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FSKTM 2019 21 - IR.pdfCOMMUNICATION
COMMUNICATION
By
NOR HIDAYAH BINTI ZAINAL ABIDIN
Thesis submitted to the School of Graduate Studies Universiti Putra Malaysia
in fulfilment of the requirements for the Master of Software Engineering
JUNE 2019
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All material contained within the thesis, including without limitation text, logos, icons, photographs and all other artwork, is copyright material of Universiti Putra Malaysia unless otherwise stated. Use may be made of any material contained within the thesis for non-commercial purposes from the copyright holder. Commercial use of material may only be made with the express, prior, written permission of Universiti Putra Malaysia.
Copyright © Universiti Putra Malaysia
iii
DEDICATIONS
In the name of Allah S.W.T, the most merciful, the most compassionate all praise to Allah, the lord of this world and peace be upon Muhammad S.A.W
his servant and messenger. This thesis is wholeheartedly dedicated to my husband who has been my
source of inspiration, and gave me strength when I felt to giving up and also he who continually provides the warmth of love, a lot of encouragement and
financial support. To my parents, family, family in laws, friends and mentors who shared strength, spirit, encouragement and motivation to complete this work.
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Abstract of thesis presented to the University Putra Malaysia in fulfilment of the requirement for the Master of Software Engineering
By
JUNE 2019
FACULTY OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
Communication plays an important role to deliver the correct information. It is one of the biggest issues frequently happened in distributed agile team environment especially in text messaging. Among the issues are exchanging information using unstructured communication platform, misunderstanding on the information communicated and lack of proper documentation. If they require references on the requirements, they need to scroll back to their communicated text messages to identify it. To solve these issues, we studied the High Level Carotene concept that does automatic cascade and cluster text classification. This concept relies on training dataset. For this study, we adopted the cascade and cluster classification concept but rely on the hash tag function. This technique is called as High Level Carotene (HLC) technique that embedded into the tool that can identify the requirements information by classifying the text messages. The cascade classification split the sentences into words and cluster classification grouped it into the same cluster. For the objectives of this study, we identify the text classification technique for requirements identification in text messages, design the solution and evaluate the technique. In this study, there are related issues and solution for agile team communication and brief description of the HLC technique design and implementation for messages text classification function in the Agile Communication Management (AgileCom) tool. Lastly, this study concluded by the HLC technique effectiveness and usability evaluation results.
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Abstrak tesis yang dikemukakan kepada Universiti Putra Malaysia sebagai memenuhi keperluan untuk ijazah Sarjana Kejuruteraan Perisian
Oleh
FAKULTI SAINS KOMPUTER DAN TEKNOLOGI MAKLUMAT
Komunikasi memainkan peranan penting dalam menyampaikan maklumat yang betul. Tetapi di dalam kumpulan Agile yang bekerjasama dari kawasan berlainan, ianya merupakan salah satu masalah besar terutama jika ia melibatkan pengunaan mesej teks. Antara masalah-masalah yang timbul adalah menggunakan pelbagai alat komunikasi untuk pertukaran mesej, salah faham dengan mesej yang disampaikan dan ketiadaan dokumen yang diperlukan. Jika mereka perlukan rujukan tentang keperluan produk, mereka perlu merujuk semula kepada mesej yang telah dikomunikasi untuk mengenal pasti keperluan itu. Bagi menyelesaikan masalah ini, kami membuat rujukan kepada konsep umum Carotene yang menawarkan teknik mengklasifikasi teks secara automatik melalui cascade (pecahan perkataan dalam bentuk menegak) dan cluster (mengumpulkan perkataan) kasifikasi. Konsep ini memerlukan set data latihan untuk teks klasifikasi tetapi untuk projek ini, kami menggunakan konsep cascade dan cluster klasifikasi berdasarkan fungsi label hash (tanda pagar). Teknik ini dikenali sebagi konsep umum Carotene (HLC) yang dicipta di dalam alat komunikasi yang membolehkan pengenalpastian keperluan melalui klasifikasi mesej teks. Klasifikasi cascade membuat pecahan ayat kepada perkataan dan klasifikasi cluster mengumpulkan perkataan menjadi ayat di dalam kumpulan yang sama. Objektif tesis ini adalah untuk mengenalpasti teknik untuk klasifikasi teks untuk mengesan keperluan di dalam teks mesej, mereka bentuk penyelesaian dan menilai teknik ini. Di dalam tesis ini juga terdapat penerangan tentang masalah dan penyelesaian berkaitan dengan komunikasi dalam kumpulan Agile dan deskripsi tentang reka bentuk dan pelaksanaan HLC teknik untuk fungsi klasifikasi teks mesej dalam alat pengurusan komunikasi Agile (AgileCom). Akhir sekali, tesis ini dirumuskan dengan penilaian tentang keberkesanan dan kepuasan kegunaan HLC teknik.
