vegetarian starter kit
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DESCRIPTIONVegans eat no meat, fish, poultry, eggs, or dairy products. While there is a considerable advantage to a lacto-ovo vegetarian pattern, vegan diets are the most healthful of all, reducing risk of a broad range of health concerns.
- 1.TIPS FOR BEGINNING A VEGETARIAN DIET ThE NEW FOUR FOOD GROUPS TASTy LOW-FAT, NO-ChOLESTEROL RECIPES Presented by Vegetarian Times and the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine www.vegetariantimes.com
2. vegetarian foods:powerful tools for healthA vegetarian menu is a powerful and pleasurable way to achievecontents good health. the vegetarian eating pattern is based on a widevariety of foods that are satisfying, delicious, and healthful.Vegetarians avoid meat, fish, and poultry. those who include tHe wHys And Howsdairy products and eggs in their diets are called lacto-ovo Vegetarian Foods2vegetarians. Vegans eat no meat, fish, poultry, eggs, or dairyproducts. while there is a considerable advantage to a lacto-ovo the Protein Myth 4 vegetarian pattern, vegan diets are the most healthful of all,reducing risk of a broad range of health concerns. Calcium in a Plant-based diet 6A HeAltHy HeArt what About Milk? 7 Vegetarians have much lower cholesterolfound only in plant foods) and low inlevels than meat eaters, and heart disease fat is the best dietary prescription for the new Four Food groups8is less common in vegetarians. The controlling diabetes. A diet based onreasons are not hard to find. Vegetarian vegetables, legumes, fruits, and whole Achieving and Maintaining ameals are typically low in saturated fat grains, which is also low in fat and sugar, Healthy weight 10and usually contain little or no choles- can lower blood sugar levels and oftenterol. Since cholesterol is found only inreduce or even eliminate the need for Vegetarian diet for Pregnancy 11 animal products such as meat, dairy, medication. Since individuals withand eggs, vegans consume a cholesterol-diabetes are at high risk for heart disease, Vegetarian diets for Children 12 free diet. avoiding fat and cholesterol is impor- The type of protein in a vegetarian tant, and a vegetarian diet is the bestdiet may be another important advan- way to do that. tiPs For VegetAriAn dietstage. Many studies show that replacinganimal protein with plant protein lowers CAnCer PreVention the 3-step way to go Veg3blood cholesterol levelseven if the A vegetarian diet helps prevent cancer.amount and type of fat in the diet stays Studies of vegetarians show that death tips for Making the switch4the same. Those studies show that a low- rates from cancer are only about one-fat, vegetarian diet has a clear advantage half to three-quarters of the general egg Free! 5over other diets.populations cancer-death rates.Breast cancer rates are dramatically dairy Free! 7lower Blood Pressure lower in countries where typical diets areAn impressive number of studies, datingplant-based. When women from those the Veganizer10back to the early 1920s, show that countries adopt a Western, meat-basedvegetarians have lower blood pressurediet, their rates of breast cancer soar. daily Meal Planning13than nonvegetarians. In fact, some Vegetarians also have significantly lowerstudies have shown that adding meat to rates of colon cancer than meat eaters.a vegetarian diet raises blood pressureColon cancer is more closely associated low-FAt reCiPeslevels rapidly and significantly. Awith meat consumption than any othervegetarian diet also reduces sodiumdietary factor. recipes for Health14 intake: When patients with high blood Why do vegetarian diets help protectpressure begin a vegetarian diet, many against cancer? First, they are lower inare able to eliminate the need for fat and higher in fiber than meat-basedmedication.diets. But other factors are important, too. Plants contain other cancer-fightingControlling diABetes substances called phytochemicals. ForThe latest studies on diabetes show that example, vegetarians usually consumea vegetarian diet high in complexmore of the plant pigments beta-carbohydrates and fiber (which are carotene and lycopene. This might help2 VEGETARIAN STARTER KIT 3. to explain why they have less lung and from the bones. Replacing animalnorthern latitudes have some difficulty prostate cancers. Also, some studies haveproducts with plant foods reduces the producing vitamin D year-round. suggested that diets that avoid dairyamount of calcium lost. This may help Vitamin D can easily be obtained from products may reduce the risk of prostate to explain why people who live in fortified foods. Some sources are and ovarian cancers. countries where the typical diet is plant-commercial breakfast cereals, soymilk,Some of the anticancer aspects of a based have little osteoporosis, even when other supplemental products, and vegetarian diet cannot yet be explained. calcium intake is lower than that inmultivitamins. For example, researchers are not quite dairy-consuming countries. Regular intake of vitamin B12 is sure why vegetarians have more ofimportant. Good sources include all certain white blood cells, called naturalPlAnning VegetAriAn diets common multiple vitamins (including killer cells, which are able to seek and Its easy to plan vegetarian diets that vegetarian vitamins), fortified cereals, destroy cancer cells.meet all your nutrient needs. Grains, some brands of nutritional yeast, andbeans, and vegetables are rich in protein fortified soymilk. It is especially tHe CAlCiuM ConneCtion and iron. Green leafy vegetables, beans,important for pregnant women and Vegetarians are less likely to form either lentils, tofu, corn tortillas, and nuts are breast-feeding mothers to get enough kidney stones or gallstones. In addition,excellent sources of calcium, as arevitamin B12. When reading food vegetarians may also be at lower risk forenriched soymilk and fortified juices.labels, look for the word cyanocobala- osteoporosis because they eat little or noVitamin D is normally made in themin in the ingredients list. This is animal protein. A high intake of animalbody when sun shines on the skin. the form of vitamin B12 that is best protein encourages the loss of calcium People who are dark-skinned or live atabsorbed by the body.the 3-step way to go veg if you are making the switch to a vegetar- are tofu and vegetable