VCE Chemistry Written examination - Data Book

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  • Instructions

    This data book is provided for your reference. A question and answer book is provided with this data book.

    Students are NOT permitted to bring mobile phones and/or any other unauthorised electronic devices into the examination room.

    CHEMISTRYWritten examination

    DATA BOOK

    VICTORIAN CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT AUTHORITY 2017

    May 2017

    Victorian Certificate of Education Year

  • CHEMISTRY DATA BOOK 2

    Table of contents Page

    1. Periodic table of the elements 3

    2. Electrochemical series 4

    3. Chemical relationships 5

    4. Physical constants and standard values 5

    5. Unit conversions 6

    6. Metric(includingSI)prefixes 6

    7. Acid-base indicators 6

    8. Representations of organic molecules 7

    9. Formulas of some fatty acids 7

    10. Formulas of some biomolecules 89

    11. Heats of combustion of common fuels 10

    12. Heats of combustion of common blended fuels 10

    13. Energy content of food groups 10

    14. Characteristic ranges for infra-red absorption 11

    15. 13C NMR data 11

    16. 1H NMR data 1213

    17. 2-aminoacids(-aminoacids) 1415

  • 3 CHEMISTRY DATA BOOK

    TURN OVER

    1. P

    erio

    dic t

    able

    of t

    he el

    emen

    ts

    1 H

    1.0

    hydr

    ogen

    2 He

    4.0

    heliu

    m

    3 Li

    6.9

    lithi

    um

    4 Be

    9.0

    bery

    llium

    5 B

    10.8

    bo

    ron

    6 C

    12.0

    ca

    rbon

    7 N

    14.0

    ni

    troge

    n

    8 O

    16.0

    oxygen

    9 F 19.0

    fluorine

    10

    Ne

    20.2

    ne

    on

    11

    Na

    23.0

    so

    dium

    12

    Mg

    24.3

    m

    agne

    sium

    13

    Al

    27.0

    al

    umin

    ium

    14

    Si

    28.1

    si

    licon

    15

    P 31.0

    ph

    osph

    orus

    16

    S 32.1

    su

    lfur

    17

    Cl

    35.5

    ch

    lorin

    e

    18

    Ar

    39.9

    ar

    gon

    19

    K

    39.1

    po

    tass

    ium

    20

    Ca

    40.1

    ca

    lciu

    m

    21

    Sc

    45.0

    sc

    andi

    um

    22

    Ti

    47.9

    tit

    aniu

    m

    23

    V

    50.9

    va

    nadi

    um

    24

    Cr

    52.0

    ch

    rom

    ium

    25

    Mn

    54.9

    m

    anga

    nese

    26

    Fe

    55.8

    iro

    n

    27

    Co

    58.9

    co

    balt

    28

    Ni

    58.7

    ni

    ckel

    29

    Cu

    63.5

    co

    pper

    30

    Zn

    65.4

    zi

    nc

    31

    Ga

    69.7

    ga

    llium

    32

    Ge

    72.6

    ge

    rman

    ium

    33

    As

    74.9

    ar

    seni

    c

    34

    Se

    79.0

    se

    leni

    um

    35

    Br

    79.9

    br

    omin

    e

    36

    Kr

    83.8

    kr

    ypto

    n

    37

    Rb

    85.5

    ru

    bidi

    um

    38

    Sr

    87.6

    st

    ront

    ium

    39

    Y

    88.9

    yt

    trium

    40

    Zr

    91.2

    zi

    rcon

    ium

    41

    Nb

    92.9

    ni

    obiu

    m

    42

    Mo

    96.0

    m

    olyb

    denu

    m

    43

    Tc

    (98)

    te

    chne

    tium

    44

    Ru

    101.

    1 ru

    then

    ium

    45

    Rh

    102.

    9 rh

    odiu

    m

    46

    Pd

    106.

    4 pa

    lladi

    um

    47

    Ag

    107.

    9 si

    lver

    48

    Cd

    112.

    4 ca

    dmiu

    m

    49

    In

    114.

    8 in

    dium

    50

    Sn

    118.

    7 tin

    51

    Sb

    121.

    8 an

    timon

    y

    52

    Te

    127.

    6 te

    lluriu

    m

    53

    I 12

    6.9

    iodi

    ne

    54

    Xe

    131.

    3 xenon

    55

    Cs

    132.

    9 ca

    esiu

    m

    56

    Ba

    137.

    3 ba

    rium

    577

    1 la

    ntha

    noid

    s

    72

    Hf

    178.

