urbanization: new york & chicago

Urbanization: New York & Chicago Hector Herrera Period 6

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Urbanization: New York & Chicago. Hector Herrera Period 6. Causes of Urbanization. Urbanization: taking the characteristics of a city, the increasing number of people living in cities Technological boom contributed to growing industrial strength Demand for workers due to industrialization - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Page 1: Urbanization:  New York & Chicago

Urbanization: New York & Chicago

Hector Herrera

Period 6

Page 2: Urbanization:  New York & Chicago

Causes of Urbanization Urbanization: taking the

characteristics of a city, the increasing number of people living in cities

Technological boom contributed to growing industrial strength

Demand for workers due to industrialization

Companies offered jobs to unskilled laborers

NY Advantages: location of it’s ports, growing capital market

Page 3: Urbanization:  New York & Chicago


Discovery of oil Railroad expansion

connected many territories: national railway net supported urban growth, especially Chicago

Construction: cities began to spread outward and upward

Better transportation Immigration

Page 4: Urbanization:  New York & Chicago

Extent & Degree U.S. received more migrants

than the rest of the world- near 60%

(NY) 1880-1900: population increased from 1.2 million to 3.4 million

Chicago was the fastest growing city during this period

(Chi) 1880-1900: population increased from .5 million to 1.7 million

Chicago became known as the skyscraper craze (10-story Home insurance building)

Page 5: Urbanization:  New York & Chicago

Immigration Many moved into US for better

opportunities and a promise of a better life

Many left to escape bad conditions (famine, land shortages, religious prosecution)

Birds of Passage: people who intended to migrate temporarily to make money

Higher wages than in Europe, price of living and conditions were often the same

Page 6: Urbanization:  New York & Chicago


Ellis Island: immigrants feared not being admitted to the U.S.

About 20% of the immigrants at Ellis Island were detained for over a day to be inspected

2% of immigrants were denied entry

Page 7: Urbanization:  New York & Chicago


Process:-Had to pass a physical examination by a doctor;

if you had a serious health problem, you were sent home

-Reported to government inspector; checked documents and made sure they made legal requirements

-Legal Requirements: not convicted of a felony, able to work, and show they had some amount of money

Page 8: Urbanization:  New York & Chicago


1890: twice as many Irish residents in NYC as in Dublin, Ireland

(NY) 1900: 480,000 Germans and 425,000 Irish in city

(Chi) 1900: 332,000 Germans and 129,000 Scandinavians in city

Many African-Americans also migrated into these cities

Page 9: Urbanization:  New York & Chicago


Americanization movement: designed to assimilate people of wide ranging cultures into dominant culture

English classes & American History classes Navitism: favoring the interests of native-born

people over foreign-born people People feared immigrants would overwhelm

white American population

Page 10: Urbanization:  New York & Chicago

Housing Could either buy a house on outskirts

of town, or they could rent cramped rooms in boarding houses

Immigrants often took over old housings, 2-3 families in a one family house

Tenements: Urban dwellings Tenement House Act: NYC passed a law

that set minimum standards for plumbing and ventilation in apartments

Jacob Riis (1890): published “ How the other half lives”

Page 11: Urbanization:  New York & Chicago

Water Faced problem of supplying

safe drinking water NY built public waterworks to

handle increasing demand Showering wasn’t a daily

thing, especially if in a tenement

Disease Spread: Cholera & Typhoid Fever

1870’s: Filtration introduced 1880’s: Chlorination -

disinfect water with chlorine

Page 12: Urbanization:  New York & Chicago

Sanitation NY: horse manure piled on

streets, sewage overflew, factories released a lot of smoke

People dumped garbage on street

Scavengers: people hired to sweep streets, collect garbage, didn’t do job properly

By 1900: many cities, including NY and Chicago developed sewer lines and sanitation departments

Page 13: Urbanization:  New York & Chicago

Fire The Great Chicago

Fire: burned over 24 hours, killed around 300 people, more than 3 square miles of city destroyed, property damage of $20 million, 17500 buildings gone

1874: wood replaced with bricks, stone, and concrete

Page 14: Urbanization:  New York & Chicago


Black Hand extortion: criminal tactic, black hand was a precursor to a planned crime

Gangs of young boys and men made Chicago a dangerous place (North Side Gang)

6 month period in 1906: burglary every 3 hours, a hold up every 6 hours, and a murder each day

Page 15: Urbanization:  New York & Chicago


“Hunting women and hitting them on the head with a piece of pipe seems to be the favorite sport of Chicago men.”

“a reign of terror is upon the city…..No city in time of peace ever held so high a place in the category of crime-ridden, terrorized murder-breeding cities as held by Chicago.”

Chicago Tribune

Page 16: Urbanization:  New York & Chicago

Corruption Corruption in NYC was prominent Boss Tweed: known as most corrupt

politician in American History 3rd largest land owner in NYC Stole over $50 million by faking

leases, paying for unnecessary repairs, and buying over priced goods

Tammany Hall: helped Irish and German immigrants by providing shelter and jobs and helped them rise up in American Politics (Democratic)

Chicago had similar issues; creation of parks and majestic buildings was solution

Page 17: Urbanization:  New York & Chicago

Settlement House Act Social Gospel Movement: preached salvation through service to

the poor Settlement houses created; community centers in poor

neighborhoods, mainly helped immigrants Ran by middle class, educated women Settlement houses provided educational, cultural, and social

services Charles Stover and Stanton Coit found first settlement house in

NYC (1886) Jane Addams and Ellen Gates found Chicago’s Hull House in 1889 1910- 400 settlement houses in US