UXPA Boston 2014 Presentation: Motivate Your User Through Design Psychology

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<ul><li><p>Design Psychology: Motivate Your UsersAmy Bucher, Ph.D.amy.bucher@gmail.com@ab_phdAmy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>*</p></li><li><p>AgendaSelf-determination theory: OverviewCompetence: Helping people growAutonomy: Helping people chooseRelatedness: Helping people connectTying it all together</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p></li><li><p>Self-Determination TheoryOverviewAmy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p></li><li><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)Its not that Im lazy, its that I just dont care.</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p></li><li><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)Self-EfficacySocial LearningHierarchy of Needs</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p></li><li><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)Types of Motivation: Self Determination Theory </p><p>Autonomous</p><p>ControlledMore likely to sustain behavior changeAdapted from Segar &amp; Hall (2011)Source: Ryan &amp; Deci (2000)</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p></li><li><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p></li><li><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)Self-Determination Theory (SDT): Antecedents of Motivation</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p></li><li><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)Applying Self-Determination TheoryAdapted from Scott Rigby</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p></li><li><p>Perceived AutonomyHelp people feel they have controlAmy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>*</p></li><li><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)Easiest metaphor to understand autonomy is choose your own adventure*</p></li><li><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p></li><li><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)Heres an example from Mindbloomusers can determine at the outset what parts of their well-being theyd like to work on. And they can change their minds at any point in the program.*</p></li><li><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>*</p></li><li><p>*</p></li><li><p>WeightWatchers.comAmy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)Weight Watchers food choice tools</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>*</p></li><li><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p></li><li><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p></li><li><p>Constrained Choice</p><p>*</p></li><li><p>Perceived CompetenceHelp people feel they can do itAmy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p></li><li><p>AbilityAmy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)What does ability really mean? Sometimes its truly having the skills, knowledge, or tools; other times, its having a resource such as time, patience, or desire.</p><p>Fogg definition of abilityWillpower</p><p>*</p></li><li><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)2x weight loss in people who track food 6+ days per week vs. people who track less than 11Hollis, J. F. et al. (2008). Weight loss during the intensive intervention phase of the weight-loss maintenance trial. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 32(5), 118-126.Kruger, J., Blanck, H. M., &amp; Gillespie, C. (2006). Dietary and physical activity behaviors among adults successful at weight loss maintenance. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 3. Bravata, D. M., et al. (2007). Using pedometers to increase physical activity and improve health: A systematic review. Journal of the American Medical Association, 298(19), 2296-2304.</p><p>18% of successful dieters kept a calorie diary, vs. 8% of unsuccessful dieters2People using pedometers keep their physical activity at 27% above baseline levels3</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p></li><li><p>Opower.com1.4 3.3% energy use reduction per household (Alcott, 2011)Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)Another way to create a sense of ability or competence is through normative feedbackwhat others like you are doing.</p><p>Opower launched a normative feedback program for energy consumption. People participating in the program got a neighborhood report showing how much energy others in the area were using. People who participated ended up using significantly less energy than people who didnt get the comparison reportabout 1.4-3.3% less per measurement period. That may not seem like a lot for any one individual, but when you think about the energy savings across a neighborhood or city, it starts to really add up.</p><p>We also use normative feedback a lot with health related behaviors. For example, did you know that most people who successfully quit smoking have failed about 7 times before? </p><p>Use of positive/hopeful feedback vs. unrealistic or lofty feedback*</p></li><li><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)How Video Games Support Competence</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)Feedback on performance builds competence*</p></li><li><p>Feedback Granularity</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)The granularity of feedback also matters. Ideally, you want to give a few levels of feedback. Here in Guitar Hero, you see both feedback on each individual action, and cumulative feedback on overall performance over the course of the game*</p></li><li><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)Used in Europe to reduce messes in mens restrooms*</p></li><li><p>Youve Earned a Badge!</p><p>*</p></li><li><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)YelpUntappdFitocracy</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>*</p></li><li><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p></li><li><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)$26Millionin first year11. http://news.starbucks.