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  • 10/17/2014 Coca-Cola - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 1/9


    Type Cola

    Manufacturer The Coca-Cola Company

    Country oforigin

    United States

    Introduced 1886

    Color Caramel E-150d

    Flavor Cola, Cola Cherry, Cola Vanilla,Cola Green Tea, Cola Lemon, ColaLemon Lime, Cola Lime, ColaOrange and Cola Raspberry.

    Variants See Brand portfolio section below


    PepsiPostobnRC ColaCola TurkaKola RealInca KolaZam Zam ColaMecca-ColaVirgin ColaParsi ColaQibla ColaEvoca ColaCorsica ColaBreizh ColaAfri Cola


    Coca-ColaFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Coca-Cola is a carbonated soft drink sold in stores,restaurants, and vending machines throughout theworld.[1] It is produced by The Coca-Cola Companyof Atlanta, Georgia, and is often referred to simply asCoke (a registered trademark of The Coca-ColaCompany in the United States since March 27, 1944).Originally intended as a patent medicine when it wasinvented in the late 19th century by John Pemberton,Coca-Cola was bought out by businessman AsaGriggs Candler, whose marketing tactics led Coke toits dominance of the world soft-drink marketthroughout the 20th century.

    The company produces concentrate, which is thensold to licensed Coca-Cola bottlers throughout theworld. The bottlers, who hold territorially exclusivecontracts with the company, produce finished productin cans and bottles from the concentrate incombination with filtered water and sweeteners. Thebottlers then sell, distribute and merchandise Coca-Cola to retail stores and vending machines. The Coca-Cola Company also sells concentrate for sodafountains to major restaurants and food servicedistributors.

    The Coca-Cola Company has, on occasion, introducedother cola drinks under the Coke brand name. Themost common of these is Diet Coke, with othersincluding Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola, Diet CokeCaffeine-Free, Coca-Cola Cherry, Coca-Cola Zero,Coca-Cola Vanilla, and special versions with lemon,lime or coffee. In 2013, Coke products could be foundin over 200 countries worldwide, with consumersdowning more than 1.8 billion company beverageservings each day.[2]

    Based on Interbrand's best global brand study of 2011,Coca-Cola was the world's most valuable brand.[3]


    1 History1.1 19th century historical origins

    1.1.1 The Coca-Cola Company

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    John Pemberton, the inventor ofCoca-Cola

    1.2 Origins of bottling1.3 20th century1.4 New Coke1.5 21st century

    2 Production2.1 Ingredients2.2 Formula of natural flavorings2.3 Use of stimulants in formula

    2.3.1 Coca cocaine2.3.2 Kola nuts caffeine

    2.4 Franchised production model3 Geographic spread4 Brand portfolio

    4.1 Logo design4.2 Contour bottle design4.3 Types4.4 Designer bottles

    5 Competitors6 Advertising

    6.1 Holiday campaigns6.2 Sports sponsorship6.3 In mass media

    7 Criticism7.1 Health effects7.2 Allergy

    8 Use as political and corporate symbol9 Social causes10 See also11 References12 Further reading

    12.1 Primary sources13 External links


    19th century historical origins

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    Eagle Drug and Chemical House,Columbus, Georgia

    Believed to be the first coupon ever,this ticket for a free glass of Coca-Cola was first distributed in 1888 tohelp promote the drink. By 1913, thecompany had redeemed 8.5 milliontickets.[4]

    This Coca-Cola advertisement from1943 is still displayed in the smallcity of Minden, Louisiana.

    Colonel John Pemberton was wounded in the Civil War, became addicted to morphine, and began aquest to find a substitute for the dangerous opiate.[5] The prototype Coca-Cola recipe was formulated atPemberton's Eagle Drug and Chemical House,[6] a drugstore inColumbus, Georgia, originally as a coca wine.[7][8] He may havebeen inspired by the formidable success of Vin Mariani, aEuropean coca wine.[9]

    In 1885, Pemberton registered his French Wine Coca nervetonic.[10] In 1886, when Atlanta and Fulton County passedprohibition legislation, Pemberton responded by developingCoca-Cola, essentially a nonalcoholic version of French WineCoca.[11] The first sales were at Jacob's Pharmacy in Atlanta,Georgia, on May 8, 1886.[12] It was initially sold as a patentmedicine for five cents[13] a glass at soda fountains, which werepopular in the United States at the time due to the belief thatcarbonated water was good for the health.[14] Pemberton claimedCoca-Cola cured many diseases, including morphine addiction,dyspepsia, neurasthenia, headache, and impotence. Pembertonran the first advertisement for the beverage on May 29 of thesame year in the Atlanta Journal.[15]

