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  • VE RS

    IO N

    2

  • Published by the Civil Aviation Authority, 2019

    Civil Aviation Authority, Aviation House, Gatwick Airport South, West Sussex, RH6 0YR.

    You can copy and use this text but please ensure you always use the most up to date version and use it in context so as not to be misleading, and credit the CAA.

    First published May 2019, Version 2

    Enquiries regarding the content of this publication should be addressed to: GA@caa.co.uk - please use subject line ‘Skyway Code’.

    The latest version of this document is available in electronic format at www.caa.co.uk/skywaycode.

    For best results when viewing on a tablet, save the Skyway Code to your device. Then download the Adobe Acrobat reader app from the Google Play or Apple App stores and open the Code up with the reader app.

    Graphic design and layout by The Surgery. www.ineedsurgery.com.

    CAA / CAP 1535 / May 2019

    02The Skyway Code / Notes

  • CONTENTS

    Contents 03 Introduction 04 Pre-flight checklist 05 Pilot 06 Aircraft 06 Pre-flight planning 07

    UK FIR – Useful comms info 08 Flight Information Service Regions 09 Lower Airspace Radar Services 10 Frequency monitoring codes 11 UK VOLMET Frequencies 12 Frequency reference cards 12

    Requirements for the PIC 13 Introduction to regulations 14 Essential operating and licensing rules 17 Specialised Operations 22

    Pre-flight preparation 25 Pre-flight information 26 Meteorology 28 The route or area of operation 35 Aerodrome planning 40 Aircraft mass, balance and performance 41 Fuel 48 Flight plans 49

    Airspace 50 Essential Rules of the Air 51 Visual and instrument flight rules 57 Airspace classifications 61 Airspace hazards and restrictions 62 Air Traffic services outside of controlled airspace 71 Controlled airspace operations 76 Transponder use 81 Altimeter setting procedures 82

    Aerodrome operations 84 Aerodrome communications 85 Arrival and departure procedures 89 Visual communications and signage 102 Marshalling signals 108

    GA risks 114 Pilot fitness 115 Pilot competence 117 Decision making 119 Staying in control 122 Avoiding the ground 123 Avoiding collisions 124

    Emergencies 128 General principles 129 Mayday or Pan call format 129 Distress and Diversion Cell (D&D) 130 Lost 132 Loss of communications 132 Electrical failure 132 Engine failure 134 Fire 135 Ditching 135 Incident and accident reporting 136 Interception procedures 140

    Tables and codes 145 Crosswind component 146 Distance, weight and volume 147 Weather abbreviations 147 Morse code 150

    International flight 152 Foreign regulations and requirements 153 Safety equipment and considerations 154 Flight plans 154 Documents 157 Customs, immigration and police 158 Non-ICAO compliant aircraft or pilot licenses 159

    Finding out more 160 Airspace 161 Safety 162 Regulatory 163

    CAA / CAP 1535 / May 2019

    03The Skyway Code / Contents

  • INTRODUCTION

    For corrections or updates to content see www.caa.co.uk/skywaycode

    i

    KEEP UP TO DATE

    The Skyway Code is intended to provide General Aviation pilots involved in non-commercial and flight training operations with practical guidance on the operational, safety and regulatory issues relevant to their flying. Pilots of all aircraft categories, powered or unpowered, should find it useful.

    Its primary focus is:

    £ All users of uncontrolled airspace and aerodromes will find it relevant.

    £ It is oriented towards Visual Flight Rules (VFR) flight. It does not include comprehensive information on Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) flying.

    £ While elements of flight crew licensing and airworthiness requirements may be included where relevant, the detail of these subjects is not covered.

    £ The Code is a living publication that will be reviewed at least annually to ensure it reflects the latest regulatory requirements and best aviation practice.

    SAFE AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS

    SAFE USE OF AIRSPACE

    Readers should note the Code is guidance only and not a definitive statement of the law. For this readers should see the underlying regulations, which are referred to in section 11 (Finding out more p.160).

    CAA / CAP 1535 / May 2019

    04The Skyway Code / Introduction

  • 01.

    PRE-FLIGHT CHECKLIST

    06 Pilot >

    06 Aircraft >

    07 Pre-flight planning >

    Including:

    05

    CAA / CAP 1535 / May 2019

    The Skyway Code / Pre-flight checklist

  • PRE-FLIGHT CHECKLIST

    This is designed to act as a quick reference that supplements the more detailed information provided later in the publication. It should cover most basic pre-flight items, although you are encouraged to adapt it to suit your own needs.

    £ Licence and rating are appropriate, valid and carried.

