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V. War in Europe
2. China and the Soviet Unionjoined the Allies.
3. Using a new technology, called sonar, Allies could locate German submarines.
4. Allied bombers also attacked German factories, railroads, military centers, and cities –known as total war.
5. In 1940, German and Italian troops attacked North Africa. By 1943, Allied troops, under the command of Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower had driven them out and invaded Italy. German troops fought for more than a year to keep them out, but the Allies succeeded in forcing the Germans out of Italy in 1945. The same year, the Italian resistance captured and executed Mussolini.
6. Turning Points:
• Stalingrad: In 1942, German forces tried to capture the Soviet city of Stalingrad. Soviet and German forces fought using hand-to-hand combat. When the harsh winter set in, additional Soviet troops arrived, and the freezing, starving Germans surrendered. The Axis lost 20,000 men, Hitler’s attempt to capture the Soviet Union was crushed, and Axis troops retreated into Germany.
• D-Day: FDR and his top military advisor, George C. Marshall, decided to invade German-occupied France. Gen. Eisenhower was put in charge of planning the invasion. The invasion would consist of a massive troop landing on the beaches of Normandy in Northern France. On the morning of June 6, 1944 – known as D-Day - some 150,000 Allied soldiers landed on the beach, as hundred of warships tried to protect them with a cover of gunfire (largest sea-and –land invasion in history).
The Germans provided fierce resistance, but US Gen. Omar Bradleyled the breakout from the beaches and into France. Tank forces under the command of Gen. George Patton broke through German lines. At the same time Allied forces landed in Southern France and pushed Northward. In Aug. of 1944, French citizens in Paris rose up against German occupation and were met by Gen. Bradley troops. France was finally liberated.
• Battle of the Bulge: Hitler, refusing to surrender, made one last attack on American soldiers protecting the Ardennes. The Americans fought bravely, but suffered heavy casualties (about 77,000 men). As Allied reinforcements arrived, the Germans were forced to surrender, and Allied forced pushed across the Rhine River into Germany as Soviet forces moved towards Berlin from the East.
7. By April of 1945, the Allies advanced towards Berlin from the west as the Soviets closed in from the east
8. On April 12, 1945, FDR died of a stroke and Harry S. Trumanbecomes president.
9. Hitler and his girlfriend, Eva Braun, committed suicide.
10. On May 7, Germany surrendered unconditionally, and May 8, 1945 was declared V-E Day (Victory in Europe).