stir-fries, veg- grilled eggplant and roasted red peppers ian diet for its health benefits, youll beetable stew, or pasta primavera.instead of grilled chicken in sandwiches. pleased to find that there is a wonderfulMany soups, stews, and casseroles also additional benefit to vegetarian eating: 2 second, think of three recipes youcan be made into vegetarian dishes with its a delicious and fun way to exploreprepare regularly that can easily bea few simple changes. new foods. A vegetarian meal can be as adapted to a vegetarian menu. For familiar as spaghetti with marinaraexample, a favorite chili recipe can be 3 third, check out some vegetarian sauce, as comforting as a bowl of rich,made with all of the same ingredients;cookbooks from the library and experi- potato soup, or as exotic as grilled just replace the meat with beans or ment with the recipes for a week or so polenta with portobello mushrooms. texturized vegetable protein. enjoy beanuntil you find three new recipes that are the switch to a vegetarian diet is burritos (using canned vegetarian refried delicious and easy to make. Just like that, easier than you might think. Most people,beans) instead of beef burritos, veggie with minimal changes to your menus, you whether vegetarians or meat eaters,burgers instead of hamburgers, andwill have nine vegetarian dinners. typically use a limited variety of recipes; the average family eats only eight or nine different dinners repeatedly. you can use a simple, three-step method to come up with nine vegetarian dinner menus that you enjoy and can prepare easily. After that, coming up with vegetarian options for breakfast and lunch is easy. try muffins with fruit spread, cholesterol- free French toast, or cereal for break- fasts. sandwiches, with spreads like hummus or white bean pate with lemon and garlic, or dinner leftovers all make great lunches.1 First, think of three vegetarian mealsEnchiladas in an Instant Recipe on page 14 that you already enjoy. Common oneswww.vegetariantimes.com 4. theprotein myth in the past, some people tHe Building BloCks oF liFetHe trouBle witH too MuCH believed one could never get People build muscle and other body Protein too much protein.proteins from amino acids, which comeThe average American diet containsfrom the proteins they eat. A varied dietmeat and dairy products. As a result, it is In the early 1900s, Americans were toldof beans, lentils, grains, and vegetablesoften too high in protein. This can lead to eat well over 100 grams of protein acontains all of the essential amino acids. to a number of serious health problems: day. And as recently as the 1950s, It was once thought that various plant health-conscious people were encour- foods had to be eaten together to get Kidney Disease: When people eat aged to boost their protein intake.their full protein value, but currenttoo much protein, they take in more Today, some diet books encourage high- research suggests this is not the case.nitrogen than they need. This places a protein intake for weight loss, although Many nutrition authorities, includingstrain on the kidneys, which must expel Americans already tend to take in twicethe American Dietetic Association, the extra nitrogen through urine. People the amount of protein they need. And believe protein needs can easily be metwith kidney disease are encouraged to while individuals following such a dietby consuming a variety of plant proteineat low-protein diets. Such a diet have sometimes had short-term successsources over an entire day. To get the reduces the excess levels of nitrogen and in losing weight, they are often unaware most benefit from the protein youcan also help prevent kidney disease. of the health risks associated with aconsume, it is important to eat enough high-protein diet. Excess protein hascalories to meet your energy needs. Cancer: Although fat is the dietary been linked with osteoporosis, kidney substance most often singled out for disease, calcium stones in the urinaryincreasing cancer risk, protein also plays tract, and some cancers.a role. Populations that eat meat tips for making the switch Convenience foods cut cooking time. supermarkets and vegetarian food when dining out. italian, Chinese, Mexican, natural foods stores stock a huge array of instant soups and spanish, thai, Japanese, and indian restaurants all offer a wide main-dish vegetarian convenience items. Many canned soups, variety of vegetarian dishes. such as minestrone, black bean, or vegetable, are vegetarian. Texturized vegetable protein (tVP) is fat-free, has Flavored rice or other grain mixes, like curried rice or tabbou- a texture like ground beef, and is wonderful in tacos, chili, leh salad, can be stretched into an entre with a can of beans.and sloppy joes. look for it in the bulk food section of the Visit the frozen food section for internationally inspired grocery store. vegetarian frozen entres such as corn and bean enchiladas, Summer barbecues are healthful and fun with meatless lentil curry, or vegetarian pad thai. or try vegetarian bakedhot dogs and burgers. or, for a real change of pace, grill thick beans, refried beans, sloppy joe sauce, and meatless spaghetti slices of marinated vegetables like eggplant, zucchini, or sauce from the canned goods aisle. tomatoes. Ask for it! even restaurants that dont offer vegetarian Check out ethnic groceries for special vegetarian entres can usually whip up a meatless pasta or vegetable platefoods. Middle eastern delis offer stuffed grape leaves, falafel, if you ask. if attending a catered affair, catch the waiter before and eggplant spreads. italian markets are a wonderful place to you are served and ask him or her to remove the chicken breast find hearty homemade breads, sun-dried tomatoes, and fresh from your plate and slip on an extra baked potato. somepasta. indian and Asian markets offer many vegetarian airlines offer vegetarian meals if you ask in advance; or youdelicacies also. can always bring a meal on board with you. The simplest dishes are often the most satisfying. Brown Order your next pizza without cheese but with arice, gently seasoned with herbs and lemon and sprinkled with mountain of vegetable toppings.chopped nuts or sunflower seeds, is a perfect dish. Find vegetarian cookbooks at your local library or When traveling, pack plenty of vegetarian bookstore and have fun experimenting with new foods andsnacks like instant soups, fresh fruit, raw vegetables, trail mix, recipes. granola bars, and homemade oatmeal cookies. Fill a cooler International restaurants are the best bets for findingwith sandwiches and individual containers of juice and soymilk. 