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visual flight rules guide

V E R S I O N 4 M AY 2 0 1 0

CASA Aviation Safety Promotion Tel 131 757 The Visual Flight Rules Guide aims to help VFR pilots fly safely anywhere in Australia. The information contained in the Guide has been carefully collected and presented in an easy to understand and use format. The information contained in this guide is correct at the time of upload to the internet but is subject to change without notice. Pilots should refer regularly to the CASA website for the latest edition. Plan your route thoroughly, and carry current charts and documents. Always check ERSA, NOTAMs, and the weather, BEFORE you fly.

pilot recency checkMedical CertificateDue:


Flight ReviewDue:

TO CARRY PASSENGERS3 Take-offs and Landings in past 90 daysDue:

NIGHT VFR1 Flight of 1 Hour Duration in 12 Mths.Due:

1 Take-off and Landing in 6 MonthsDue:

3 Take-offs and Landings at Night in past 90 daysDue: (TO CARRY PASSENGERS)


pilot recency checkCURRENTMedical? YES 5 page number NO Do not fly solo

Flight review? YES 8


Complete before flying in command

Maps and charts? 118 YES


Obtain before flight planning

Weather forecast and NOTAM 95 89,123 YES


Obtain forecast Website www.airservicesaustralia.com Briefing 1800 805 150 Helpdesk 1800 801 960


FLIGHT PLAN 88,91 214 hoose suitable C route and complete calculations Appropriate height 115 Lastlight 98 eightandbalance W calculations 98 Take-off and landing performance. 152 Survivalequipment.

A 76,121 voidingControlled Airspace 104,107 Flight fuel

Check CTA and restricted area boundaries.

pilot recency checkSARTIME flight or CTA YESSubmit SARTIME notification if Class G Submit Domestic/ICAO notification if in CTA/CTR



Leave flight note with a responsible person THEN


Fax 1800 805 150 Briefing 1800 805 150 Helpdesk 1800 801 960 RadiotoATSonappropriatefrequency


CHECK AIRCRAFT AND PERSONAL DOCUMENTS RequiredDocuments RequiredDocuments Pilots licence Medical Aircraft flight manual Aircraft maintenance release



PLAN FOR CONTINGENCIES Deterioratingweather Radiofailure Diversions YES


epartureprocedures D (eg. Clearance not available, remain OCTA)

AIRCRAFT PRE-FLIGHT INSPECTION ailyinspectionor D pre-flight inspection as per ACFT system of maintenance or pilot operating handbook.


Maintenancereleasesigned UEL:Checkforcorrectgrade, F quantity,andcontamination.


safety promotion productsPlease refer to the CASA online store for all the latest product materials available.


contentssection 1 generalINTRODUCTION THE RULES STRUCTURE LICENSING Medical Certificate Student Pilot Licence (SPL) Private Pilot Licence (PPL) PILOT RESPONSIBILITIES Pilot in Command Classification of Operations Carriage of Persons Documents to be Carried Carriage of Animals Firearms Refuelling Engine Ground Operation Seating Pre-Takeoff In-Flight Accidents and Incidents RADIO TELEPHONY PROCEDURES General Words and Phrases Sartime and Sarwatch General Phrases Frequency Management Traffic Information Meteorological Information Clearances Approach and Area Control Services Vicinity of the Aerodrome 2 3 5 5 6 7 9 9 11 12 14 15 16 16 21 24 25 27 31 34 34 35 42 43 45 46 47 48 50 51 Starting and Initial Clearance Taxi Procedures Aerodrome Movements After Take-Off Arrival at Aerodrome Phraseologies ATS Surveillance System Communication ATS Surveillance System Manoeuvres Speed Control Traffic Information Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) Call Signs CONvERSIONS Conversions Navigation Conversions Mass and Volume RULES FOR PREvENTION OF COLLISION Overtaking (CAR 160) Right of Way (CAR 161) See and Avoid (CAR 163A) AIRCRAFT EQUIPMENT Day VFR Equipment Night VFR Equipment RULES OF THE AIR VFR Navigation Formation Flying Aircraft Speeds Regulation of Flight Aerodromes 52 53 55 57 58 60 61 62 63 63 64 65 67 67 68 69 69 69 72 72 72 73 74 74 77 78 78 79



contentssection 1 generalAERODROME MARKINGS Light and Ground Signals Displaced Threshold 82 82 83 RADAR TRANSPONDERS Primary and Secondary Radar Transponder Operation 85 85 86

section 2 pre-flight planningPREPARATION 88 FLIGHTS OvER WATER Pre-Flight Safety Equipment 151 151 152 Pre-flight Information 88 Responsibilities of Pilot 90 Alternate Due to Weather 91 Alternate Due to Facilities 94 Notice to Airmen 95 Take-off and Landing Aircraft 98 Declared Density Chart 100 Airframe Icing 103 Carburettor Icing 103 Fuel Requirements 104 Fuel Planning 105 Time 108 Daylight and Darkness 110 Charts 118 Prohibited, Restricted and Danger Areas 121 METEOROLOGY Services Forecasts Area Forecasts Aerodrome Forecasts (TAF) Aerodrome Forecasts and Reports Trend Forecast (TTF) Windshear Warnings Meteorological Reports Meteorological Advices AIREP 121 121 123 127 128 130 139 141 141 144 150