    5 ha

    fniu

    m

    73

    Ta

    180.

    9 ta

    ntal

    um

    74

    W

    183.

    8 tu

    ngst

    en

    75

    Re

    186.

    2 rh

    eniu

    m

    76

    Os

    190.

    2 os

    miu

    m

    77

    Ir

    192.

    2 iri

    dium

    78

    Pt

    195.

    1 pl

    atin

    um

    79

    Au

    197.

    0 go

    ld

    80

    Hg

    200.

    6 m

    ercu

    ry

    81

    Tl

    204.

    4 th

    alliu

    m

    82

    Pb

    207.

    2 le

    ad

    83

    Bi

    209.

    0 bi

    smut

    h

    84

    Po

    (210

    ) po

    loni

    um

    85

    At

    (210

    ) as

    tatin

    e

    86

    Rn

    (222

    ) ra

    don

    87

    Fr

    (223

    ) fr

    anci

    um

    88

    Ra

    (226

    ) ra

    dium

    891

    03

    actin

    oids

    104

    Rf

    (261

    ) ru

    ther

    ford

    ium

    105

    Db

    (262

    ) du

    bniu

    m

    106

    Sg

    (266

    ) se

    abor

    gium

    107

    Bh

    (264

    ) bo

    hriu

    m

    108

    Hs

    (267

    ) ha

    ssiu

    m

    109

    Mt

    (268

    ) m

    eitn

    eriu

    m

    110

    Ds

    (271

    ) da

    rmst

    adtiu

    m

    111

    Rg

    (272

    ) ro

    entg

    eniu

    m

    112

    Cn

    (285

    ) co

    pern

    iciu

    m

    113

    Nh

    (280

    ) ni

    honi

    um

    114

    Fl

    (289

    ) flerovium

    115

    Mc

    (289

    ) m

    osco

    vium

    116

    Lv

    (292

    ) liv

    erm

    oriu

    m

    117

    Ts

    (294

    ) te

    nnes

    sine

    118

    Og

    (294

    ) og

    anes

    son

    57

    La

    138.

    9 la

    ntha

    num

    58

    Ce

    140.

    1 ce

    rium

    59

    Pr

    140.

    9 pr

    aseo

    dym

    ium

    60

    Nd

    144.

    2 ne

    odym

    ium

    61

    Pm

    (145

    ) pr

    omet

    hium

    62

    Sm

    150.

    4 sa

    mar

    ium

    63

    Eu

    152.

    0 eu

    ropi

    um

    64

    Gd

    157.

    3 ga

    dolin

    ium

    65

    Tb

    158.

    9 te

    rbiu

    m

    66

    Dy

    162.

    5 dy

    spro

    sium

    67

    Ho

    164.

    9 ho

    lmiu

    m

    68

    Er

    167.

    3 er

    bium

    69

    Tm

    16

    8.9

    thul

    ium

    70

    Yb

    173.

    1 yt

    terb

    ium

    71

    Lu

    175.

    0 lu

    tetiu

    m

    89

    Ac

    (227

    ) ac

    tiniu

    m

    90

    Th

    232.

    0 th

    oriu

    m

    91

    Pa

    231.

    0 pr

    otac

    tiniu

    m

    92

    U

    238.

    0 ur

    aniu

    m

    93

    Np

    (237

    ) ne

    ptun

    ium

    94

    Pu

    (244

    ) pl

    uton

    ium

    95

    Am

    (2

    43)

    amer

    iciu

    m

    96

    Cm

    (2

    47)

    curiu

    m

    97

    Bk

    (247

    ) be

    rkel

    ium

    98

    Cf

    (251

    ) ca

    lifor

    nium

    99

    Es

    (252

    ) ei

    nste

    iniu

    m

    100

    Fm

    (257

    ) fe

    rmiu

    m

    101

    Md

    (258

    ) m

    ende

    levi

    um

    102

    No

    (259

    ) no

    beliu

    m

    103

    Lr

    (262

    ) la

    wre

    nciu

    m

    The

    valu

    e in

    bra

    cket

    s ind

    icat

    es th

    e m

    ass n

    umbe

    r of t

    he lo

    nges

    t-liv

    ed is

    otop

    e.

    79

    Au

    197.