4 VEGETARIAN STARTER KIT 5. Cookinegg g withotast s can b uty an ed easy. regularly are at increased risk for colonEngland found that when people added cancer, and researchers believe that the about 5 ounces of fish (about 34 grams of fat, protein, natural carcinogens, and protein) to a normal diet, the risk ofEgg free! absence of fiber in meat all play roles. forming urinary tract stones increased by The 1997 report of the World Canceras much as 250 percent. Research Fund and American InstituteFor a long time it was thought that for Cancer Research, Food, Nutrition, athletes needed much more protein thanMany people choose not to use eggs in and the Prevention of Cancer, noted other people. The truth is that athletes, their diets. About 70 percent of the calories that meaty, high-protein diets wereeven those who strength train, need onlyin eggs are from fat, and a big portion of linked with some types of cancer.slightly more protein, which is easilythat fat is saturated. eggs are also loadedobtained in the larger servings athleteswith cholesterolabout 213 milligrams for Osteoporosis and Kidney Stones:require for their higher caloric intake.an average-size egg. Because egg shells Diets rich in animal protein cause Vegetarian diets are great for athletes.are fragile and porous and conditions on people to excrete more calcium than To consume a diet that containsegg farms are crowded, eggs are the normal through their kidneys and enough, but not too much, protein,perfect host for salmonellathe bacteria increase the risk of osteoporosis. simply replace animal products with that is the leading cause of food poisoning Countries with lower protein diets havegrains, vegetables, legumes (peas, beans, in this country. lower rates of osteoporosis and hipand lentils), and fruits. As long as one iseggs are often used in baked products fractures. eating a variety of plant foods in suffi- because of their binding and leaveningGreater calcium excretion increases cient quantity to maintain ones weight,properties. But smart cooks have found the risk for kidney stones. Researchers in the body gets plenty of protein.good substitutes for eggs. try one of thefollowing the next time you prepare arecipe that calls for eggs: If a recipe calls for just one or twoeggs, you can often skip them. Add acouple of extra tablespoons of waterfor each egg eliminated to balance outthe moisture content of the product. Eggless egg replacers are available inmany natural food stores. These arelEdifferent from reduced-cholesterol eggmp Sproducts, which do contain eggs. EggSA nu replacers are egg-free and are usually in mE a powdered form. Replace eggs inbaking with a mixture of the powderedegg replacer and water according topackage directions. Use 1 heaping tablespoon of soy flour BreakfastBanana Buckwheator cornstarch plus 2 tablespoons ofPancakes 3 oatmeal pancakes with applesauce Recipe on page 14 water to replace each egg in a baked topping, calcium-fortified orange juice, product. fresh fruitBreakfast Use 1 ounce of mashed tofu in place of lunch1 cup oatmeal with cinnamon and raisins,an egg. Scramble crumbled tofu with Bean burritos: black beans in corn 1 /2 cup fortified soymilk, 1 slice toast with onions and peppers seasoned with tortillas, topped with chopped lettuce,1 tablespoon almond butter, 1/2 grapefruitcumin and/or curry to replace eggs in tomatoes, and salsa, spinach salad withlunch breakfast dishes. tahini-lemon dressingWhole-wheat pita stuffed with hummus, In muffins and cookies, half of a Dinner sliced tomatoes, and lettuce, carrot sticks mashed banana can be used instead of Chinese stir-fry over brown rice: tofu Dinneran egg, although it will change the chunks, broccoli, pea pods, water1 cup baked beans, baked sweet potato,flavor of the recipe somewhat. chestnuts, and Chinese cabbage (bok1 cup steamed collard greens drizzled with For vegetarian loaves and burgers, use choy), cantaloupe chunks drizzled with lemon juice, baked appleany of the following to bind ingredi- fresh lime juice Snack ents together: tomato paste, mashed SnackBanana soymilk shakepotato, moistened bread crumbs, or Dried figs rolled oats. www.vegetariantimes.com 5 6. calcium in a plant-based dietMany people avoid milkWe regularly lose calcium from ourbecause it contains saturatedbloodstream through urine, sweat, and where feces. It is renewed with calcium fromfat, cholesterol, allergenic bone or from the diet.proteins, lactose, and frequent Bones are constantly broken downtraces of contamination, or to get it and made anew. Up until the age of 30simply because they dont feel or so, we build more bone than we lose.well after consuming dairy Later, the bones tend to break down more than build up. The loss of too (content in milligrams)products.much bone calcium can lead to fragileMilk is also linked to type 1 (juvenile- bones or osteoporosis. VEgETABlES onset) diabetes and other serious How rapidly calcium is lost depends, Broccoli (1 cup, boiled) 62conditions. Happily, there are manyin part, on the kind and amount of Brussels sprouts (1 cup, boiled) 56other good sources of calcium. protein you eat, as well as other diet and Butternut squash (1 cup, baked)84 Keeping your bones strong depends lifestyle choices. Carrots (2 medium, raw)40more on preventing the loss of calcium Cauliflower (1 cup, boiled)20from your body than on boosting your reduCing CAlCiuM loss Collards (1 cup, boiled)266calcium intake.A number of factors affect calcium Kale (1 cup, boiled) 94 Some cultures consume few or no loss from the body: Sweet potato (1 cup, baked)76dairy products and typically ingest fewer Diets that are high in protein causethan 500 milligrams of calcium per day.more calcium to be lost through the lEgumESHowever, these people generally have urine. Protein from animal products is Black turtle beans (1 cup, boiled)102low rates of osteoporosis. Manymuch more likely to cause calcium Chickpeas (1 cup, boiled)80scientists believe that exercise and other loss than protein from plant foods. great northern beans (1 cup, boiled) 120 factors have more to do with