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First of all, I am thankful to my supervisor Dr. Pathiah Binti Abdul Samat, lecturer of software engineering department that always give guidance, references and support during this project. Without her supervision from time to time, it will be difficult to complete this work.
I also would like to thank my advisor, Dr. Mar Yah @ Mek Yah Binti Said who keep monitoring our progress of work for these research and project work.
Furthermore, I would like to thank the University Putra Malaysia (UPM) for providing the facilities such as online library for me to browse for digital journal databases to complete my literature review and study.
Last but not least, I would like to take this opportunity to express deepest appreciation and special thanks to my families and friends who continuously support and lending help whenever I feel needed during this master journey. Lastly, I also would like to express my sincere gratitude to the persons who have directly or indirectly involved in this project. Without this strong support, this project will not be able to complete. Thank you very much.
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DECLARATION
I hereby confirm that: this thesis is my original work; quotations, illustrations and citations have been duly referenced; this project report has not been submitted previously or concurrently
for any other degree at any other institutions; intellectual property from the project report and copyright of project
report are fully-owned by Universiti Putra Malaysia, as according to the Universiti Putra Malaysia (Research) Rules 2012;
written permission must be obtained from supervisor and the office of Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research and Innovation) before thesis is published (in the form of written, printed or in electronic form) including books, journals, modules, proceedings, popular writings, seminar papers, manuscripts, posters, reports, lecture notes, learning modules or any other materials as stated in the Universiti Putra Malaysia (Research) Rules 2012;
there is no plagiarism or data falsification/fabrication in the thesis, and scholarly integrity is upheld as according to the Universiti Putra Malaysia (Graduate Studies) Rules 2003 (Revision 2012-2013) and the Universiti Putra Malaysia (Research) Rules 2012. The thesis has undergone plagiarism detection software.
Signature: Date: 27/06/2019 Name and Matric No.: NOR HIDAYAH BINTI ZAINAL ABIDIN (GS48465)
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page ABSTRACT iv ABSTRAK v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT vi DECLARATION vii LIST OF TABLES x LIST OF FIGURES xii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS xiii
CHAPTER
1.2 Problem Statements ........................................................... 3
2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................ 7
2.1 Introduction ........................................................................ 7
2.2 An overview of the challenges in communication within distributed agile team........................................................... 8
2.3 An overview of the solution in communication within ........... distributed agile team......................................................... 11
2.4 Related work of text classification technique. ................... 15
3 METHODOLOGY ....................................................................... 21
3.1 Introduction ...................................................................... 21
3.3 Design and Implementation ............................................. 23
3.4 Testing and Evaluation ..................................................... 24
3.5 Formal Reporting and Documentation ............................. 25
4 DESIGN ...................................................................................... 26
4.1 Introduction ...................................................................... 26
4.3 System Design ................................................................. 27
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6.1 Introduction ........................................................................ 60
6.2 Data collection and Analysis of Effectiveness and Usability Satisfaction of HLC Technique ......................................... 60
6.3 Conclusion ......................................................................... 81
7 CONCLUSION ............................................................................. 83
7.1 Introduction ........................................................................ 83
15
2.4 The Summary of the Existing Problem and Solution related to Communication in Distributed Agile Team Environment.
20
4.3.3.1 List of Use Case for AgileCom tool. 32 4.3.3.2 Textual description for UC-1 which is the login function. 32 4.3.3.3 Textual description for UC-2 which is the Messaging