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=598, retrived October 1, 2012</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p></li><li><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)J&amp;J Digital Health Scorecard http://www.digitalhealthscorecard.com/?sf7635864=1 </p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p></li><li><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p></li><li><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p></li><li><p>Does it work?Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)http://duolingo.com/#/effectiveness-study34 Hours of Duolingo1 University Semester</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p></li><li><p>Perceived RelatednessShow people theyre connectedAmy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>*</p></li><li><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)Kip Williams*</p></li><li><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>*</p></li><li><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>Sometimes the responses are just acknowledgements . . .</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p></li><li><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>Sometimes the responses are helpful . . .</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p></li><li><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)Sometimes the responses are repetitive . . . </p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p></li><li><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)Sometimes the responses are to other brands, not end users . . .</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p></li><li><p>Sometimes the responses are deliberately funny . . .</p></li><li><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p></li><li><p>ELIZAHuman: My boyfriend made me come here.ELIZA: Your boyfriend made you come here?Human: He says Im depressed.ELIZA: Im sorry to hear you are depressed.Human: Its true. Im unhappy.ELIZA: Do you think talking to me will help you not be unhappy?Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)Weizenbaum, J. (1966). ELIZAA computer program for the study of natural language communication between man and machine. Communications of the ACM, 9(1), 36-45.</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p></li><li><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p></li><li><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)Amazonrecommends products both based on what you purchased, and on what people like you have bought*</p></li><li><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p></li><li><p>Design that Responds</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)Design needs to respond to users, too. When a user does something with the mouse, the site should respond to that.*</p></li><li><p>Contrast this . . .Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p></li><li><p>With this:Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p></li><li><p>SDT Applied to BeerAmy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p></li><li><p>Additional ResourcesAmy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)Glued to Games, by Scott Rigby and Richard Ryan selfdeterminationtheory.org links to academic papers, researchStanford University Persuasive Technology Lab (http://captology.stanford.edu/) I also like:</p><p>Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion, by Robert CialdiniWillpower, by Roy Baumeister and John TierneyThe Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and in Business, by Charles Duhigg</p><p>From this presentation: </p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p></li><li><p>Questions &amp; DiscussionAmy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)Amy Bucher, Ph.D.amy.bucher@gmail.com@ab_phd</p><p>Amy Bucher, Ph.D. (amy.bucher@gmail.com)</p><p>*</p><p>*Easiest metaphor to understand autonomy is choose your own adventure*Heres an example from Mindbloomusers can determine at the outset what parts of their well-being theyd like to work on. And they can change their minds at any point in the program.*</p><p>*</p><p>*</p><p>*</p><p>*What does ability really mean? Sometimes its truly having the skills, knowledge, or tools; other times, its having a resource such as time, patience, or desire.</p><p>Fogg definition of abilityWillpower</p><p>*Another way to create a sense of ability or competence is through normative feedbackwhat others like you are doing.</p><p>Opower launched a normative feedback program for energy consumption. People participating in the program got a neighborhood report showing how much energy others in the area were using. People who participated ended up using significantly less energy than people who didnt get the comparison reportabout 1.4-3.3% less per measurement period. That may not seem like a lot for any one individual, but when you think about the energy savings across a neighborhood or city, it starts to really add up.</p><p>We also use normative feedback a lot with health related behaviors. For example, did you know that most people who successfully quit smoking have failed about 7 times before? </p><p>Use of positive/hopeful feedback vs. unrealistic or lofty feedback*Feedback on performance builds competence*The granularity of feedback also matters. Ideally, you want to give a few levels of feedback. Here in Guitar Hero, you see both feedback on each individual action, and cumulative feedback on overall performance over the course of the game*Used in Europe to reduce messes in mens restrooms*</p><p>*</p><p>*</p><p>*Kip Williams*</p><p>*Amazonrecommends products both based on what you purchased, and on what people like you have bought*Design needs to respond to users, too. When a user does something with the mouse, the site should respond to that.*</p></li></ul>