osteoporo-This may be one reason that vegetar- Kidney beans (1 cup, boiled) 62sis than calcium intake does.ians tend to have stronger bones than lentils (1 cup, boiled)38 meat eaters. navy beans (1 cup, boiled) 126 CAlCiuM in tHe Body Diets high in sodium increase calcium pinto beans (1 cup, boiled)79Almost all of the calcium in the body is losses in the urine. Soybeans (1 cup, boiled) 175 in the bones. There is a tiny amount in Caffeine increases the rate at which Soymilk (1 cup, calcium-fortified) 368 the bloodstream, which is responsiblecalcium is lost through urine. Tofu (1/2 cup, raw, firm)253 for important functions such as muscle Smoking increases the loss of calcium Vegetarian baked beans (1 cup) 86contraction, maintenance of thefrom the body. White beans (1 cup, boiled)161 heartbeat, and transmission of nerveimpulses. WhOlE grAInS Corn tortilla 42 rice milk (1 cup, enriched)300 Wheat bread (1 slice) 26 Black Soybean TabboulehRecipe on page 14 Whole-wheat flour (1 cup) 41FruIT Dried figs (10 figs)140 naval orange (1 medium)60 Orange juice (1 cup, calcium-fortified) 300* raisins (2/3 cup)53Source: u.s. department of Agriculture, Agricultural research service. 2004. usdA national nutrient database for standard reference, release 17. nutrient data laboratory web site: nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp * package information 6VEGETARIAN STARTER KIT 7. A number of factors increase bone sourCes oF CAlCiuM building in the body: Exercise and a diet moderate in protein Exercise is one of the most important will help to protect your bones. People Pou rya ta ourself factors in maintaining bone health. who eat plant-based diets and are active Exposure to sunlight allows the bodyprobably have lower calcium needs. ll, c glas old to make the bone-building hormone However, it is still important to eat(dai s of vitamin D.calcium-rich foods every day. ry-fr Eating plenty of fruits and vegetables The Where to Get It chart on pagemilk ee). helps to keep calcium in bone.6 gives the amount of calcium found in Consuming calcium from plant-basedsome excellent plant sources. A quick sources, especially green vegetables andglance shows how easy it is to meet beans, provides one of the building calcium needs. The sample menus ondairy free! blocks for bone building. page 5 each provide approximately 1,000 milligrams of calcium.if you are curious whether dairy foods are what about milk?contributing to your allergies, skin prob-lems, asthma, stomach upset, gas, diarrhea,or constipation, or youd like to see howyour body feels when it is dairy-free, just Calcium: green veg- Contaminants: Milk Allergies: Milk is one ofgive it a try for three weeks. it takes about etables, such as kale and is frequently contami-the most common causesthree weeks to break or create a habit. And broccoli, are better than nated with antibiotics andof food allergy. often thein that short time, many people experience milk as calcium sources.contains excess vitamin symptoms are subtle andmajor benefits, such as a drop in blood d. in one study of 42 milkmay not be attributed tocholesterol levels, weight loss, relief from Fat content*: dairy samples tested, only 12 milk for some time.allergies, asthma, indigestion, or chronic productsother than skimpercent were within thestomach problems. Here are some simple varietiesare high in fat,expected range of vitamin Colic: Milk proteins canideas to get you started: as a percentage of totald content. of ten samples cause colic, a digestive calories. of infant formula, sevenupset that bothers one in t p your oats or cold cereal with fortified o had more than twice five infants. Milk-drinkingrice or almond milk. Iron deficiency: Milk isthe vitamin d content mothers can also pass Make smoothies with enriched vanilla very low in iron. to getreported on the label, andcows milk proteins to theirsoymilk or drink an ice cold glass of the u.s. recommendedone had more than fourbreast-feeding infants.your favorite soymilk with your meal or dietary Allowance of 11 times the label amount.snack. milligrams of iron, an leave off the cheese, please. infant would have to drink lactose: three out of Fat Content of order your entre or salad with no more than 22 quarts offour people from around Dairy products*cheese. Many dishes can be easily made milk each day. Milk alsothe world, including an *based on percentage ofcheese-free. Ask for guacamole, rice, causes blood loss from theestimated 25 percent ofcalories from fat or extra salsa in your burrito or on your intestinal tract, depleting individuals in the unitedtostada instead of the cheese. Put more the bodys iron.states, are unable to Sourcepercentage vegetables on a dinner salad or add digest the milk sugar Butter100% some beans, nuts, or baked tofu chunks Diabetes: in a study of lactose, which then causes Cheddar cheese74%instead of cheese. 142 children with diabe-diarrhea and gas. the whole milk49% Most recipes calling for milk can be tes, 100 percent had high lactose, when it is digest- 2% milk 35%made with soymilk instead. if its a levels of an antibody toed, releases galactose, a (it is 2% fat only by weight.) soup or other savory dish, be sure to a protein in cows milk.simple sugar that is linkedpurchase plain soymilk for cooking. it is believed that these to ovarian cancer and Make creamy dips and desserts using antibodies may destroycataracts.silken tofu in place of sour cream or the insulin-producing cellscream cheese. of the pancreas. Sprinkle nutritional yeast on pop-corn or pasta for a cheesy flavor insteadof Parmesan. www.vegetariantimes.com 7 8. thenew *Be sure to include a good source of vitamin B12, such as fortified cereal or a vitamin supplement. four food groupsMany of us grew up with the usdAs old basic four food groups, first introduced in 1956. The passage of time has seen an increase in our knowledge about the importance of fiber, the health risks of cholesterol and fats, and the disease-preventive power of many nutrients found exclusively in plant-based foods. We also have discovered that the plant kingdom provides excellent sources of the nutrients once only associated with meat and dairy productsnamely, protein and calcium.The USDA revised its recommenda- tions with the Food Guide Pyramid, a plan that reduced the prominence of animal products and vegetable fats. But1 because regular consumption