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Page 1 Victor Kiernan Languages and conquerors * Wandering the vast areas and long small, scattered communities in the creation of human languages proved to be extremely talented. In the early days is probably one of the main activity can keep your thoughts Casting new words and new ways of fiction as any other practical question of intellectual energy consumed. I would even venture to say that only freed up enough energy civilization create, when we have so many people gathered in a particular place - such as the Nile Valley - not to They needed to create other languages. Spoken by thousands of people in many different languages has disappeared, or - As to forests - is dying. SK Chatterjinek appeared half a century ago to what greatly expanded Bengali - The easternmost Indo-European or Aryan - ancient language at the expense of neighboring languages . 174 Quarter of a century has apparent that about twenty, mostly southern Siberian Turkish dialect is in retreat in Russia the spread . 175 Strangely enough, all the historians have generally little attention has been paid to the people they researched speech testing, despite the fact that the fate of human language was the most powerful shaper of war and conquest. If two factor due to violence are intimately connected, to some extent will always interact. The subject many areas depends on whether control is done from the outside - due to a tax recovery - or invade the purpose of colonization. In the latter case invading or displacing the old language, such as Ireland, the English, or vacate the place, as in the case of the French Normandy Vikings receiving, or after a very long exposure nyelvvé new blend. The latter, at least in historical eras, it was rare; by far the most cases the Norman Conquest as a result of the English language. Much less clear in the language neopun example, which the Carthaginian result of mixing a Semitic language of the indigenous population of North Africa very quickly, even before the Roman conquest transformed. Typically, however, in the "official purposes and in religious rites is still adhered to the old forms " . 176 The letelepüléssel, colonization opposite process occurs when a nation or a part of a

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Page 1: Victor Kiernan - traduzido do húngaro para o inglês.pdf

Page 1

Victor Kiernan

Languages and conquerors *

Wandering the vast areas and long small, scattered communities in the creation of

human languages

proved to be extremely talented. In the early days is probably one of the main activity

can keep your thoughts

Casting new words and new ways of fiction as any other practical question of


energy consumed. I would even venture to say that only freed up enough energy


create, when we have so many people gathered in a particular place - such as the Nile

Valley - not to

They needed to create other languages. Spoken by thousands of people in many

different languages has disappeared, or -

As to forests - is dying. SK Chatterjinek appeared half a century ago to what greatly



- The easternmost Indo-European or Aryan - ancient language at the expense of

neighboring languages .


Quarter of a century has

apparent that about twenty, mostly southern Siberian Turkish dialect is in retreat in


the spread .


Strangely enough, all the historians have generally little attention has been paid to the

people they researched speech

testing, despite the fact that the fate of human language was the most powerful shaper of

war and conquest. If two

factor due to violence are intimately connected, to some extent will always interact. The


many areas depends on whether control is done from the outside - due to a tax recovery

- or invade

the purpose of colonization. In the latter case invading or displacing the old language,

such as Ireland, the English,

or vacate the place, as in the case of the French Normandy Vikings receiving, or after a

very long exposure

nyelvvé new blend. The latter, at least in historical eras, it was rare; by far the most

cases the

Norman Conquest as a result of the English language. Much less clear in the language

neopun example, which the Carthaginian

result of mixing a Semitic language of the indigenous population of North Africa very

quickly, even before the Roman conquest

transformed. Typically, however, in the "official purposes and in religious rites is still

adhered to the old

forms " .


The letelepüléssel, colonization opposite process occurs when a nation or a part of a

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conquering force displaces the place, and anywhere else installed. This was used by the

Babylonians, the Assyrians, and the New World of

Incas, who recalcitrant villagers systematically evacuated, place and other immense


corners have been manageable, see below .


This facilitated the assimilation and all your official

spread Quechua language, which would hardly have spread to such an extent in the

realm of very brief existence

away. The Mongol rulers of the city occupied their capitals had her body moved from

the craftsmen, architects,

artists who bizonyulhattak useful there. However, the Central Asian cities such as

Samarkand, the

risk of looting and carnage sight many refugees to India by the Muslim invaders had


Delhi Sultanate founded fastened. The Roman enlistment different provinces scattered

soldiers who shared

Pidgin language as a form of Latin used. In the 18th century, Asian and European

armies and armies of the camp attendants always

They were cosmopolitan in nature. A successful military - such as Timur Lenk -

avalanche while driving

increased. Fortune, there were a mass of almost everywhere.

Countless people were dragged through the Roman Empire, the Muslim world and

especially in the 16th and 19th

century between the Atlantic Ocean to dispose of them as slaves. Angola as a

Portuguese colony was mainly

been valuable because it was a source of labor in Brazil. The language of such effects

even in extreme cases, even

were only one-way. The Spanish language is changed after crossing the ocean .


