unit 5: the french revolution & napoleonic era (1789-1815)
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DESCRIPTIONUnit 5: The French Revolution & Napoleonic Era (1789-1815). The French Revolution Begins!. France’s Old Regime. In the 1770s France ‘s people were divided up into three large social classes called estates . - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Unit 5: The French Revolution & Napoleonic Era (1789-1815)
The French Revolution Begins!Unit 5: The French Revolution & Napoleonic Era (1789-1815)Frances Old RegimeIn the 1770s France s people were divided up into three large social classes called estates.The first two estates had privileges like access to high offices and tax exemptions.1st Estate The Clergy or Roman Catholic Church owned 10% of the land & paid 2% of its income in taxes to the government.2nd Estate The rich nobles 2% of the population, owned 20% of the land, & paid almost no taxes. Did not like Enlightenment!The Largest Estate The 3rd Estate3rd Estate 97% of the population. It was divided into three groups:The Bourgeoisie Middle class bankers, business owners, merchants, artists & pros. They were educated, but even though many were as rich as nobles, but they paid high taxes & had no privileges. Urban Workers laborers, trades people, apprentices, and servants low wagesPeasants 80% of Frances 26 million people. Paid income in tithes to the Church and taxes to the king. They resented the church & nobles.The Forces of ChangeEnlightenment Ideas Rousseau, Voltaire, & American Revolution 3rd Estate wanted equality, liberty, and democracyComte DAntraigues said, the People is the foundation of the State.The 3rd Estate was fed up with the Old Order!
Economic TroublesTax burden of 1780s = hard to do business in France although production & trade were up.Cost of Living up due to crop failures. 1789 Price of bread doubled!King Louis XVI inherited debt, but also French-Indian War and American Revolution doubled the debt1786 Bankers refused to loan the king more money.Louis XVI was very weak.
Marie AntoinetteThe Queen added to his problems.Madame Deficit was unpopular as an Austrian QueenSpent lots of $$$ on gowns, jewels, gifts, & playing cards ($1.5 million in a year!)She angered the silk industry because she wore lose cotton dresses.
The Estates-GeneralMay 5, 1789 the first meeting of all 3 estates in 175 years at VersaillesInstead of cutting spending he wanted to tax the nobility & the Estates-General had to approve it.This meeting will be the dawn of the Revolution!
Exit Slip Background Causes of the French Revolution1. Which estate was made up of the nobility and paid no taxes to the French government?a. 1st Estateb. 2nd Estatec. 3rd Estate2. Which estate was made up of the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church? a. 1st Estateb. 2nd Estatec. 3rd Estate3. Bourgeoisie means _____ in French. a. Servant b. Peasantc. Middle Class4. What issue led King Louis XVI to call a meeting of the Estates General in May 1789? a. he wanted a divorce b. he wanted a war c. he wanted to tax the nobility
The Dawn of the RevolutionThe Estates General had always been ran by the 1st 2 Estates b/c each estate had 1 vote since medieval timesBourgeoisie proposed they all meet together with each delegate = 1 vote per the Enlightenments influence.3rd Estate was equal to 1st + 2nd Estate numbers-wiseLouis XVI sided with the nobles in favor of old rules
The National Assembly3rd Estate was helped by Emanuel-Joseph Sieyes (clergyman) who suggested 3rd Estate become a National Assembly and pass reforms for all the people of France and end the absolute monarchy.June 17, 1789 it was declared 1st act of revolution; but Louis XVI had other ideas & locked them out of their meeting room!
The Tennis Court OathJune 20, 1789 The 3rd Estate crashed through a door to an indoor tennis court.Tennis Court Oath a pledge to stay until an new constitution had been written. Soon after, some nobles and clergy joined them.Louis XVI panicked & put a mercenary army of Swiss guards to surround the palace.
Storming the Bastille!Paris Rumors flew would the king used the military to crush the Assembly; would citizens be massacred?People took up arms to defend Paris and stormed the Bastille on July 14, 1789 looking for weapons & 100 were killed.Today, July 14 is a national holiday similar to the 4th of July in the U.S.
The Great Fear! June August 1789The panic spread from Paris to the country side as rumors that nobles were hiring outlaws to terrorize the peasants.Ironically, the peasants became outlaws and terrorized the nobles with farm tools & torches in what was called the Great Fear or la Grande Peur.They broke into manners & destroyed paperwork that bound them to the land & often burned their houses.
The Parisian Bread Riots October 17891000s of women in Paris marched on Versailles in protest of high bread prices.They demanded the National Assembly do something about it. Next they turned anger on the King and Queen.They broke into the palace, killed some guards, & forced the king , family, & servants to return to Paris. They would never return and the monarchy was finished.
Exit Slip The Dawn of the Revolution1. T or F: King Louis XVI supported the formation of the National Assembly.2. T or F: After the Tennis Court Oath, some nobles and clergy joined the 3rd Estate.3. T or F: Today, the French celebrate Bastille Day similarly to how we celebrate July 4th.4. T or F: After the Parisian Bread Riots, King Louis XVI and his family never left the Versailles Palace again.