of such foodseven in lower quantitiesposes serious health risks, PCRM developed the New Four Food Groups in 1991. This no-cholesterol, low-fat plan supplies all of an average adults daily nutritional requirements, including substantial amounts of fiber.The major killers of AmericansFRUIT heart disease, cancer, and stroke3 or more servings a day have a dramatically lower incidence Fruits are rich in fiber, vitamin C, among people consuming primarilyand beta-carotene. Be sure to plant-based diets. Weight problems include at least one serving each a contributor to a host of health day of fruits that are high in vitamin problemscan also be brought underCcitrus fruits, melons, and control by following the New Four strawberries are all good choices. Food Groups recommendations.Choose whole fruit over fruit juices,Try the New Four Food Groups and which do not contain much fiber. discover a more healthful way to live! serving size: 1 medium piece of fresh fruit, 1 2 cup cooked fruit,/ 4 ounces juice 8 VEGETARIAN STARTER KIT 9. LEGUMES4 2 or more servings a day Legumes, which is another name for beans, peas, and lentils, are all good sources of fiber, protein, iron, calcium, zinc, and B vitamins. This group also includes chickpeas, baked and refried beans, soymilk, tempeh, and texturized vegetable protein.serving size: 1 2 cup cooked beans, / 4 ounces tofu or tempeh, 8 ounces soymilk 2 VEGETABLES 4 or more servings a day Vegetables are packed with nutri- ents; they provide vitamin C, beta- carotene, riboflavin, iron, calcium, fiber, and other nutrients. Dark green leafy vegetables such as broccoli, collards, kale, mustard and turnip greens, chicory, or cabbage are especially good sources of these important nutrients. Dark yellow and orange vegetables such as carrots, winter squash, sweet potatoes, and pumpkin provide extra beta-carotene. Include generous portions of a variety of vegetables in your diet.serving size: 1 cup raw vegetables, /2 cup cooked vegetables 1 3 WhOLE GRAINS 5 or more servings a day This group includes bread, rice, tortillas, pasta, hot or cold cereal, corn, millet, barley, and bulgur wheat. Build each of your meals around a hearty grain dishgrains are rich in fiber and other complex carbohydrates, as well as protein, B vitamins, and zinc.serving size: 1 2 cup rice or other / grain, 1 ounce dry cereal, 1 slice bread www.vegetariantimes.com 10. stores the energy of different food types.It is very inefficient for the body to storethe energy of carbohydrates as body fat.When your body tries to turn carbohy-drate into fat, it wastes 23 percent of thecalories of the carbohydrate. But fat iseasily converted into body fat. Only 3percent of the calories in fat are burnedin the process of conversion and storage.It is the type of food that affects bodyfat the most. Although protein and carbohydrates achieving and maintaininghave almost the same number of caloriesper gram, foods that are high in a healthy weightproteinparticularly animal productsare also usually high in fat. Even leancuts of meat have much more fat than aOf the many ways to lose weight, ing a healthy weight. There is no way to healthy body needs. And animalone stands out as by far the mostlose 20 pounds in two short weeksproducts always lack fiber. Fiber helpshealthful. and make it last. Very-low-calorie diets make foods more satisfying withoutWhen you build your meals from a or low-carbohydrate, high-protein dietsadding many calories, and it is onlygenerous array of vegetables, fruits,may cause major health problems andfound in foods from plants.whole grains, and beansthat is, are very difficult to maintain for theExercise helps, too. Aerobic exercisehealthful vegetarian choicesweightlong term. speeds up the breakdown of fat andloss is remarkably easy. And along with The old myth was that pasta, bread, makes sure that muscle is not lost.it come major improvements inpotatoes, and rice are fattening. Not true.Toning exercises and weight lifting helpcholesterol, blood pressure, blood sugar,In fact, carbohydrate-rich foods are firm muscles and increase muscle mass.and many other aspects of health. Theperfect for permanent weight control.The trick is to find activities that youmessage is simple: Cut out the foods Carbohydrates contain fewer than halfenjoy and that fit your lifestyle. Walkingthat are high in fat and devoid of fiber,the calories of fat, which means thatis a good way to start. You can do itand increase the foods that are low in fat replacing fatty foods with complex anywhere at just about any time.and full of fiber. This low-fat, vegan dietcarbohydrates automatically cuts calories.The best weight control program is aapproach is safe and easyonce you get But calories are only part of the story. high-complex-carbohydrate, low-fat,the hang of it. The body treats carbohydrates vegetarian diet complemented by regular Changing eating habits is the differently than fat calories. The exercise. This is the best choice for acornerstone of achieving and maintain- difference comes from how the body healthier, longer, happier life. the veganizer See how to change your regular mealSinto low-fat vegan mealS. If your regular breakfast is: Try this breakfast instead: If your typical lunch is: Try this lunch instead: Cereal with milkCereal with nonfat soy- or rice milkturkey sandwich with lettuce, sandwich with hummus or blackorange juiceorange juicetomato, and mayobean spread, lettuce, and tomatostrawberriesstrawberriesyogurtApplesaucePotato chipsFat-free chips or crackersdonut Cinnamon raisin toast with jamCoffee with cream Coffee with nonfat, nondairy creamerChicken noodle soup Vegetable soup or minestroneBananaBananaBread Breadgreen salad with russian dressing green salad with fat-free dressingscrambled eggsscrambled low-fat tofuHome friesoven-roasted potatoeslast nights leftovers (roast beef, last nights leftovers (veggie burger,english muffinenglish muffinmashed potatoes, gravy, and peas) mashed potatoes, mushroom gravy,sausage gimme lean fat-free sausageorangecorn, and peas)Hot tea Hot teaorangeBagel with cream cheese Bagel plain or with fruit spreadseasoned tofu and sweet potatoChicken burritolatte soy latte made with nonfat soymilkburrito with lettuce, tomato, andricerefried beans onion (hold the cheese)0 MAy/juNE 2007riceVegetarian black beans 11. vegetarian diet for pregnancy During