    0 go

    ld

    atom

    ic n

    umbe

    r

    rela

    tive

    atom

    ic m

    ass

    sym

    bol o

    f ele

    men

    t

    nam

    e of

    ele

    men

    t

  • CHEMISTRY DATA BOOK 4

    2. Electrochemical series

    Reaction Standard electrode potential (E0) in volts at 25 C

    F2(g) + 2e 2F(aq) +2.87H2O2(aq) + 2H+(aq) + 2e 2H2O(l) +1.77Au+(aq) + e Au(s) +1.68Cl2(g) + 2e 2Cl(aq) +1.36O2(g) + 4H+(aq) + 4e 2H2O(1) +1.23Br2(l) + 2e 2Br(aq) +1.09Ag+(aq) + e Ag(s) +0.80Fe3+(aq) + e Fe2+(aq) +0.77O2(g) + 2H+(aq) + 2e H2O2(aq) +0.68I2(s) + 2e 2I(aq) +0.54O2(g) + 2H2O(l) + 4e 4OH(aq) +0.40Cu2+(aq) + 2e Cu(s) +0.34Sn4+(aq) + 2e Sn2+(aq) +0.15S(s) + 2H+(aq) + 2e H2S(g) +0.142H+(aq) + 2e H2(g) 0.00Pb2+(aq) + 2e Pb(s) 0.13Sn2+(aq) + 2e Sn(s) 0.14Ni2+(aq) + 2e Ni(s) 0.25Co2+(aq) + 2e Co(s) 0.28Cd2+(aq) + 2e Cd(s) 0.40Fe2+(aq) + 2e Fe(s) 0.44Zn2+(aq) + 2e Zn(s) 0.762H2O(l) + 2e H2(g) + 2OH(aq) 0.83Mn2+(aq) + 2e Mn(s) 1.18Al3+(aq) + 3e Al(s) 1.66Mg2+(aq) + 2e Mg(s) 2.37Na+(aq) + e Na(s) 2.71Ca2+(aq) + 2e Ca(s) 2.87K+(aq) + e K(s) 2.93Li+(aq) + e Li(s) 3.04

  • 5 CHEMISTRY DATA BOOK

    TURN OVER

    3. Chemical relationships

    Name Formula

    number of moles of a substance nmM

    n cV n VVm

    = = =; ;

    universal gas equation pV = nRT

    calibration factor (CF) for bomb calorimetry CF =VItT

    heat energy released in the combustion of a fuel q = mcT

    enthalpy of combustion H qn

    =

    electric charge Q = It

    number of moles of electrons n e QF

    ( ) =

    % atom economymolar mass of desired product

    molar mass of all reactants

    10001

    % yieldactual yield

    theoretical yield

    1001

    4. Physical constants and standard values

    Name Symbol Value

    Avogadro constant NA or L 6.02 1023 mol1

    charge on one electron (elementary charge) e 1.60 1019 C

    Faraday constant F 96 500 C mol1

    molar gas constant R 8.31 J mol1 K1

    molar volume of an ideal gas at SLC (25 C and 100 kPa)

    Vm 24.8 L mol1

    specificheatcapacityofwater c 4.18 kJ kg1 K1 or 4.18 J g1 K1

    density of water at 25 C d 997 kg m3 or 0.997 g mL1

  • CHEMISTRY DATA BOOK 6

    5. Unit conversions

    Measured value Conversion

    0 C 273 K

    100 kPa 750 mm Hg or 0.987 atm

    1 litre (L) 1 dm3 or 1 103 m3 or 1 103 cm3 or 1 103 mL

    6. Metric (including SI) prefixes

    Metric (including SI)

    prefixes

    Scientific notation Multiplying factor

    giga (G) 109 1 000 000 000

    mega (M) 106 1 000 000

    kilo (k) 103 1000

    deci (d) 101 0.1

    centi (c) 102 0.01

    milli (m) 103 0.001

    micro () 106 0.000001

    nano (n) 109 0.000000001

    pico (p) 1012 0.000000000001

    7. Acid-base indicators

    Name pH range Colour change from lower pH to higher pH in range

    thymol blue (1st change) 1.22.8 red yellow

    methyl orange 3.1 4.4 red yellow

    bromophenol blue 3.0 4.6 yellow blue

    methyl red 4.4 6.2 red yellow

    bromothymol blue 6.07.6 yellow blue

    phenol red 6.88.4 yellow red

    thymol blue (2nd change) 8.09.6 yellow blue

    phenolphthalein 8.310.0 colourless pink

  • 7 CHEMISTRY DATA BOOK

    TURN OVER

    8. Representations of organic moleculesThefollowingtableshowsdifferentrepresentationsoforganicmolecules,usingbutanoicacidasanexample.

