vce english exam section c prep
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Analysis of Language UseVCE English 2014 Exam PrepSection c
2013 Exam PaperAs we move through this PowerPoint, you will use the source material from the 2013 exam to complete the analysis.
You should end up with an analysis piece that you can use to help you with further practice.
Before you start writingUse part of the reading time to read the source material carefully and identify the contention
Look at any visual material and identify how it supports the contentionTake 5 10 minutes to do this now.
Planning your responseTake 5 or 10 minutes to make a plan Contention What does the writer want you to agree with? Write the contention in your own wordsWhat are the main reasons used to justify the contention?Who is the writer and how does his/her job/political orientation influence his/her view
ToneThe tone of an article refers to the attitude of the writer or his/her feelings about the issue.Some possibilities:angryenthusiastic sarcasticauthoritative sadcondescendingproudpleadingfearfulThere are many more check your notes.Note any changes of tone writers often change tone more than once in their piece
AudienceIs any particular group being targeted? eg residents of a quiet suburb where someone wants to establish a night clubThe audience may determine the approach, style and language used by the writer. A large public audience will require a different approach to an individual reading a paper. Give some examples of issues and audiences and the approach a writer/speaker may take.
Begin your plan now
Background - Contention Reasons Writer - Tone - Audience -
Persuasive techniquesDont just list them. The main part of your analysis should be the effect the techniques will have on the writer.There are two broad types of persuasive techniques you should be aware of : Logic and reasonEmotion
Logic techniquesExpert opinion using the opinion of someone who is knowledgeable on the topic.Research statistics, studies by reputable institutions etcAnecdotes short personal stories that may connect with peoples experiences. (can also be emotional)Reputable sources eg Australian Bureau of statistics independent. Think about whether the source has an interest in the argument
Logic techniques (contd)Appeals to common sense or rationalityCause and effect statements and logical conclusions does the author show a clear link between cause of a problem and the solution he/she is proposingRecognition of opposing viewpoints does the author give clear reasons to rebut any opposing viewpoints
Emotive techniquesConnotations emotional meanings associated with words. Eg what is the difference between killed, slaughtered, euthanased
Connotations have the effect of positioning the reader to feel a certain way about a topic.
Short list of appeals to emotionsNostalgia often used to justify a return to older, simpler times.Guilt Making an audience feel guilty about an issue (especially not acting on an issue) can be very persuasive.Sympathy/empathy makes reader feel sorry for someone (sympathy) or put themselves in anothers shoes (empathy).
Colloquial languageSlang or language used in everyday situations Persuasive because it is friendly and invites the audience to see the speaker/writer as someone who is on the same wavelength.
Generalisations A generalisation is something that can be said to be true for all. A stereotype.Eg All teenagers are lazy.Can be persuasive because they often seem true. However their familiarity can lull the reader into accepting a claim.
Hyperbole or exaggerationSometimes used to make an idea seem ridiculous.
But can be persuasive because it may emphasise the writers point.
Inclusive languageUse of pronouns such as: you and me, we and our.
Is effective because the writer is identifying as one of us, implying that we are all equally affected by the issue and that he/she speaks for our concerns. Assumes that we will agree with him/her.
Rhetorical questionsA question posed for effect without the expectation of a reply.Positions the reader to agree by assuming that the answer to the question is obvious and impossible to disagree with.Make sure you are very specific about how the writer wants you to answer.
Rhetorical questions (contd)Which of these two questions is rhetorical?
- What must we do to rid society of the fear of terrorism?- How long must we suffer in silence?
Annotate the textHighlight persuasive techniques you can find. Make sure you note how this technique will affect/position the reader.Add the main ones to your plan
Writing the analysisIntroduction Use some of the background material in your introduction, the issue and why it has caused controversy.Include the author, purpose, where it was published and, most importantly, the contention, and tone. Refer to any visual material.
Example of an introductionfrom 2010 examA speaker Chris Lee at the 2010 international Biodiversity Conference speaks with conviction to his audience, attendees involved in the area of nature conservation, contending that action must be taken to safeguard the variety of life, or, biodiversity. At times an accusatory and disapproving tone is adopted, however alternates with an alarmist tone, the two complementing each other and utilised to successfully persuade the speakers powerful and influential audience to take action to preserve biodiversity. The use of a visual aid in the form of a slide presentation assists the speaker, presenting the argument through a different medium.Note all of the important intro elements
Now take 10 minutes to write the introduction to you own response from the 2013 exam.
Body ParagraphsThe body of the analysis is made up of a series of paragraphs in which you identify and explain how persuasive techniques and language are used to present a point of view, using examples (including quotations) from the text.
Sentence startersReferences to (experts/scientific findings/statistics) lend credibility to the writers argument.Highly emotive language, for example influences us to accept The connotations of the word/phrase have the effect of
Sentence starters contd.The rhetorical question encourages readers to answer without considering any other alternative.By addressing us informally, the writer establishes a sense of intimacy that The use of inclusive language for example, , positions readers to
Body paragraphsWrite the body paragraphs of your response to the 2013 example.Take about 30 minutes.
Analysing visual materialThe impact of the graph is The photograph of emphasises the The cartoon highlights the serious consequences of failing to act on this important issue, by
Visual materialNow write your paragraph on the visual material. (about 5 minutes)
ConclusionYour conclusion should summarise the texts contention and the main ways in which it tries to persuade readers to agree. It only needs to be a short paragraph.
Conclusion sentence startersIn conclusion By concluding with the phrase the writer leaves the reader feeling In summary, the writer argues
Conclusion Now write the conclusion to the 2013 example. (about 5 minutes)Proof read it carefully by reading aloud in your head.