Towards the end of the colonial age

According to the rumor, "the Carolina Urine was spoken of as the Negroes. This seems

to be the origin of southern accents ";

a similar phenomenon was also observed in Jamaica .


The enslavement of course, much stronger effects taszítottakat value. Throughout

history, many ethnic groups

digestion of up and broke apart countless individuals, cultures and hanyatlottak

nyelveikkel down together.

Human eternal destiny of this instability can be sustained in the absence of human

mental balance is

inferred. The colonial relations - such as the French in Algeria - the colloquial Arabic

and the low level

resulted in a mixture of French spoken confused, which will certainly be held liable for

some of the opinion that the

összezavarásáért consciousness operating patterns. Thinking is easy to lose orientation

in all parts of the Colonist

points, and primitive, almost infantile nature easily amaze the outside observer .


Women are good reasons to qualify colonisée has, or at least a large part of the history

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belonged to the lower strata of society: it is very likely that they formed the first

working class. Usually the

deported them as part of spoils of war; even if it is not reached such a fate, even the men

of physical strength -

disguised by the superior wisdom of philosophers and preachers - were victims.


kizáratásuk was probably influenced by the men lived in public life, although they

usually left few records

maintained. The Athenian women were a couple in their own words; These part -

presumably - a former folk group inherited

while another part might have been developed to keep hidden meanings before his ears.

The Zulus polygamy

lived on society, a community-based conquests under which men and cattle from the

taking of

virtue. A big ranch is certainly different dialects exist, which result in women's speech

not only a new version of mixed represented. "The King králjában sometimes difficult

to understand the king's wives" -

Page 2

we read .


Africa and elsewhere

- For example, in New Guinea - the farm was often an economic unit and is the resting

place of the owner; in from here and there

collected wives had to find ways to coordinate their tasks.

If two people are in contact due to violence, language társadalomszerkezetük outcome,

especially in the authoritarian

position in the group, as well as marriage and family patterns determined. The result of

the mutual

complete separation - such as India, towards the end of British rule, and South Africa -

and the mixed marriages

any point on the scale between perfect mixing arising possible. Africa and Asia in a


continuous migration direction can be observed; Central Asia also, combined with one

from east to west

movement. Rarely hiked a whole people, rather it was a little girl traveling belligerent

troops who have everything

have been taken to another site on the go or settling women acquire. Too often willingly

accept the view that such language when the settlers merge because - Basil Davidson's

words -

"Mothers determined how the children talk about." Caution should also beckons on this


However, it is mentioned as an example the case when the 19th century, the Fulani

captured the northern Nigeria

Hauszaföldet and then took over the Hausa language .


On the other hand, the Zulu and other Bantu languages occurring, but

Away from those clicking sounds only come from through the hottentottáktól and

busmanoktól, the women seized from them.

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The polygamy you can multiply the number of "men's language" speakers if they are to

preserve their identity

some - such as religious - motivated. The medieval Muslim societies, the Europeans

Contrary little distinction was made between the wives and offspring of the bed, and

especially because of the

newly acquired areas - such as India Muslim regions of the early days - quickly had

their numbers increased.

In all long-term foreign occupation is relatively complex, but the "natural" level of

society have not yet reached

are more likely to penetrate receipt for language. Learning the many options open,

especially before the scribes. The first conquerors of the - go within the top layers -

mostly urban

place to change, especially when an alluring new culture associated with the language.

A new religion is widely exercised

attractive effect and time available each class. Islam has benefited exceptionally from

the fact that the first Muslim

sacred language of the conquerors, the heaven was adjusted ipsissima Verba

intermediary language. Value of this magic was linked

words; a number of these talismans carved up the wearer could read it or not. Islam

rarely hijacked

violence rarely preached about unbelievers; this religion was able to wait until their own

initiative turned.

It may be particularly interesting in the Middle East - that is, the western part of Asia -

where three continents, and the nearer

countries met in the far south and east. The cradle of ancient civilizations shows that

wild cavalcade of languages, which

faithfully depicts the Tower of Babel myth. Egypt was Hamitic. Various parts of Asia

Minor, the Hittites and other

Indo-European speaking peoples - who, as it emerged in recent times, Anatolia was not

in the starting area k



then invaded by the Persians. The origins of the southern Mesopotamian Sumerian

origin unknown. The rest of the Semitic languages

language was part of the family, whose members are to each other Indo-European

languages, it is much closer, and the first recorded

changed much less since it was launched ,


as related to their cultures or societies to which.