    Formula Representation

    molecular formula C4H8O2

    structural formulas line structure

    C

    H

    H

    C

    H

    H

    C

    H

    H

    C

    HO

    O

    H

    semi-structural (condensed) formula CH3CH2CH2COOH or CH3(CH2)2COOH

    skeletal structure O

    OH

    9. Formulas of some fatty acids

    Name Formula Semi-structural formula

    lauric C11H23COOH CH3(CH2)10COOH

    myristic C13H27COOH CH3(CH2)12COOH

    palmitic C15H31COOH CH3(CH2)14COOH

    palmitoleic C15H29COOH CH3(CH2)4CH2CH=CHCH2 (CH2)5CH2COOH

    stearic C17H35COOH CH3(CH2)16COOH

    oleic C17H33COOH CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH

    linoleic C17H31COOH CH3(CH2)4(CH=CHCH2)2(CH2)6COOH

    linolenic C17H29COOH CH3CH2(CH=CHCH2)3(CH2)6COOH

    arachidic C19H39COOH CH3(CH2)17CH2COOH

    arachidonic C19H31COOH CH3(CH2)4(CH=CHCH2)3CH=CH(CH2)3COOH

  • CHEMISTRY DATA BOOK 8

    10. Formulas of some biomolecules

    C

    C

    C

    H

    H

    OH

    OH

    OH

    H

    H

    H

    glycerol

    sucrose

    OH OH

    OH OHHO

    O O

    O

    CH2OH CH2OH

    CH2OH

    vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

    O

    OH

    O

    HO

    CH

    OH

    CH2

    HO

    vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol)HO

    CHCH

    CHCH3

    CH2

    H3C CH3

    CH3

    CHCH

    CHCH3

    CH

    HO

    -fructose

    OH

    OH

    OCH2OH

    CH2OH

    vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol)HO

    CHCH

    CH3

    CH2

    CHH3C CH3CH2

    CH2CH

    CH3

    CH2

    -glucose

    OH

    OHHO

    O

    OH

    CH2OH

    lactose

    OH

    OH

    HO O O

    CH2OH

    OH

    OHOH

    O

    CH2OH

  • 9 CHEMISTRY DATA BOOK

    TURN OVER

    OH

    OH

    n

    cellulose

    OH

    OH

    O

    O

    O

    O O

    CH2OH

    CH2OH

    OH

    OH

    O

    O O

    CH2OH

    OH

    OH

    O

    O

    CH2OH

    OH

    OH

    O

    O

    CH2

    OH

    OH

    O

    O

    CH2OH

    amylopectin (starch)

    O

    OH

    OH

    O

    O O

    CH2OH

    OH

    OH

    O

    O

    CH2OH

    OH

    OH

    O

    O

    CH2OH

    amylose (starch)

    n

    O

    HO

    O

    O

    O

    N CH3

    aspartame

    H

    H2N

  • CHEMISTRY DATA BOOK 10

    11. Heats of combustion of common fuelsThe heats of combustion in the following table are calculated at SLC (25 C and 100 kPa) with combustion products being CO2(g) and H2O(l).Heatofcombustionmaybedefinedastheheatenergyreleasedwhenaspecifiedamountofasubstanceburnscompletelyinoxygenandis,therefore,reportedasapositivevalue,indicating a magnitude. Enthalpy of combustion, H, for the substances in this table would be reported as negativevalues,indicatingtheexothermicnatureofthecombustionreaction.

    Fuel Formula State Heat of combustion (kJ g1)

    Molar heat of combustion (kJ mol1)

    hydrogen H2 gas 141 282

    methane CH4 gas 55.6 890

    ethane C2H6 gas 51.9 1560

    propane C3H8 gas 50.5 2220

    butane C4H10 gas 49.7 2880

    octane C8H18 liquid 47.9 5460

    ethyne (acetylene) C2H2 gas 49.9 1300

    methanol CH3OH liquid 22.7 726

    ethanol C2H5OH liquid 29.6 1360

    12. Heats of combustion of common blended fuelsBlendedfuelsaremixturesofcompoundswithdifferentmixtureratiosand,hence,determinationofagenericmolar enthalpy of combustion is not realistic. The values provided in the following table are typical values for heats of combustion at SLC (25 C and 100 kPa) with combustion products being CO2(g) and H2O(l). Values for heats of combustion will vary depending on the source and composition of the fuel.

