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  • :

    )(DEM

    .

    (Vector to Raster)

    .(Global Mapper v.8.0 & Arc

    Gis v. 9.0) .

    1-)Countour Maps:(

    (Global Mapper v.8.0 & Arc Gis v. 9.0)

    )Ship file (

    )161.(

    )161 (

    dmentmai/prof/edu.utexas.ce.www://http

  • 2-)Slope(:

    Raster

    Flat

    ( ArcGIS ))23(:

    1 -Degree.

    2-Percentage .

    )162( :

    =

    = / tan = rise \ run

    ) = ( rise / ( run ( X 100

    3058.%

    )45 ( 100.%

    )76 ( 375

    Arc map 9.0.

    )162 ( :- ArcGIS, Help of the program

  • )163(.

    )163 ( aidmentm/prof/edu.utexas.ce.www://http

    3-Aspect:

    .Aspect

    )Hill face

    . (Aspect TIN) (

    Raster.

    )clockwise ( ) (

    )360(Raster

    )164. (

    Aspect :

    1- .

    2- .

    3- .

    4- ( Land slide )

    .

  • )164 ()Aspect(

    maidment/prof/edu.utexas.ce.www//:http

    4-

    :Hill shade

    )Surface(

    Raster

    .ArcGIS 9.0

    )

    180 (

    clockwise )( )165 (:

    1- .

    2-

    .

  • 3-

    .

    4- .

    5 -.

    )165 ()Hiishade( maidment/prof/edu.utexas.ce.www://http

    5-(24): View shed

    )50 (

    ) 1000( )

    1000()1000(

    ( Flat )

  • .

    .( Viewshed )

    ( Global Mapper )

    .

    :

    1-( Transmitter name ).

    2-( Transmitter Elevation )

    .

    3-( Receiver Elevation )

    .

    4-( Transmission angle )

    ( Tower )(

    Transmitters ))120 (

    )3()360(

    .)120 (

    .

    5-( Earth Curvature )

    )(

    .

    6-( Atmospheric Correction )

    )

    1.33333. (

    7-( Radius View )

    ( View ).

    8=.

  • 9- .

    )166(( Global Mapper )

    .)167 (

    :

    1-

    .

    2-( Mobile )

    .

    3-.

    4-

    .

    5=( Internet Networks ) .

    6- .

    )166 (

  • )167 (

    :

    2007.

    6- )Curvature: (

    ( DEMs )

    ( Convexity )) ( Concavity

    ( Raster )

    ( DEMs ).

    ( 3 * 3 )

    ( 9 ): -

    Z

    Z: -

    Z = Axy + Bxy + Cxy + Dx + Ey + Fxy + Gx + Hy + I

    X,y = .

  • A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I

    :-

    A = [(Z1 + Z3 + Z7 + Z9) /4 - (Z2 + Z4 + Z6 + Z8) /2 + Z5] /L4

    B = [(Z1 + Z3 - Z7 - Z9) /4 - (Z2 - Z8) /2] /L3

    C = [(-Z1 + Z3 - Z7 + Z9) /4 + (Z4 - Z6)] /2] /L3

    D = [(Z4 + Z6) /2 - Z5] /L2

    E = [(Z2 + Z8) /2 - Z5] /L2

    F = (-Z1 + Z3 + Z7 - Z9) /4L2

    G = (-Z4 +Z6) /2L

    H = (Z2 - Z8) /2L

    I = Z5

    L = .

    Curvature = -2(D + E) * 100

    )168 (. ArcGIS , Help of the program :

  • :Arc GIS,Help of program

    :

    1- ( Convex ).

    2- ( Concave ).

    3- )(

    ( Flat ).

    :

    1- .

    2- ( Surface Runoff ).

    3- ( Drainage patterns ).

    4- ( Deposition ).

    5- ( Erosion )

    .

    )169 (.

  • )169(.

    :

    2007.

    :

    2007.

    7-:Cut and Fill

    ( Global Mapper )

    ( Civil Engineering )

    .

    ( User )

    )(

    (

    Ground ).

    .

    ( Cut and Fill ):

    1-

    .

    2- .

    3- .

    4- .

    ( Profiles ):

    ( ArcGIS )(

    Profiles) )

    (:-

    1- .

    2- .

    3- .

  • 4-

    -

    )6()10(

    ( Field Work )

    .)170.(

    )170(

    8-:

  • ) (

    ).(

    .

    .)171 172 173 174(

    .

    )171 ()172 (

  • )173(

    .)174 (

    .

    )174 (

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