    By 1888, three versions of Coca-Cola sold by three separatebusinesses were on the market. A copartnership had beenformed on January 14, 1888 between Pemberton and four Atlantabusinessmen: J.C. Mayfield, A.O. Murphey; C.O. Mullahy andE.H. Bloodworth. Not codified by any signed document, a verbalstatement given by Asa Candler years later asserted undertestimony that he had acquired a stake in Pemberton's companyas early as 1887.[16] John Pemberton declared that the name"Coca-Cola" belonged to his son, Charley, but the other twomanufacturers could continue to use the formula.[17]

    Charley Pemberton's record of control over the "Coca-Cola"name was the underlying factor that allowed for him toparticipate as a major shareholder in the March 1888 Coca-ColaCompany incorporation filing made in his father's place.[18]Charley's exclusive control over the "Coca Cola" name became acontinual thorn in Asa Candler's side. Candler's oldest son,Charles Howard Candler, authored a book in 1950 published byEmory University. In this definitive biography about his father,Candler specifically states: "..., on April 14, 1888, the youngdruggist [Asa Griggs Candler] purchased a one-third interest in the formula of an almost completelyunknown proprietary elixir known as Coca-Cola."[19]

    The deal was actually between John Pemberton's son Charley and Walker, Candler & Co. with JohnPemberton acting as cosigner for his son. For $50 down and $500 in 30 days, Walker, Candler & Co.obtained all of the one-third interest in the Coca-Cola Company that Charley held, all while Charley stillheld on to the name. After the April 14 deal, on April 17, 1888, one-half of the Walker/Dozier interestshares were acquired by Candler for an additional $750.[20]

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    Old German Coca-Cola bottle opener.

    The Coca-Cola Company

    In 1892, Candler set out to incorporate a second company; "The Coca-Cola Company" (the currentcorporation). When Candler had the earliest records of the "Coca-Cola Company" burned in 1910, theaction was claimed to have been made during a move to newcorporation offices around this time.[21]

    After Candler had gained a better foothold on Coca-Cola in April1888, he nevertheless was forced to sell the beverage heproduced with the recipe he had under the names "Yum Yum"and "Koke". This was while Charley Pemberton was selling theelixir, although a cruder mixture, under the name "Coca-Cola",all with his father's blessing. After both names failed to catch onfor Candler, by the summer of 1888, the Atlanta pharmacist wasquite anxious to establish a firmer legal claim to Coca-Cola, andhoped he could force his two competitors, Walker and Dozier,completely out of the business, as well.[22]

    When Dr. John Stith Pemberton suddenly died on August 16, 1888, Asa G. Candler now sought to moveswiftly forward to attain his vision of taking full control of the whole Coca-Cola operation.

    Charley Pemberton, an alcoholic, was the one obstacle who unnerved Asa Candler more than anyoneelse. Candler is said to have quickly maneuvered to purchase the exclusive rights to the name "Coca-Cola" from Pemberton's son Charley right after Dr. Pemberton's death. One of several stories was thatCandler bought the title to the name from Charley's mother for $300; approaching her at Dr. Pemberton'sfuneral. Eventually, Charley Pemberton was found on June 23, 1894, unconscious, with a stick of opiumby his side. Ten days later, Charley died at Atlanta's Grady Hospital at the age of 40.[23]

    In Charles Howard Candler's 1950 book about his father, he stated: "On August 30th [1888], he [AsaCandler] became sole proprietor of Coca-Cola, a fact which was stated on letterheads, invoice blanksand advertising copy."[24]

    With this action on August 30, 1888, Candler's sole control became technically all true. Candler hadnegotiated with Margaret Dozier and her brother Woolfolk Walker a full payment amounting to $1,000,which all agreed Candler could pay off with a series of notes over a specified time span. By May 1,1889, Candler was now claiming full ownership of the Coca-Cola beverage, with a total investmentoutlay by Candler for the drink enterprise over the years amounting to $2,300.[25]

    In 1914, Margaret Dozier, as co-owner of the original Coca-Cola Company in 1888, came forward toclaim that her signature on the 1888 Coca-Cola Company bill of sale had been forged. Subsequentanalysis of certain similar transfer documents had also indicated John Pemberton's signature was mostlikely a forgery, as well, which some accounts claim was precipitated by his son Charley.[26]

    Origins of bottling

    The first bottling of Coca-Cola occurred in Vicksburg, Mississippi, at the Biedenharn Candy Companyin 1891. The proprietor of the bottling works was Joseph A. Biedenharn.