pregnancy your need for nutrients increases. For example, you will require more calcium, more protein, and more folic acid, although your calorie needs increase only modestly. It is important to eat foods that are rich in nutrients, but not high in fat or sugar or excessive in calories.Vegetarian diets, based on nutritious whole foods, are healthful choices for pregnant women.guidelines For good HeAltHkale, broccoli, beans, figs, sunflower during PregnAnCyseeds, tahini, almond butter, calcium- Begin a healthful diet before you fortified soymilk (try Silk or Vitasoy become pregnant. Your bodys store of brands or others that use whole organic nutrients supports the early growth soybeans), and calcium-fortified cereals and development of your baby. and juices. Maintain a steady rate of weight gain. Vitamin D: The normal source of Aim for about three to four poundsvitamin D is sunlight. Youll want to get at check the ingredient label for cyanoco- total during the first trimester andleast 20 to 30 minutes of direct sunlightbalamin, the most absorbable form of then about three to four pounds eachon your hands and face two to three timesvitamin B12. Seaweed and products like month during the second and third weekly.tempeh are generally not reliable sources trimesters.If you do not get regular sunlight, of vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 is also in all See your health care provider regularly.vitamin D is also available in multiplestandard multivitamins and in vegetarian Limit empty calories found in highlyvitamins and in fortified foods. Manysupplements. processed foods and sweets. Make your brands of ready-to-eat cereals and soy- Iron: Iron is abundant in plant-based calories count! and rice milks are fortified withdiets. Beans, dark green vegetables, dried vitamin D. fruits, blackstrap molasses, nuts and nutrientsVitamin B12: Vitamin B12 is not found seeds, and whole grain or fortified To make certain that you are gettingin most plant foods. To get enough ofbreads and cereals all contain plenty of adequate nutrition, pay particularthis important nutrient, be certain to iron. However, women in the second attention to these nutrients: include vitamin B12-fortified foods in half of pregnancy sometimes need toCalcium: All of the new four foodyour daily routine. These foods includetake a supplement regardless of the type groups include foods that are rich in many breakfast cereals, some meatof diet they follow. Your health care calcium. Be certain to include plenty ofsubstitute products, some brands ofprovider will discuss iron supplements calcium-rich foods in your diet. Thesesoymilk, and Vegetarian Supportwith you. include tofu, dark green leafy vegetables,Formula nutritional yeast. Be certain toA word about protein... Proteinneeds increase by about 30 percent If your typical dinner is: Try this dinner instead:during pregnancy. While there may beconcern over whether protein intake is Fettuccine alfredo or spaghetti with Pasta primavera with mixed vegetables and adequate at such an important time, meatballsgarlic or spaghetti with marinara sauce most vegetarian women eat more than green salad with ranch dressinggreen salad with fat-free balsamic vinaigretteenough protein to meet their needs garlic bread with butter toasted French bread without butter during pregnancy. With ample con- Butter-pecan ice cream Chocolate sorbetsumption of protein-rich foods such as Broiled salmon Broiled portobello mushroomslegumes, nuts, seeds, vegetables, and Boiled new potatoes with Parmesan cheese Boiled new potatoes with basil and black pepper whole grains, protein needs can easily be Asparagus with hollandaise Asparagus with orange sauce met during pregnancy.Hot and sour soupVegetarian tofu soupBreAst-Feeding Beef and broccolistir-fried Chinese vegetables (hold the oil)The guidelines for breast-feeding rice Broccoli with garlic saucemothers are similar to those for preg-lots of ricenant women. Milk production requires Chicken fajita Vegetable fajita (hold the oil) more calories, so you will need to boost rice riceyour food intake a little bit.11 refried beansVegetarian black beans www.vegetariantimes.com 12. vegetarian diets for childrenEating habits are set in early childhood. Vegetarian dietsgive your child the chance to learn to enjoy a variety ofwonderful, nutritious foods. They provide excellent nutritionfor all stages of childhood, from birth through adolescence. inFAntstaken as directed by your doctor. Breast peas are all good choices.The best food for newborns is breast-milk or infant formula should be used Introduce fruits. Try mashedmilk, and the longer your baby is breast-for at least the first year of your babys bananas, avocados, strainedfed, the better. If your baby is not being life.peaches, or applesauce.breast-fed, soy formulas are a good At about 6 months of age, or when Introduce breads. By 8 monthsalternative and are widely available. Do babys weight has doubled, other foods of age, most babies can eatnot use commercial soymilk for infants.can be added to the diet. Pediatricianscrackers, bread, and dry cereal.Babies have special needs and require aoften recommend starting with an iron- Introduce protein-rich foods. Also,soy formula that is developed especially fortified cereal because, at about 4 to 6by about 8 months, infants canfor those needs. months, infants iron stores, which arebegin to eat higher protein foods naturally high at birth, begin tolike tofu or beans that have been decrease. Add one simple new food at a cooked well and mashed. time, at one- to two-week intervals.The following guidelines provide aCHildren And teens flexible plan for adding foods to your Children have a high calorie and babys diet. nutrient need but their stomachs aresmall. Offer your child frequent snacks.Teenagers often have high energyneeds and busy schedules. Keeping Infants do not need any nourishmentother than breast milk or soy formulafor the first six months of life, and theyshould continue to receive breast milkor formula at least throughout their first12 months. Breast-fed infants also needabout two hours a week of sun exposureto make vitamin Da great motivatorfor Mom to get back into a walking 5 to 6 MontHsroutine. Some infants, especially those Introduce iron-fortified infant cereal.who are dark-skinned or who live inTry rice cereal first, mixed with a