Data function. 33
4.3.3.4 Textual description for UC-3 which is the view Messages Data function.
33
4.3.3.5 Textual description for UC-4 which is the classify Messages Data function.
34
4.3.3.6 Textual description for UC-5 which is view Classified Messages Data function.
34
4.3.3.7 Textual description for UC-6 which is the view Requirements Board function.
35
4.3.3.8 Textual description for UC-7 which is the Logout function.
35
5.6.2 The questionnaire for evaluation process. 56 6.2.1 The summary of the effectiveness of the AgileCom tool
and the HLC technique. 74
6.2.2 The summary of the suitability of the AgileCom tool and the HLC technique.
74
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Figure Page
2.3 The Coordination and Communication (C&C) cycle. 13 2.4 The architecture of Carotene. 16 3 The process of research methodology done for this project. 21 4.3.1 The workflow of the HLC classification technique in the
AgileCom tool. 28
4.3.2 The HLC technique being used during communication in the Agile Software Development Process.
30
4.3.3 Use Case Diagram for the Agile Communication Management Tool (AgileCom).
31
4.3.4 The class diagram for the Agile Communication Management Tool (AgileCom).
36
4.3.5 The activity diagram for the Agile Communication Management Tool (AgileCom).
37
5.2 An Overview of PHP MySQL Service Architecture. 41 5.3 The system architecture of the Agile Communication
Management Tool (AgileCom) 42
5.5.1 The login function to chat in the Messaging Room in the AgileCom tool.
44
5.5.2 The username and chat texbox appear after user successfully login into the system.
44
5.5.3 The logout function to leave the chat room. 44 5.5.4 The interface of the Messaging Room. 45 5.5.5 The user can type the messages in the textbox in the
Messaging Room. 46
5.5.6 The user can classify the messages using '#FR' hash tag function.
46
5.5.7 The user can classify the messages using '#NFR' hash tag function.
46
5.5.8 Automatic Cascade Classification Process at Server side to find the match for hash tag function in thesentences.
47
5.5.9 Automatic Cluster Classification Process at Server side based on the hash tag function.
37
5.5.10 The Requirements Board interface. 48 5.6.1.1 Textbox login for Ali to key in his valid credentials. 51 5.6.1.2 Textbox login for Kiran to key in his valid credentials. 51 5.6.1.3 Textbox login for Ali to key in his text messages and submit
using ‘Say’ button. 52
5.6.1.4 Textbox login for Kiran to key in his text messages and submit using ‘Say’ button.
52
5.6.1.5 Ali is using hash tag function by typing ‘#NFR’ word in the textbox.
53
5.6.1.6 Text messages using hash tag function submitted by Ali display in the Messaging Room.
53
xii
5.6.1.7 All text messages submitted by Ali and Kiran displayed in the Messaging Room.
54
5.6.1.8 Classified text messages displayed in Requirements Board according to its types of Functional or Non-Functional Requirements.
54
54
5.6.1.10 Logout link for Ali to leave the system. 54 5.6.1.10 Logout link for Kiran to leave the system. 54 6.2.1.1 The result of evaluation for Question 1. 62 6.2.1.2 The result of evaluation for Question 2. 62 6.2.1.3 The result of evaluation for Question 3. 63 6.2.1.4 The result of evaluation for Question 4. 63 6.2.1.5 The result of evaluation for Question 5. 64 6.2.1.6 The result of evaluation for Question 6. 64 6.2.1.7 The result of evaluation for Question 7. 65 6.2.1.8 The result of evaluation for Question 8. 65 6.2.1.9 The result of evaluation for Question 9. 66 6.2.1.10 The result of evaluation for Question 10. 66 6.2.1.11 The result of evaluation for Question 11. 67 6.2.1.12 The result of evaluation for Question 12. 67 6.2.1.13 The result of evaluation for Question 13. 68 6.2.1.14 The result of evaluation for Question 14. 68 6.2.1.15 The result of evaluation for Question 15. 69 6.2.1.16 The result of evaluation for Question 16. 69 6.2.1.17 The result of evaluation for Question 17. 70 6.2.1.18 The result of evaluation for Question 18. 70 6.2.1.19 The result of evaluation for Question 19. 71 6.2.1.20 The result of evaluation for Question 20. 71 6.2.1.21 The result of evaluation for Question 21. 72 6.2.1.22 The result of evaluation for Question 22. 72 6.2.1.23 The result of evaluation for Question 23. 73 6.2.1.24 The result of evaluation for Question 24. 73 6.2.1.25 The result of evaluation for Question 25. 75 6.2.1.26 The result of evaluation for Question 26. 75 6.2.1.27 The result of evaluation for Question 27. 76 6.2.1.28 The result of evaluation for Question 28. 76 6.2.1.29 The result of evaluation for Question 29. 77 6.2.1.30 The result of evaluation for Question 30. 77 6.2.1.31 The result of evaluation for Question 31. 78 6.2.1.32 The result of evaluation for Question 32. 78 6.2.1.33 The result of evaluation for Question 33. 79 6.2.1.34 The result of evaluation for Question 34. 79 6.2.1.35 The result of evaluation for Question 35. 80 6.2.1.36 The result of evaluation for Question 36. 80
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Abbreviation Definition FR Functional Requirement NFR Non-Functional Requirement AgileCom Agile Communication Management Tool HLC High Level Carotene concept PHP Personal Home Page UME User Magnitude Estimation SUS System Usability Scale
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manual working culture. This trend is highly demanded and software
industries received tremendous job to develop applications that can help to
transform these organizations. These digital transformation phenomena that
happening across the globe has pushed for better techniques and
methodologies to be implemented in their own organization. This trend has
created more opportunities for software developer to develop system that
demanded by the customers. In order to develop the system, proper software
development methodology has to be implemented throughout every single
phases of the development.