As far as can be traced, most of the time in the Middle East was Semitic. According to

Roux, could not come all the Semitic

speaking people in a semi-desert Arabian Peninsula ,


However, less barren regions of Arabia and North

edge formed the "great Semitic collection point" ,


where a, mostly small, but occasionally flood of

swelling permanent migration is likely. The majority of the Middle East is certainly


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mostly short-dominated locomotion, resulting in a semi-nomads and semi-nomads into


szántóvetőkké then normal, in the countryside have become városlakókká. Each

transformation more or less social

or is associated with ethnic friction; In addition, "the nomads yearly, after the summer

harvest, seasonal, pasture

mass migrations to temporarily become letelepüléssé or armed attack on " .


The hunger for land and the people as a result of natural movements in the Middle East

and the surrounding countryside is not just another

In addition to live, but to each other by riding nations were also cavalcade. Greece - it

seems - even the Doric invaders

centuries distinguished themselves in the conquered natives; the Hittites probably also a


formed a minority .


The second half of the second millennium BC, there was a Hittite Empire. Formed in

this region as a whole

it is the stage where the world's first empires were born; it seems as if the civilizations

and empires of the same

aspect of two things would have competed with each other to rise. The 15th century BC

by the Egyptian Amenhotep

northern Palestine and southern Syria mass deportation of residents boasted (no doubt

somewhat exaggerated, which

likewise observed in humans halászainál than simple angling only); According to data

of nearly 100,000

person was involved .


The Sumerian areas ultimately absorbed by the Semitic Mesopotamia; became the first

living north akkádoké

the leading role, and the succession of Babylonian and Assyrian hadijelvényei warlords


Canaan, or Palestine - a narrow passage between the northern boundary of Arabia and

the Mediterranean Sea - always multilingual, but

basically Semitic-speaking population possessed. The later arrivals are here and Syria in


were the most important. Canaan quickly ousted language precursor and relatives in

Hebrew; the latter fate -

it seems - the ancient imperialism memorable episodes, after the fall of Jerusalem, 586

BC, the Babylonian captivity

sealed. From then on, a part of Judea was pushed back quickly in Hebrew and Aramaic

in the field of

opposite; The spoken language had disappeared long before the birth of Christ. Time,

however, brought back the bustle of the Hebrew

grave, and today only the Aramaic used in some corner of Syria and Iraq. In another

area, marshy southern Iraq

Page 3

However, there are regions of ghostly afterlife. A discovery reported by the marsh

Arabs living in Manichaean

Page 6: Victor Kiernan - traduzido do húngaro para o inglês.pdf

religion containing elements of the rites of the Aramaic language .


Thus, a dead language can serve as a new

generations, so long as it did also in Latin.

The Arameans as their városállamaikban settled, but it lived on in the form of long-

distance trade in old

nomadic way of life, by which their language is spread along trade routes in the Middle

East. This different

Empires also significantly promoted, sometimes very heavy hand. BC 8-9. century, a

number of Assyrians in North

Syrian enclave destroyed, prevent the riots and deported most of the population, are

scattered throughout the

territories under their rule. For the next two centuries, Neo-Babylonian kings of the

Assyrians coming by then replaced by the

already widely known in Aramaic as diplomacy and the administration for their

instrument, thus helping to

Mesopotamia, Syria and Palestine is commonly used language. This is a classic

example of when a

used by invading a foreign language instead of trying to make it mandatory to own.

When Cyrus the Persian BC

539 he overthrew the Babylonian Empire and the Akhaimenida dynasty (BC 6-4.

Century) had domination of the

Aramaic was the only language with which the pieces were put together an empire

operated, so even

the former uralomnál is widely used for official purposes in the provinces.

The "civilization" from the beginning (at least in the Old World), the story of two

language-related component of the written and

spoken language. A number of language, spelling very little, although the latter is more

important in several respects

was for the development of mankind, since the writing of human thinking, planning or

idea exchange.

Egypt has developed hieroglyphics. The Sumerians created a check-syllable words signs

compiled writing

I learned the Akkadians and their offspring, and clay tablets chiseled ékírásrendszerré

developed. However good

pair also took over the Sumerian god, and much later, when no one spoke Sumerian,

"the priests still in this language

they said their prayers and spells " .


I waited a civilization alphabet.

"There is only one alphabet, which spread almost all over the world" ,


However, this extremely diverse variations

born. Often derive from the late Egyptian writing simplified picture. This view remains

to be confirmed,

In any case the alphabet in the first half of the second millennium BC, the

Mediterranean shores, northwest Semitic dialect

appeared between speakers engaged in a long-distance trade, small city-states enmeshed

in the region. The remote

Page 7: Victor Kiernan - traduzido do húngaro para o inglês.pdf

maintained contact with diverse people probably snatched the "innovators" ingrained

habits of system,

kereskedőhivatásuk and led them to the written records and recognize the value of time.