littlecloudy climates, may not make adequate breast milk or soy formula, since it isamounts of vitamin D. In these cases,the least likely to cause allergies. Then, delicious, healthful snack choices onvitamin D supplements may be offer oat or barley cereals. Mosthand and guiding teens to make lowernecessary. pediatricians recommend holding offfat selections when eating out will help Vegetarian women who are breast-on introducing wheat until the child isto steer them away from dining pitfallsfeeding should also be certain to includeat least 8 months old, as it tends to be that often cause weight gain and healthgood sources of vitamin B12 in their more allergenic. problems for adolescents.diets, as intake can affect levels in breast Caloric needs vary from child tomilk. Foods fortified with cyanocobala-6 to 8 MontHschild. The guidelines at right aremin, the active form of vitamin B12, can Introduce vegetables. They should be general ones.provide adequate amounts of this thoroughly cooked and mashed.nutrient. A multivitamin may also be Potatoes, green beans, carrots, and12 VEGETARIAN STARTER KIT 13. plEfood groupsS Am uS nmEAgES 1 TO 4 YEArS WhOLE GRAINS BrEAKFAST: oatmeal with applesauce, Whole grains include breads, hot andof beans, tofu, or other item (unless an calcium-fortified orange juice cold cereals, pasta, cooked grains such amount is specified).lunCh: Hummus on crackers, banana, as rice and barley, and crackers. Nondairy milks include breast milksoymilk, carrot sticks One serving equals 1/2 cup of pasta,and soy formula for infants and grains, or cooked cereal, 3/4 to 1 cup of toddlers, and rice, soy-, and otherDInnEr: Corn, mashed sweet potatoes, ready-to-eat cereal, 1/2 bun or bagel, or vegetable-based milks for children atsteamed kale, soymilk 1 slice of bread. least 1 year of age. Choose fortifiedSnACKS: Peach, Cheerios, soymilk soymilk, such as Westsoy Plus, VEGETABLESEnriched VitaSoy, or Edensoy,AgES 5 TO 6 YEArS Dark green vegetables include whenever possible, or use otherBrEAKFAST: whole-grain cereal with broccoli, kale, spinach, collards, turnip,fortified vegetable-based milks. mustard and beet greens, bok choy, One serving of nondairy milk equalsbanana and soymilk, orange wedges and Swiss chard.1 cup. lunCh: tofu-salad sandwich, apple Other vegetables refers to all other Nuts include whole or chopped nuts,juice, carrot sticks, oatmeal cookie vegetables, fresh or frozen, raw or nut butters, whole seeds, and seed DInnEr: Baked beans with soy hot cooked. butters. dog pieces, baked potato, spinach, One serving of vegetables equals 1/2 cup One to two servings of nuts may besoymilk, fruit salad cooked or 1 cup raw (unless an amount included in a healthful diet, but they is specified).are optional. One serving of nuts or SnACKS: trail mix, graham crackers, nut butters equals 1 tablespoon. soymilk LEGUMES Legumes include any cooked bean,FRUITAgES 7 TO 12 YEArS such as pinto beans, kidney beans, Fruits include all fruits, fresh or frozen,BrEAKFAST: strawberry-banana lentils, split peas, navy beans, andraw or cooked, and fruit juices. smoothie, toast with almond butter, chickpeas, as well as soy products such One serving equals 1/2 cup cooked fruit,calcium-fortified orange juice as tofu, veggie burgers, soy hot dogs 1/2 cup fruit juice, 1/4 cup dried fruit, or or sandwich slices, and tempeh. 1 piece of fresh fruit (unless an amount lunCh: Main-dish lentil-Vegetable One serving of legumes equals 1/2 cup is specified). soup, green salad, breadDInnEr: steamed broccoli with nutri-tional yeast, steamed carrots, oven fries,daily meal planninglower Calorie Peanut Butter Cookies,soymilk 1- TO 4-Year-OLDs 5- TO 6-Year-OLDs 7 - TO 12-Year-OLDs 13- TO 19-Year-OLDsSnACKS: Popcorn, figs, soy ice cream grAInS WhOlE 4 servings6 servings7 servings10 servingsAgES 13 TO 19 YEArSBrEAKFAST: Bagel with apple butter, 2 to 4 tablespoons/4 cup dark green 1 1 serving dark green1 to 2 servings darkbanana, calcium-fortified orange juiceVEgETABlES dark green vegetables vegetablesvegetablesgreen vegetableslunCh: Bean burrito with lettuce, /4 to 1 2 cup other 1 / /4 to 1 2 cup other 1 / 3 servings other3 servings other vegetablesvegetablesvegetablesvegetables tomato, and guacamole; rice, bakedtortilla chips, and salsa /4 to 1 2 cup 1 / /2 to 1 cup legumes 1 2 servings legumes3 servings legumes DInnEr: Braised broccoli, carrots,lEgumES 3 servings soymilk or 3 servings soymilk or 2 to 3 servingsyellow squash, and mushrooms; spaghetti other nondairy milk other nondairy milk soymilk or otherwith marinara sauce; cucumber salad; nondairy milksoymilkSnACKS: Hummus and baby carrots,FruITS /4 to 1 1 2 cups 3 / 1 to 2 cups 3 servings4 servingsfruit smoothie, luna or Clif Barwww.vegetariantimes.com 13 14. recipesEnchiladas in an InstantServes 6 l Vegan l 30 minutes or fewer The stir-together filling of these healthfulenchiladas gets a fresh flavor boost fromdiced red onion and chopped cilantro.Makes 12 enchiladas. 2 15-oz. cans black beans, drained and rinsedBanana Buckwheat1 cup frozen corn kernelsPancakes/4 cup prepared salsa, divided3/2 cup diced red onion1Serves 6 (makes 18 3-inch pancakes) l Vegan12 8-inch flour tortillas, preferablyEgg replacer keeps these breakfast treatswhole-wheattender without dairy or extra oil.1 hass avocado, peeled and diced2 Tbs. chopped cilantro Black Soybean Tabbouleh2 cups plain soymilk, dividedServes 4 l Vegan l 30 minutes or fewer2 tsp. fresh lemon juice1. Combine, beans, corn, 3 Tbs. salsa1 cup buckwheat flour and onion in large bowl. Season to tasteCanned black soybeans, high in protein1 cup flour with salt and pepper. and fiber, replace the traditional bulgur.11/2 tsp. baking powder 2. Spread about 1/3 cup filling across topCombining them with crunchy, high-/2 tsp. salt1third of each tortilla. Roll up, and setfiber fresh veggies makes a perfect lunch./4 tsp. baking soda1seam-side down on microwavable2 tsp. egg replacer powderplatter. Repeat to assemble remaining 1 15-oz. can black soybeans, rinsed2 Tbs. canola oil enchiladas. and drained1 Tbs. maple syrup, plus more for 3. Spread a thick ribbon of salsa along 2 large plum tomatoes, seeded and servingthe length of each tortilla. Heat inchopped2 bananas, thinly slicedmicrowave on high power 3 to 51 medium-size green bell pepper,minutes, or until hot. Sprinkle withseeded and chopped1. Mix 13/4 cups soymilk with lemon diced avocado and cilantro, and serve.1 packed cup chopped Italianjuice in small bowl. Let stand 5 minutes. PER SERVING: 325 CAL; 12.5 G PROT; 5 G TOTAL parsley leaves2. Combine flours, baking powder, saltFAT (0.5 G SAT. FAT); 61 G CARB; 0 MG CHOL; 933 Juice of 1 lemonand baking soda in medium bowl. MG SOD; 33 G FIBER; 4 G SUGAR 1 tsp. salt3. Whisk egg replacer and remaining 1/4 /8 tsp. cayenne pepper, or to taste1cup soymilk in small bowl. Add to 1 Tbs. extra virgin olive oilsoymilk mixture. Whisk in oil and 1 packed cup mint leaves, cutsyrup.into thin strips4. Stir flour mixture into soymilkmixture. Fold in bananas. 