In today’s high demanded for latest system features and quick deliverables
requires the businesses to keep changing its direction according to the
market demand to compete and stay relevant to the industry. This evolution
has led to the emergence of agile development methods. Instead of trying to
identify a complete set of requirements before the project begins and to
eliminate as much change as early as possible, agile methods embrace
change by accepting and incorporating it instead of eliminating it. Agile
software development refers to a group of software development
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solutions evolve through collaboration between self-organizing cross-
functional teams. It has become the main choices for development
methodology for most software development team in the world. Several
examples of Agile Software Development Methodologies are Extreme
Programming, Crystal Methodologies, Scrum, Adaptive Software
Development, Feature-Driven Development and Dynamic Systems
Development Methodology etc.
The organizations that adopt agile methodology can have team that are co-
located and distributed across the oceans. The co-located agile team is the
team that works in the same location within the same room, often called a
‘war room’ working besides one another that let them to have face to face
interaction while communication. Meanwhile, distributed agile team dispersed
in some manner even when some of the team members in cubicles or in
separate offices or in different floors, it is slightly distributed, and also
geographically distributed across the world. Distributed teams can work on
projects around the clock, and strong talent can be found in less competitive
markets.
In terms of communication and information or data exchange, many
distributed agile team uses messaging tool to chat and communicate
regarding the product requirements or any project related information. This
method produce large number of data in the messaging features in certain
messaging tool. So the information is everywhere and the team usually will
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scroll back the tool to view previous messages for references. Since project
is tied to the timeline and customer requires fast deliverables as per agile
methodology promoted, the development team needs to have a tool that
allows them to work faster. By classifying the text messages sentences and
stored it into structured board will help them to have easy to use platform as
reference, better focus and save time. The classification of text messages
sentences promote direct and specific interpretation of the information
discussed. In industry, there are numerous number of text classification
techniques such as Carotene, ConvNet (Convolutional Network) etc.
1.2 Problem Statements
Agile methodology emphasizes on face to face communication and small
team. It suits to the “get-together” team and “don’t-do-code” people. Agile fits
nicely into the manager’s schedule, but not the maker’s. The Agile
methodology is recommended for co-located teams. However, most of the
software team is geographically distributed. It will be difficult in terms of
communication. Although various technologies offered for communication
across the globe, none had fully identified and prepare the one-centralized
platform that can identify and categorize the specific requirement that has
been discussed by the team in the messaging tool’s discussion board. This
shows that market lack of the tool that focusing on the development to fulfill
what agile lack in terms of communication. It is an ineffective communication
method used for information exchange (Chadli et al. 2016; Verner et al. 2014)
when the agile team had to use different platform for communication. These
multiple platforms can be confusing and headache because the information
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4
will be unstructured and either party might not familiar with the proposed
communication platform.
In addition, agile team had less reference in terms of documentation to work
on the product except if customer request. This is because agile manifesto
which is working software over comprehensive documentation doesn’t
include documentation as part of its main deliverables (Voigt, S., 2016). The
situation will get worse when they inherited someone else’s work for example
code or product requirements because the person had to be responsible to
create program based on the incorporated legacy references and make it an
up-to-date version (Fu et.al., 2017). They can avoid the issue if proper
knowledge transition has been communicated beforehand through face to
face communication for co-located team or through messaging for the team
that is distributed geographically. However, whenever the distributed team
communicates about the software requirements through messaging, the data
will be unstructured and messy since there will be a lot of waste in the
communicated sentences. The team that need to refer back to the data need
to scroll over again to find the main point and accurate information of the
requirements types. This is applicable to most of the messaging tools.
Other than that, the cross team background with different mother tongue and
first language might misunderstand the discussed items during
communication. Although English language has been recognized
internationally as the global communication medium, some engineers might
not well verse with the language’s slang (different country had different
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English slang), bombastic wording etc. The team background with different
mother tongue and first language might misunderstand the discussed items
during communication due to invisibility of body language and the
terminologies used as well as un-conveyed information (Chadli et al. 2016;
Lous et al. 2017; Nguyen-Duc et al. 2015; Niazi, Mahmood, Alshayeb,
Qureshi, et al. 2016; Verner et al. 2014; Yaseen et al. 2015; Zahedi et al.