Excelled them in

tekintgető Phoenicians, to the western sea, but the Arameans also used the alphabet - no

later than 1000 BC onwards - who up

could recognize the potential of the "future simple, practical writing of the"

opportunities .


Like their language they are written to spread, displacing the inconvenient cuneiform

writing long-held position. Like

Rostovtzeff says it's surprising victory, but explained the new method can even be

delivered to Egypt

simplicity and the fact that the Aramaic

Participants felt it indispensable in trade .


Canaan was one of the roots, whose inhabitants

first of all mediation between Egypt and Mesopotamia dealt with, and therefore had the


to spread "the greatest contribution to the human development" .


The small alphabet, free - but

"Kereskedőfejedelmeket" is not lacking - it was peoples creations, but value as well as

the Aramaic language, soon

also recognized the stronger powers. The emperors were in need of a written note to the


organization, the alphabet is in addition to huge power savings reported, freed them

from the cuneiform writing

dependence friend alone in a narrow group of clerks. It is now high-ranking officials, or

even own a

King also learned how to read the reports. Needless to emphasize that the new spellings

over time

much has changed or improved. A Semitic alphabet could not be equally appropriate

language of different origin


The changes in alphabet and later form a new chronicle of Babel story is intertwined

with many points

rise and fall of kingdoms. The limits of China's Uighur Turks living in the Sogdian

acquired a version of

After I changed into Arabic Islam Teresa; In the meantime, the Mongol conqueror

Genghis Khan - who died in 1227

and whom joined as allies - the former took over from them as new realm of governance

needed a writing system after the collapse of both the Mongol Empire and the Ottoman

successor states, driving up the

15th century this spelling was used on .


Each branch of the Turkic-speaking peoples, the good Muslims properly

Arabic script was used, despite the fact that their fonetikájukhoz did not fit.

In the example above well before the early version of the alphabet found their way to

India, where a "remarkable

Page 8: Victor Kiernan - traduzido do húngaro para o inglês.pdf

adjustment process "has developed as a result of the bráhmívá,


and for the first time allowed the Sanskrit

texts notation. Reached here through dealers, but its use was limited to the upper

classes, who

on your own - always a last resort, military force based - political and cultural rise of

their supported him. The

ruling strata - as a status symbol - usually their speech style is always in demand. The

writing, which carefully

developed artificial fashion is concerned, not so much the voice of the child, birth

mother could be more

to call it. Cicero and Horace Latino or Kálidásza Sanskrit would not have existed

without writing, have been unable to

would rise above the various Italian or Indian dialects. When creating it, then the fair

level of chatter

is far away from further strengthened the separation between the ruling class and


Page 4

The Sanskrit dramas of kings and aristocrats pompous speak Sanskrit, while the subjects

of Prakriti, the popular

language used. The Alphabet however, in contrast to the old ways of writing, it is quite

easy to democratizing

to the effect, and thus seek even against the elite. India has certainly contributed to the


flourish, broadened the horizons of merchant classes, mainly targeted at these groups of

new religions,

Buddhism and Jainism sails kneaded. Buddha and his disciples Pali, the lower reaches

of the Ganges

taught the language of the people, which further strengthened the position of Ashoka,

who - in search of a new realm of ideological foundations

- 3rd century BC with Buddhism. In search could not find a more effective power of


famous columns into which countries set up here and there carved regulations. The

language of Buddhism in his hand

India to Southeast Asia, where many words - just like the writing style, which in the

local dialect

forked over more toward adaptation - established. Iravádi from the source region of

southern Burmese

Burma became a Buddhist mon őslakosait overran who have kept their old language,

but all the religions, all the

writing system adopted ,


is an interesting example of the spoken and written versions are often different fate.

The long Mesopotamia, Persia, and later towards the starting direction of Western

aspirations of conquest High

Victory over Darius Alexander turned victory. After Alexander's death in 323 BC

occurred the acquired

areas diverged immediately, but remained under Macedonian rule; even Greece 146


Page 9: Victor Kiernan - traduzido do húngaro para o inglês.pdf

under Roman rule continued to live long after avoiding the Hellenistic kingdoms, such

as Egypt until 30 BC -

latest. The Roman Empire's eastern flank of creative fields since Latin was the official

language, but the culture

mediator of remains from the Greek. Interesting - as I have already pointed out - that the

otherwise curious

Greeks against other languages showed a particular disinterest .


