand, “Underwater optical imaging: status and prospeccts,”
Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 14(3), 64–75 (2001). 9. F. R. Dalgleish, F. M. Caimi, W. B. Britton, and C. F. Andren, “Improved LLS imaging performance in
scattering-dominant waters,” Proc. SPIE 7317, 73170E (2009). 10. W. Hou, Ocean Sensing and Monitoring (SPIE, 2013). 11. S. G. Narasimhan, S. K. Nayar, B. Sun, and S. Koppal, “Structured light in scattering media,” in Tenth IEEE
International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV’05) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 7. 12. B. Cochenour, S. O’Connor, and L. Mullen, “Suppression of forward-scattered light using high-frequency
intensity modulation,” Opt. Eng. 53, 1–8 (2014). 13. J. Watson and O. Zielinski, Subsea Optics and Imaging (Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2013). 14. N. R. Gemmell, A. McCarthy, B. Liu, M. G. Tanner, S. D. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, M. S. Patterson, G. S. Buller,
B. C. Wilson, and R. H. Hadfield, “Singlet oxygen luminescence detection with a fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 21(4), 5005–5013 (2013).
15. H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and K. Tamaki, “Secure quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 595–604 (2014).
#251754 Received 13 Oct 2015; revised 7 Dec 2015; accepted 8 Dec 2015; published 23 Dec 2015 © 2015 OSA 28 Dec 2015 | Vol. 23, No. 26 | DOI:10.1364/OE.23.033911 | OPTICS EXPRESS 33911
16. P. J. Clarke, R. J. Collins, V. Dunjko, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, and G. S. Buller, “Experimental demonstration of quantum digital signatures using phase-encoded coherent states of light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1174 (2012).
17. W. Becker, Advanced Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting Techniques (Springer, 2005). 18. G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, P. A. Hiskett, G. R. MacKinnon, G. R. Smith, R. Sung, A. M.
Wallace, R. A. Lamb, K. D. Ridley, and J. G. Rarity, “Multiple wavelength time-of-flight sensor based on time- correlated single-photon counting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(8), 083112 (2005).
19. G. S. Buller and A. M. Wallace, “Ranging and three-dimensional imaging using time-correlated single-photon counting and point-by-point acquisition,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(4), 1006–1015 (2007).
20. A. McCarthy, X. Ren, A. Della Frera, N. R. Gemmell, N. J. Krichel, C. Scarcella, A. Ruggeri, A. Tosi, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range depth imaging at 1,550 nm wavelength using an InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diode detector,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22098–22113 (2013).
21. A. McCarthy, R. J. Collins, N. J. Krichel, V. Fernández, A. M. Wallace, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range time-of- flight scanning sensor based on high-speed time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt. 48(32), 6241– 6251 (2009).
22. S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurements using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712 (2000).
23. S. Q. Duntley, “Light in the sea,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53(2), 214–234 (1963). 24. R. C. Smith and K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters (200-800 nm),” Appl. Opt. 20(2),
177–184 (1981). 25. G. M. Hale and M. R. Querry, “Optical constants of water in the 200-nm to 200-µm wavelength region,” Appl.
Opt. 12(3), 555–563 (1973). 26. E. Y. S. Young and A. M. Bullock, “Underwater-airborne laser communication system: characterization of the
channel,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies XV (SPIE, 2003). 27. W. S. Pegau and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Temperature-dependent absorption of water in the red and near-infrared
portions of spectrum,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38(1), 188–192 (1993). 28. A. Kirmani, D. Venkatraman, D. Shin, A. Colaço, F. N. C. Wong, J. H. Shapiro, and V. K. Goyal, “First-photon
imaging,” Science 343(6166), 58–61 (2014). 29. Y. Altmann, X. Ren, A. McCarthy, G. S. Buller, and S. McLaughlin, “Lidar waveform based analysis of depth
images constructed using sparse single-photon data,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1507.02511 (2015). 30. N. J. Krichel, A. McCarthy, and G. S. Buller, “Resolving range ambiguity in a photon counting depth imager
operating at kilometer distances,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9192–9206 (2010). 31. P. A. Hiskett, C. S. Parry, A. McCarthy, and G. S. Buller, “A photon-counting time-of-flight ranging technique
developed for the avoidance of range ambiguity at gigahertz clock rates,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13685–13698 (2008).
32. C. Weitkamp, Lidar - Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere (Springer, 2005). 33. G. S. Buller and R. J. Collins, “Single-photon generation and detection,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(1), 012002
(2010). 34. N. J. Krichel, A. McCarthy, I. Rech, M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, and G. S. Buller, “Cumulative data acquisition in
comparative photon-counting three-dimensional imaging,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3-4), 244–256 (2011). 35. G. Gariepy, N. Krstajić, R. Henderson, C. Li, R. R. Thomson, G. S. Buller, B. Heshmat, R. Raskar, J. Leach,
and D. Faccio, “Erratum: Single-photon sensitive light-in-flight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6408 (2015).
Underwater optical imaging is a field of increasing interest in a range of applications areas, including defence , marine science  and civil engineering . Achieving high resolution images at ranges in excess of a few meters using conventional cameras remains a challenge due to the high optical attenuation levels in water. Obtaining two- and three-dimensional images of underwater terrains has long been the domain of sonar systems. Using acoustic underwater systems, images with a resolution of 3 cm at 50 meters can be obtained with the latest generation of synthetic aperture sonars , while high resolution scanning sonars allow millimeter resolution but at only up to a range of a few meters (3-5 m). Several optical imaging systems are also available and they can be divided in two classes, passive and active. Passive systems use natural light for illumination while active systems employ an artificial light source. It is often useful to characterize the source-target path in terms of the number of attenuation lengths, where an attenuation length is defined as the distance after which the transmitted light power is reduced to 1/e of its initial value. The human eye or camera systems are examples of passive systems and can image up to 3 or 4 attenuation lengths under ideal illumination conditions . Significant improvements in image quality at longer distances can be obtained with active systems, in particular with systems based on Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) in which the target is