DESIGNATED REMOTE AREAS 154 Maps SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Passengers Pre-Flight Daily Inspection ELT 154 157 157 158 161 163

BRIEFING AND NOTIFICATION 165 Notification General Briefing Services NAIPS Internet Briefings AVFAX DECTALK Domestic Flight Notification Form Flight Note FLIGHT INFORMATION SERvICE In-flight Information 165 168 169 188 189 190 190 200 202 202

contentssection 3 operationsGENERAL INFORMATION Classes of Airspace Pre-flight Altimeter Check Altimeter Setting Rules Visual Flight Rules VMC ATS Surveillance Service T-VASIS PAPI COMMUNICATIONS Communications Class G airspace VFR Operations NON-TOWERED AERODROMES General Circuit Procedures Arrival and Departures Radio Unserviceability Night Circuits Traffic Mix Radio Broadcasts Hazards Sarwatch and Sartime CRUISING CLASS G Prohibited, Restricted, and Danger Areas Selection of Levels Radio Requirements Navigation Position Fixing 212 212 213 214 216 218 224 228 229 230 230 235 237 237 239 242 247 248 248 251 254 258 260 260 262 263 264 CONTROLLED AIRSPACE Controlled Airspace General Clearances Separation in Controlled Airspace Enroute Taxi Take-off After Take-off Arrival Holding Landing CLASS D AIRSPACE General Pilot Responsibilities Outbound CLASS E AIRSPACE 268 268 269 273 276 279 282 285 287 290 291 296 296 300 305 308


Services Radar Information 308 AERIAL SPORTING AND RECREATIONAL ACTIvITIES Gliding Parachuting Operations Ballooning AIR DEFENCE IDENTIFICATION ZONE General Defence Zone Visual Signals 312 312 315 318 321 321 325


contentssection 3 operations (continued)NIGHT vFR Checklist General Radio Navigation Systems Lowest Safe Altitude 328 328 330 334 335 Aircraft Equipment for Night VFR Flight Alternates CAAP 5.13 343 348 352

section 4 helicopter operationsHELICOPTER Flight Reviews Private Helicopter Pilot Recent Experience Requirements (CAR 5.92) Hot Refuelling Instruments Required for Private VFR Operations (CAO 20.18) 354 354 355 356 357 Special VFR Alternate Requirements (Helicopters) VMC: Non-controlled Airspace Aerodromes Low Flying (CAR 157) Over Water Flights 357 358 359 360 365 367

section 5 emergency proceduresGENERAL Planning DISTRESS BEACONS Overview Operations ELTs Activation Registration Testing 370 370 373 373 374 376 377 378 379 Emergency Activation Signals FORCED LANDINGS Initial Action Hints RADIO FAILURE Procedures MERCY FLIGHTS General 380 382 384 384 385 390 390 395 395



section 1 general


introductionThis VFR Flight Guide (VFG) has been designed primarily for VFR pilots in domestic operations. Material relating to commercial operations has therefore been omitted unless it contributes to the understanding of a particular topic. For ease of understanding, the wording has been modified considerably from that of the source documents. Since the precise wording of a regulation may be required by some readers, appropriate references to the source documents have been provided throughout the text where appropriate. A section is included for helicopter pilots that explains differences between fixed wing and rotary wing operations. A Night Visual Flight Rules (NVFR) section is also included for appropriately rated pilots. This version of the guide incorporates changes resulting from GAAP to Class D towers, and changes at non-towered aerodromes relating to radio and operational procedures.



the rules structure

the rules structureThe following is the structure of the various rules, regulations and guidance material.Civil Aviation Act


Civil Aviation Regulations CAR 1998

Civil Aviation Safety Regulations CASR 1998

Civil Aviation Orders Civil Aviation Advisory Publications (CAAP) Airworthiness Advisory Circulars (AAC)

Manual of Standards (MoS) Advisory Circulars (AC) Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC) Guidance Material (GM) Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP) Enroute Supplement Australia (ERSA) Departure and Approach Procedures (DAP) AIP Supplements (SUPS) Notices to Airmen (NOTAM) Aeronautical Information Circulars (AICs) Terminal Area Charts (TAC) Enroute Charts (ERC) High and Low Planning Chart Australia (PCA) Visual Navigation Charts (VNC) Visual Terminal Charts (VTC) Designated Airspace Handbook (DAH) Runway Distance Supplement (RDS) World Aeronautical Charts (WAC)

The Civil Aviation Act is the act which established the Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) with functions relating to civil aviation, in particular the safety of civil aviation. The Civil Aviation Regulations 1988 (CARs) are the regulati


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