I do not feel the urge elsajátításukra, more

ascend the barbarians who want to learn the Greek. The Hellenistic kingdoms that

succeed each

wanting residents had to do it, so it certainly many people have become bilingual. The

Hellenistic life -

something new and vibrant phenomenon - irresistibly attracted to the upper classes,

between different ethnic groups

összeházasodásra is also the example of Alexander himself. The Greek language, as in

the earlier Aramaic, the economic

also exerted a strong influence on life. "The Greek or hellenizálódott traders and

industrialists led by the Greek

one huge market perfectly corresponded to the trade. "


One evidence of large cities


Another consequence of private debut in the Greek language. To be able to perform new

functions, standardized

I had, as long as it was a mixture of dialects only. "Now the common Greek, the Koine

was the language Attica

began to use the modified form of royal power, so it became the universal language of

the Greek world. "


The rural

mass of members of the public did not occur, because until recently, neither has a


task for the common people to read and write teaching. In fact, nothing surprising in the

Roman Hans Kohn

"Political power," explained the absence of negligence .


Some ancient languages such as Lydia disappeared, but

Overall, the "individual mother tongues in particular, there were resistant" and the

Phrygian - just an example

name a few - it seems just a new life in the Greek means of writing done .


It is similar to today's missionaries and the Soviet

activities of educators, which is given in writing in languages not previously been

covered by alphabet, thereby preserving

them. First centuries after the birth of Christ has been some attempts in the Greek

spelling of Egyptian language

associate, the fourth century, however, failed to achieve significant results before the

Christian missions and Translations

this "kopttal".

Page 10: Victor Kiernan - traduzido do húngaro para o inglês.pdf

There were no new speech mixture; did not exist in the Roman West nyelveivé new

transition, one of the foundations of the new tax nations, the

Pidgin like Latin, Greek life force broke Pidgin versions. This is mainly due to the gap

between urban and rural

thus formed. The Latin West was mostly easy to learn even by the common people of

strangers vulgar language; the east

Greek rather from the urban elite medium of the written mediation. Here, the Greek and

the Latin competed with each other, as well as

both are different from the more local languages, such as Latin dated from. In addition,

a major factor was the weight behind the

The rise of Christianity in trials to benefit. Being an outlaw, but the new religion of the


have received word via subjected dialects; However, having accepted the empire's

government, the masses

standing discontent and political nationalism on the old primitive languages


began to manifest.

Mazzarino a second-century Christian poet to as an example, that the fall of the Empire

and every ethnos, ie

nationality - "concept is more or less the Roman world was in contact with the tongue "


- Longed for freedom.

The next century Mazzarino talks on the Syrian and Coptic birth, which is "national

literature" is largely the

have been created due to the religious needs of the masses " .


North Africa - where both Punic and Berber language used

was - occur after the Christianization of the deviation donatizmusban dissatisfaction

manifested itself. The Empire

but never confirmed herself living on the Greek-Roman culture by raising the status of

languages ,


as the

Pre-1914 Austro-Hungarian Empire did not have the dedication to the Slavic and other

languages of the peoples

Germans and Hungarians equal acknowledging save himself.

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, the eastern part of

the name has fought a thousand years

for survival. When they reached the Muslims called Erzurum city of Asia Minor still

Was "Rum", that part of Rome. The educated classes are much closer to the Greek

language is much Justinian 6

which has further strengthened its position as the official and legal - - gained ground

against measures to Latin-century before. This

process is a public official, John Lidia quoting an ancient prophecy - which, if the

Romans to give up

language, leaving them Fortuna - condemned .


This could be either the language of patriotism unusually early

manifestation, but obviously inspired by the professional desire for the jobs for lawyers

in Latin

Page 11: Victor Kiernan - traduzido do húngaro para o inglês.pdf

Page 5

are reserved. According to John Lidia responsible for changes fueled by revolutionary

desires to open the

Offices are in front of people who have mastered all the little-known but well educated

person language, but

otherwise not suitable .


It could have been a Victorian Englishman who has knowledge of Homer and Virgil

considered essential to any office in the Treasury or Indian.

Saudi Arabia even before the Islamic conquest flag had been opened, congestion and

showed familiar signs of restlessness. Syria and Jordan border small Arab states


neighbors adopted the Aramaic language, hellenizálódtak, some later he became a

Christian as well. The desert

ancient outward movement culminated in Islam, even before the Arabs had stalled, and


Turks have taken over their role. Politically, the only Middle Eastern empires of the

ancient practice of despotism and

religion has brought about a repetition of the covenant; Lapidus's words, "an ancient

civilization new release

calculated form " .