    £ Medical certificate or declaration valid and carried.

    £ 90 day rule completed (if carrying passengers).

    £ Current to fly under rules for club or group.

    £ Fit to fly the aircraft and in satisfactory physical and mental state.

    £ Passengers briefed.

    £ Airworthy condition.

    £ Certificate of Airworthiness or Permit to Fly valid, supported by a valid Airworthiness Review Certificate or Certificate of Validity.

    £ Equipment (including survival) appropriate and operative.

    £ Fuel and oil adequate for the flight and any foreseeable diversion.

    £ Mass, balance and performance within limits for aircraft and aerodromes.

    £ Documents required onboard.

    £ Insurance valid.

    £ Pre-flight inspection complete.

    PILOT

    AIRCRAFT

    CAA / CAP 1535 / May 2019

    The Skyway Code / Pre-flight checklist 06

  • £ NOTAMs checked for route, destination and alternate aerodromes.

    £ Weather conditions checked and suitable.

    £ Charts current and reviewed.

    £ GPS map current and route programmed.

    £ Destination and alternate aerodromes planned and adequate.

    £ Prior Permission obtained for aerodromes (if applicable).

    £ Border Force and/or Special Branch notified (if applicable).

    £ Overnight weather checked for high winds, frost or snow (if aircraft to be left outside).

    £ Flight plan filed (required for international flight).

    PRE-FLIGHT PLANNING

    Chart updates, AIP, AICs and NOTAMs are available at www.ais.org.uk

    Download the SkyWise App for the latest regulatory news and alerts skywise.caa.co.uk

    PRE-FLIGHT CHECKLIST

    Have you assessed the risks of the flight? Use the PAVE checklist.

    !

    Pilot, Aircraft, enVironment, External pressures – see p.119 for more details.

    UK Airspace restrictions are available on 08085 354802

    CAA / CAP 1535 / May 2019

    The Skyway Code / Pre-flight checklist 07

  • UK FIR – USEFUL COMMS INFO

    i

    02.

    09 Flight Information Service Regions >

    10 Lower Airspace Radar Services >

    11 Frequency monitoring codes >

    12 UK VOLMET Frequencies >

    12 Frequency Reference Cards >

    Including:

    CAA / CAP 1535 / May 2019

    08The Skyway Code / UK FIR – Useful Information

  • NORWAY FIR ENOR

    N

    SHANWICK OCEANIC FIR

    EGGX

    SHANWICK OCEANIC FIR

    EGGX

    SHANNON FIR EIRN

    BREST FIR LRRR

    PARIS FIR LFFF

    LONDON FIR EGTT BRUSSELS FIR

    EBBU

    AM ST

    ER DA

    M F

    IR

    EH A

    A

    133.675

    134.850

    134.775

    121.325

    125.475

    124.600

    124.750

    134.200 125.700

    119.875 124.500

    119.875 124.500

    119.875 127.275

    119.875 123.775

    127.275

    LONDON Information

    SCOTTISH Control/Information

    UK FIR – USEFUL COMMS INFO

    Flight Information Service Regions London and Scottish Information are able to provide a ‘Basic Service’ to all aircraft in the UK FIR. Subject to capacity, other services such as opening flight plans or weather information are also available. For more details of air traffic services outside controlled airspace, see p.71.

    London FIS – all frequencies H24, SFC-FL195 Scottish FIS – all frequencies H24, SFC-FL245 except 119.875 available 0800-2000 local time SFC-FL55

    The following pages give a selection of communications information taken from the UK AIP that you may find useful during your flying. Full details can be found in the ENR section of the AIP at www.ais.org.uk. Follow links to ‘UK AIP’ and then ‘ENR Index’.

    CAA / CAP 1535 / May 2019

    The Skyway Code / UK FIR – Useful comms info 09

  • LOSSIEMOUTH* 119.575

    LEUCHARS 126.500

    NEWCASTLE 124.380

    DURHAM TEES VALLEY 118.850

    LEEMING* 133.375

    LINTON-ON-OUSE* 118.550

    WARTON* 129.530

    VALLEY* 125.225

    SHAWBURY* 133.150

    HUMBERSIDE 119.130

    WADDINGTON 119.500

    CONINGSBY* 119.200

    MARHAM* 124.150

    BRIZE NORTON 124.275

    CARDIFF 119.150

    EXETER 128.975 BOURNEMOUTH

    119.475NEWQUAY 133.405

    CULDROSE* 134.050

    PLYMOUTH MILITARY WEST*

    121.250

    PLYMOUTH MILITARY EAST*

    124.150

    YEOVILTO

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