1. Combine soybeans, tomatoes, bell5. Lightly oil griddle, and heat over pepper and parsley in mixing bowl.medium heat. Pour 2 Tbs. batter onto2. In small bowl, whisk lemon juicegriddle for each pancake, and cook 2with salt and cayenne. Mix in oil. Pourminutes, or until batter bubbles andover bean mixture; toss well. Mix inpancakes begin to brown around edges. mint. Let sit 20 minutes so flavors meld.Flip, and cook 2 minutes more. ServeWill keep in refrigerator 24 hours,with maple syrup. tightly covered.PER SERVING: 258 CAL; 8 G PROT; 7 G TOTAL PER SERVING: 180 CAL; 12 G PROT; 5 G TOTALFAT (0.5 G SAT. FAT); 44 G CARB; 0 MG CHOL; FAT (0.5 G SAT. FAT); 20 G CARB; 0 MG CHOL;412 MG SOD; 4 G FIBER; 9 G SUGAR650 MG SOD; 10 G FIBER; 3 G SUGAR 14 VEGETARIAN STARTER KIT 15. Lower Calorie Peanut Butter CookiesMakes about 60 cookies l Vegan 30 minutes or fewer These are very tender cookies, and they break easily, so handle carefully.1 cup creamy, well-stirred peanutMain-Dish butter, preferably all-naturalLentil-Vegetable Soup1 cup apple juice concentrate,thawed and undilutedServes 4 l Vegan Asian Pear Salad with /2 cup sucralose-type sweetener 1 Fennel and PistachiosThis flavorful soup with its protein-rich2 tsp. vanilla extractServes 6 l Vegan l 30 minutes or fewerlentils is substantial enough to enjoy as a1 cup whole-wheat flourmain dish. One note: Even though most11/2 tsp. baking soda To slice an Asian pear into matchsticks, lentils today are picked clean, sort stand it on a cutting board and cut it through them just in case to remove any1. Preheat oven to 350F. Lightly spray into thin slices on each side of the core. debris. To add some greens with no 2 baking sheets with cooking spray, or Lay the slices flat on top of one anotherextra cooking, chop some baby spinach, line with baking parchment, and set and cut into thin strips.and stir it in just before serving. Theaside.heat from the soup will just wilt the2. Mix peanut butter, apple juice, 4 Asian pears, cut into matchsticksspinach. sweetener, and vanilla until blended but(3 cups) not smooth. In second bowl, whisk 1 bunch watercress, trimmed1 Tbs. olive oil together flour and baking soda, and fold(2 cups)1 medium-size yellow onion,into peanut butter mixture. Stir until 1 medium-size fennel bulb, thinly chopped thick. Drop dough by rounded tea-sliced (2 cups) 2 cloves garlic, mincedspoons onto baking sheets, about 2 1 small red bell pepper, diced 2 to 3 carrots, peeled and inches apart. Use fork dipped in flour to(1 cup)cut into 1/4-inch dicemake crisscross marks on top of each 4 green onions, sliced ( /4 cup)11 parsnip, peeled andcookie. /4 cup chopped pistachios 1 cut into 1/4-inch dice3. Bake 12 minutes, or until light 3 Tbs. fresh lime juice1 small celery root, peeled andbrown. Remove from oven; cool on 2 Tbs. vegetable oilcut into 1/4-inch dicesheets.1 /4 cups dried brown lentils, sorted 1 PER COOKIE: 40 CAL; 1 G PROT; 2 G FAT (0 G 1. Combine pears, watercress, fennel, and rinsedSAT. FAT); 5 G CARB; 0 MG CHOL; 50 MG SOD; bell pepper, green onions, and pistachios6 cups low-sodium vegetable broth1 G FIBER; 0G SUGAR in large salad bowl.or water 2. Whisk together lime juice and 1 Tbs. low-sodium tamari vegetable oil in small bowl. Season with minced fresh parsley for garnish salt and pepper. Add dressing to salad, and toss to coat. Adjust seasonings if 1.Heat oil in a 5- to 6-quart pot over necessary, and serve.medium heat. Add onion and garlic. PER SERVING: 127 CAL; 3 G PROT; 7 G TOTALCover, and cook 5 minutes to soften. FAT (1 G SAT. FAT); 16 G CARB; 0 MG CHOL;Add carrots, parsnip, celery root, lentils, 125 MG SOD; 3 G FIBER; 2 G SUGAR broth, tamari, and season with salt andpepper.2. Reduce heat to low. Cover and cook,stirring from time to time, until lentilsand vegetables are tender, 1 to 11/2hours. Taste and adjust seasonings, ifnecessary. Garnish with parsley, andserve. For more recipes, visitPER SERVING: 360 CAL; 19 G PROT; 4.5 G TOTAL vegetariantimes.com.FAT (0.5 G SAT. FAT); 65 G CARB; 0 MG CHOL;450 MG SOD; 19 G FIBER; 12 G SUGAR www.vegetariantimes.com15 16. ThE VEGETARIAN STARTER KIT is published by the Physicians Committee for responsible Medicine and Vegetarian Times magazine. Contact PCrM at 5100 wisconsin Ave., n.w., suite 400, washington, dC 20016, 202-686-2210. PCrM consists of approximately 6,000 physicians and 100,000 lay members. PCrM promotes nutrition, preventive medicine, ethical research practices, and compassionate medical policy.ThE VEGETARIAN STARTER KIT is not intended as individual medical advice. Persons with medical conditions or who are taking medications should discuss any diet and lifestyle changes with their health professional. readers are welcome to reproduce articles from this publication for personal or educational use without additional permission. Material should not be reproduced for resale. PCrM and Vegetarian Times, 2007. Visit PCrMs web site: pcrm.org.note to the reader: this booklet does not take the place of individualized medical care or advice. if you are overweight, have any health problems, or are on medication, you should consult with your doctor before making any changes in your Presented by Vegetarian Times diet or exercise routines. A diet change can alter your need for and the Physicians Committee for medication. For example, individuals with diabetes, high blood Responsible Medicine pressure, or high cholesterol levels often need less medication when they improve their diets. with any dietary change, it is important to ensure complete nutrition. Be sure to include a source of vitamin B12 in your routine, which could include any common multivitamin, fortified soymilk or cereals, or a vitamin B12 supplement of 5 micrograms or more per day.