Linguistic sense, the Arabic smoothed out before the trip to Macedonia and Rome's rule

Despite the masses of the Semitic language spoken in most neighboring countries.

These people are unhappy with the upper

classes in those long ago taken over by a foreign culture was isolated. Christianity and


official church proved to be spectacularly incapable of lessons and their "pagan" or

peasant named

eliminate the gap between the groups. How Islam and the Arabic language along with

the upper and lower layers

took both, he could restore a sense of place, though far from perfect social unit.

It has been a long-term process, which is the fastest near the centers of empire, first in

most Arab

colonial residence, Damascus, and Baghdad took place. Military service is normally

Muslims are seen, which is why the army - the change is one of the very active

promoter of the Roman Empire - less

played a role in this transformation. Of course, people have been so faithful to

katonáskodhassanak, while

was a need for a lingua franca to also serve as Muslims from all regions of the empire

army. In Islam, the existing egalitarian trend also encouraged many average people

change religion.

In Egypt, Copts still a couple of hundred years - Upper Egypt even further - Spoke Lane

cites a

Lived around 1400 writer's assertion that women and children are hardly used anything

else .


In similar situations in the

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Men and women are certainly not the same quickly learned a new language. Lane era,

the 19th century

middle of the Coptic Christian minority even among the dead after the language, though

in ecclesiastical ceremonies

it was used exclusively ,


is an example of when it comes to religion and bebalzsamozza parts of an extinct



Culture of pre-Islamic Arabia was the main ornament of poetry in which many of the

tribal minstrels -

such as Ireland and Wales - type created artificial sophistication and mixed with local


These well-crafted poems poem moderate and complex rules had that characteristic

from the Arabic

literature never again could not get rid of. Moreover, these sixth-century golden age,

just before the great eruption

further perfected.


This imperial prestige afforded them, and writing poetry more professional knowledge,

calculated as the result of inspiration .


The medieval Arabic literature almost exclusively "in the narrow, privileged

It was owned by the ruling minority " ,


the masses and had to be satisfied with religion.

For the studied groups and glorious early days of the Islamic caliphate not only

individuals, and "a lot of people

co-operation "was born as a result of a more rapid Arabic-speaking rather than Arab

civilization .



considered as a new version of the cosmopolitan Hellenistic culture, which was in

Arabic instead of Greek in Koine or

written lingua franca , and is intended to sweep the musty Byzantine storms of air

attacks. Extensive spread

As a result of the Arab - by Alexander the Great to be like a foreign country for

integration of the Greek language -

will soon be simplified so that learning has become easier .


The dawn of a new order, and kept the momentum of the past

Greek mastery bilingual people now learned Arabic instead or next. In most Muslim


were created as a result of conquest, the goal has been set up additional land acquisition

and rarely were monolingual. "The

Islamic history many of the leading literary figure was bilingual, not a few are known in

three languages. "



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Khayyam had it in Arabic mathematics (since scientists everywhere read this language),

poems, however,

native language, written in Persian. Live under Arab rule is written in Arabic, Persian

poetry, but it was a completely different mood,

than those born later in their national language .


The further away from the Arab occupied territories had no spoken language. Sindh in

the 8th century, the first Muslim

India has become a popular area of Islam (as in Persia not Orthodox as always), but the

Arabic language

disappeared. However, with the trade and the influence of religion remote languages

(Malay and Swahili) "vocabulary, and

Within certain limits, the fonológiájára and grammar is "extensive .


Modern Swahili, with 40 percent

Arabs fear created by the merger of a new language can be considered real. Maybe we

can talk about a horse like

spoke Arabic and formed the Italian vulgar admixture for Malta. The cultural history of

the Arab Muslim world

impact of Persian language was extremely important. The Arabic language in all three

cases appeared through conquest.

A similar situation happened in the westernmost your reservation in Spain, even though

the Arabs were small in number, the

Berber invaders made up the bulk of their followers .


To what extent the spoken Arabic into Latin in the new emerging

Spanish replaced - especially in Andalusia - highly controversial. Questions regarding

this problem to be dealt with family

come to the fore. In general, it was assumed that the attackers had brought women, so

the first time

locals base their family had acquired by force. It is quite possible that, without the

Arabs wives

arrived, but in the same Berbers from nearby Africa is no longer clear. As with similar

Page 6

situations, it is assumed that indigenous mothers were referred to their language to their

children ,


However, this

Muslim religious education - at least in the higher social circles - have offset. The

reconquista post

Spain Language was basically the Romance, but after the Latin word took over most of

the Arabic .