    Fuel State Heat of combustion (kJ g1)

    kerosene liquid 46.2

    diesel liquid 45.0

    natural gas gas 54.0

    13. Energy content of food groups

    Food Heat of combustion (kJ g1)

    fats and oils 37

    protein 17

    carbohydrate 16

  • 11 CHEMISTRY DATA BOOK

    TURN OVER

    14. Characteristic ranges for infra-red absorption

    Bond Wave number (cm1)

    Bond Wave number (cm1)

    CCl (chloroalkanes) 600800 C=O (ketones) 16801850

    CO (alcohols, esters, ethers) 10501410 C=O (esters) 17201840

    C=C (alkenes) 16201680 CH (alkanes, alkenes, arenes) 28503090

    C=O (amides) 16301680 OH (acids) 25003500

    C=O (aldehydes) 16601745 OH (alcohols) 32003600

    C=O (acids) 16801740 NH (amines and amides) 33003500

    15. 13C NMR dataTypical 13C shift values relative to TMS = 0These can differ slightly in different solvents.

    Type of carbon Chemical shift (ppm)

    RCH3 825

    RCH2R 20 45

    R3CH 4060

    R4C 36 45

    RCH2X 1580

    R3CNH2, R3CNR 3570

    RCH2OH 5090

    RC CR 7595

    R2C=CR2 110150

    RCOOH 160185

    OR

    ROC

    165175

    OR

    HC

    190200

    R2C=O 205220

  • CHEMISTRY DATA BOOK 12

    16. 1H NMR dataTypical proton shift values relative to TMS = 0These can differ slightly in different solvents. The shift refers to the proton environment that is indicated in bold letters in the formula.

    Type of proton Chemical shift (ppm)

    RCH3 0.91.0

    RCH2R 1.31.4

    RCH=CHCH3 1.61.9

    R3CH 1.5

    or CH3OR

    CO

    CH3NHR

    CO

    2.0

    CH3R

    C

    O

    2.12.7

    RCH2X (X = F, Cl, Br or I) 3.0 4.5

    RCH2OH, R2CHOH 3.3 4.5

    R

    NHCH2R

    CO

    3.2

    ROCH3 or ROCH2R 3.33.7

    O C

    O

    CH32.3

    R

    OCH2R

    CO

    3.7 4.8

    ROH 16(varies considerably under different conditions)

    RNH2 15

    RHC CHR 4.57.0

    OH 4.012.0

  • 13 CHEMISTRY DATA BOOK

    TURN OVER

    Type of proton Chemical shift (ppm)

    H 6.99.0

    R

    NHCH2R

    CO

    8.1

    R

    H

    CO

    9.4 10.0

    RH

    CO

    O9.013.0

  • CHEMISTRY DATA BOOK 14

    17. 2-amino acids (-amino acids)Thetablebelowprovidessimplifiedstructurestoenablethedrawingofzwitterions,theidentificationofproducts of protein hydrolysis and the drawing of structures involving condensation polymerisation of amino acid monomers.

    Name Symbol Structure

    alanine Ala

    H2N CH COOH

    CH3

    arginine Arg

    H2N CH COOH

    CH2 CH2 CH2 NH

    NH

    C NH2

    asparagine Asn

    H2N CH COOH

    CH2

    O

    C NH2

    aspartic acid Asp

    H2N CH COOH

    CH2 COOH

    cysteine Cys

    H2N CH COOH

    CH2 SH

    glutamic acid Glu

    H2N CH COOH

    CH2 CH2 COOH

    glutamine Gln

    H2N CH COOH

    CH2 CH2

    O

    C NH2

    glycine Gly H2N CH2 COOH

    histidine His

    H2N CH COOH

    CH2 NH

    N

    isoleucine Ile

    H2N CH COOH

    CH3 CH CH2 CH3

  • 15 CHEMISTRY DATA BOOK

    END OF DATA BOOK

    Name Symbol Structure

    leucine Leu

    H2N CH COOH

    CH2

    CH3 CH CH3

    lysine Lys

    H2N CH COOH

    CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 NH2

    methionine Met

    H2N CH COOH

    CH2 CH2 S CH3

    phenylalanine Phe

    H2N CH

    CH2

    COOH

    proline Pro COOHHN

    serine Ser

    H2N CH COOH

    CH2 OH

    threonine Thr

    H2N CH COOH

    CH3 CH OH

    tryptophan Trp

    H2N CH

    CH2

    COOH

    HN

    tyrosine Tyr OH

    H2N CH

    CH2

    COOH

    valine Val

    H2N CH COOH

    CH3 CH CH3

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