2016).
1.3 Objectives of the Thesis
There are 3 objectives to be achieved by the implementation of this tool:
1) To identify the technique for text classification function for requirements
identification in text messages for distributed agile team communication
platform.
2) To design the text messages classification function for requirements
identification for distributed agile team communication platform.
3) To evaluate the effectiveness and usability of the text messages
classification function for requirements identification for the global
software development team.
1.4 Scope of the Thesis
The scope of this study is to identify the requirements by classification of text
messages into software requirements types of functional or non-functional
requirements specifically for software engineers with experience working in
distributed agile team environment in order for them to easy understand the
software requirements and have centralize structured platform as reference
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of product requirements. The message is a text sentences that typed in the
messaging room.
1.5 Structure of the Thesis
This thesis contains seven chapters were organized as below. Chapter 1 is
Introduction. Chapter 2 is Literature Review, which we do the content
analysis from articles, journals and other publications published by previous
researchers regarding the challenges and related solutions on the
classification of messages in communication for distributed agile team and
we the summarize it. Chapter 3 is Methodology, we study the methods and
processes involved in the communication management and requirement
management especially for distributed agile team. Here, we highlight the
research methodology activity and steps taken throughout the every phases.
Chapter 4 we elaborate all the design processes involves in HLC Technique
and AgileCom tool development. Chapter 5, we illustrated and explained the
development and implementation processes. Here, we evaluated the HLC
technique in the AgileCom tool for its effectiveness and usability satisfaction
to classify messages into FR and NFR during communication. In Chapter 6
we discuss the results and findings from the study and also from the HLC and
AgileCom tool evaluation survey. The developed tool will be evaluated by
Distributed Agile practitioners whose have experience in Agile Global
Software Development project. Lastly is Chapter 7, we explain about the
conclusion, study limitation and the recommendation for future work.
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REFERENCES
1) Javed, F., Luo, Q., McNair, M., Jacob, F., Zhao, M., & Kang, T. S. (2015, March). Carotene: A job title classification system for the online recruitment domain. In Big Data Computing Service and Applications (BigDataService), 2015 IEEE First International Conference on (pp. 286-293). IEEE.
2) Alzoubi, Y. I., Gill, A. Q., & Al-Ani, A. (2015). Distributed Agile Development Communication: An Agile Architecture Driven Framework. JSW, 10(6), 681-694.
3) Chikhale, M. M., & Mansouri, M. (2015). An agile and collaborative framework for effective governance to enhance management in large- scale enterprise business systems: The case of Apple Inc. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 16(3), 283-293.
4) Dikert, K., Paasivaara, M., & Lassenius, C. (2016). Challenges and success factors for large-scale agile transformations: A systematic literature review. Journal of Systems and Software, 119, 87-108.
5) Hoda, R., & Murugesan, L. K. (2016). Multi-level agile project management challenges: A self-organizing team perspective. Journal of Systems and Software, 117, 245-257.
6) Esquivel, S. (2016). Communication Issues in Agile Software Development. In XXII Congreso Argentino de Ciencias de la Computación (CACIC 2016).
7) Papatheocharous, E., & Andreou, A. S. (2014). Empirical evidence and state of practice of software agile teams. Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, 26(9), 855-866
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9) Kaur, H., & Haddad, H. M. (2015, January). Distributed Agile Development: A Survey of Challenges and Solutions. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Software Engineering Research and Practice (SERP) (p. 42). The Steering Committee of The World Congress in Computer Science, Computer Engineering and Applied Computing (WorldComp).
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22) Coletta, L. F. S., da Silva, N. F. F., Hruschka, E. R., & Hruschka, E. R. (2014, October). Combining classification and clustering for tweet sentiment analysis. In 2014 Brazilian Conference on Intelligent Systems (pp. 210-215). IEEE.
23) Lu, M., & Liang, P. (2017, June). Automatic classification of non- functional requirements from augmented app user reviews. In Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering (pp. 344-353). ACM.
24) Friesen, E. L. (2017, September). Measuring AT Usability with the Modified System Usability Scale (SUS). In AAATE Conf.(pp. 137-143).
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26) Fu, Q., Grady, F., Broberg, B. F., Roberts, A., Martens, G. G., Johansen, K. V., & Loher, P. L. (2017). Code review and cooperative pair programming best practice. arXiv preprint arXiv:1706.02062.
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CHAPTER 2