The Arabic loanwords mainly related to activities in which the Muslim occupation of


an improvement. One of them was irrigated agriculture, although the complexity of this

fact has not been recognized

due up. The Islamic civilization was essentially urban nature everywhere. Neither the

Arabs nor the Berbers, not the

Page 14: Victor Kiernan - traduzido do húngaro para o inglês.pdf

Moorish Spain was not a lot of Jewish inhabitants farmer. The innovations are certainly

two ancient Rome

éléskamrájából, Sicily and Egypt emanated in some way, and encouraged the peasants


be added to the Islamic faith and the Arabic language used. A large number of Christian

Spain "moriszkó"

farmer is left with Catholicism Force or disappear long it took.

Persia at the time of administration of the caliphate was the Arabic language, and the

people, which was just so fed up with the

Zoroastrian priesthood as a couple Byzantine province of Christianity, Islam came. The

old Pahlavi

However, language is essentially preserved. Received several thank Arabic phrases,

governmental, religious, and philosophical -

very surprisingly - was enriched literary words which on occasion has also made it

difficult. The Arab

Despite versification system is manifestly inappropriate in the Persian poetry was

through his own. The Arab power

However, the decline of the Persian world feeling rose again in the literature as a sign of

a re-awakening. This eastern areas

started, where the Arabs control more easily be shaken off. The movement and the

oppression of Arabs and

rebel against cultural superiority great poet, Firdauszíban (941-1019) found hero .


In his new "Islamic Persian

Pahlavi language of many Arabic words was expanded, modified form " .


Such language mergers

result of foreign vocabulary and grammar of the local system (which the abrasive effect

of long cohabitation

simplified) merged - as an attack on the Danish and the Norman conquest consequence

of the Anglo-Saxon also

occurred. The Persians held the Arabic spelling, but India and other countries to some

extent Pitman

gyorsírásába also reached nasztalík artistic forms developed.

Persia has occurred at more similar to the ancient empire, instead of Islam

- Particularly over Turkey's neighbors - cultural and linguistic domination gained. It

comprises the Kingdom has always been

made numerous, mostly of Turkish origin minority. Other relatives with these peoples

in a long process of expansion

keresztüláramlottak Northern Persia, and were scattered between East Asia and the

Balkans; Their fate is multi-threaded

knit Persia. The former China Tang described them as Uighurs. Placed under the control

of Central Asia oázisait and

disappeared in connection with its Buddhist culture and part of the Indo-European

language. The end of the 11th century in Asia Minor

Seljuk Turks expect strong power, Persian court adviser, Nizam al-Mulk and the


It was one of the greatest Muslim state theory. This topic is not mentioned in books

written in Persian language

Page 15: Victor Kiernan - traduzido do húngaro para o inglês.pdf

question, but it has the potential wordy different peoples sons recruited army of checks

and balances

of usability .


India Muslim conquest of Nizam al-Mulk's proposal in the spirit of assembled troops

Mahmoud gas was initiated in 1001. The army is the backbone of Central Asian Turks

was created, more or less

elperzsásodott leaders. The attackers in today's Afghanistan - a wild area inhabited by

several people - marched through

During their trip fortune hunters themselves thrown. The eastern region is actually an

extension of Persia

from where Persian was one of the allied Pashtun and

the other main language. In the 18th century, the Persians, especially in Persia has

always been infested udvaroncjelöltek, office

job seekers and poets patrónusvadász continuous influx helped to keep alive the

language of India.

The Turkish language has given way to higher culture as the Berbers of the Arabs in

Spain; the pen

proved to be stronger than the sword. As in Spain, the newcomers are mostly old or

newly created

garrison troops were stationed in the city, which was much more familiar environment

of the Persians, as the

pastoralist way of life in India is unable to continue the Turks; Furthermore in relation

to the latter, the Persians

much less a living image of the mainland, which would kötődhettek. Very few, such as

the whip

significance Csaba and some titles such as Khan or

the Bega their words left his lips Indians. One would expect that the second wave of

16th-century Muslim conquests

gave new impetus to the Turkish language. Babar, the first Mughal emperor, in

Turkestan Fergánából exiled prince, one of the

heroic butcher Timur many descendants in the eastern Turkish, Chagatai literature that

is the memorial computer

wrote memoir. The language of the ancients, is a sign of dynastic pride, learned all

descendants; great-grandchildren,

However Dzsehángír already in Persian, the court language and culture, wrote his

memoirs. The present rulers of Central Asia computer

Turks from the Uzbek branch quietly as mercenaries flowed into the 18th century, but

quickly assimilated into the

had already földuzzadt Muslim minority.

Large Islam expenses - for special reasons - two secluded region, west Punjab (now in

Pakistan capital

range) and the eastern part of Bengal (now Bangladesh) occurred. The former Persia

and Central Asia

Islamic influence from the way lay through Afghanistan. Eastern part of Punjab was

much drier,

pastoral, often - at least nominally - en masse reimbursed strains. East Bengal Buddhist


spread best, which was exposed to the resurgence of Hinduism powerful attacks;

therefore Islam

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redemption for greetings. These regions are little lured settlers, and the royal courts

lacked attractiveness, so

the local, mostly rural residents have maintained their language, even though this

Muslim areas of language (Punjabi and Bengali), the

Persian-Arabic vocabulary borrowed the most. Much closer parallels can be seen in the

Arabic language

Page 7

Persian, and the "Islamic Persian" spoken near Delhi Hindi dialects between the effects

exerted. While

Muslim elite spoke and wrote in Persian, Hindus belonging to the upper mower is

contained in a wide variety of literary and religious purposes, the

Sanskrit was used in the general population is already Muslim conquest in the early

days of the new language development has begun.

Mixture used in the local language of the common people, and Persian words in Urdu -

that the army and the royal camp,

ie the "Orda" (a Turkish word, the original Horde) lingua franca yeah - as has been

known. In this case, the grammar funds

largely local in origin, the superstructure was more alien.

The Urdu Delhi and neighborhood developed, and the moving tent city forming army

and camp followers

accompanied by huge spread. You can not just Indians and aliens, but the different


Indians also understood from each other. As time goes by "egregious impact on all

countries to explore

language ", and even the somewhat smaller Southern dravidára and ancient languages as

well .


It is assumed that elsewhere

played a role, or marriages between foreigners such as the nobles and women of Islam

with families

huge, hence there are also women and slaves and households in háremeiben author.

Urdu is hardly long played a role in writing. India was well equipped with scribes, and

the government can easily

found that people who are employed in Persian were willing to learn and interpret. The


Since those generations alkasztjába specialize in this session. The British arrive in their

own language

readily learned. Their work could be profitable; Bihar province today such job

kájasztha families dealing with wealth and influence with regard to a match for the

landowners .



However, the Mughal Empire and the Persian culture in the 18th century decline of

Urdu new dimension in writing

agent. Verse quickly found his place as prose; Persian first years of British rule still

used for official matters. To do this, somewhat similar to the Anglo-Norman language

was more appropriate verselésre,

as prose, perhaps because the official matters addressed largely in Latin.

Page 17: Victor Kiernan - traduzido do húngaro para o inglês.pdf

To meet the new requirements, in Urdu many Persian and Arabic words, poetic images

and associated

exotic shades took over the Urdu poets and freely used the Persian syntactic structures.

Much earlier in the same literary instrument developed and amplified by the number of

Sanskrit words long

common people or more dialektusgyűjteménynek your language Hindi. The

conversation is still the lingua

Franck 's computer in Urdu - also referred to as the Hindustani - paper competing

religions and class interests

related nyelvvé split in two. Different (very remotely related to Persian, Arabic and

Sanskrit or Devanagari)

they used writing systems, and thus become even less mutually intelligible to each

other. This

duality similar to the Serbo-Croatian language, which was of Slavic or Cyrillic alphabet

used in Serbia and the

Orthodox Church there, and with Latin Catholics in Croatia, which is within the

Habsburg Empire

Hungary depended.

In the 19th century the rival India has become increasingly fierce competition of writing

systems, and demanded more space for those

in education and in employment of labor, and as a result (especially along the Ganges

provinces) sharp clashes took place. Highly controversial to what extent this was the

British "divide and

conquer "tactic results. It is unlikely that a growing national contrasts facing foreign

government had forgotten about their own interests. Pozitívumaként be mentioned that

all over the country recruited

szipolyhadseregében requested and funded by the Hindustani language is simple; when

the army moved Faudzsí

Akbar was new functionality, you picked a neutral Latin letters.

Meanwhile, the Indian languages - Urdu and English very well knowing - Jawaharlal

Nehru's view

took over the English words and phrases are unnecessary and harmful amounts. Years

ago, I heard a

socialist student speaker who hindusztániul this idea would have liked to express: "The

development of workers

promotes healthy progress, "namely with the words" Ham stallion healthy development

workers who

Karenga development "[in English in original Ham proletariat to healthy men evolution

faculty development permit - the rev.].

Similarly the great 20th-century poet, Ikbal Urdu poem one line: Khilafat-i-Mania-i-

Taliban-i-Ahl-i-din few men ,


where the last word in Hindi, the rest of the Persian vocabulary can be found in Arabic

and Persian grammar. Ikbal

half of pure poetry in Persian language, written in English for an international audience

of religious-themed lectures and

political speeches, mother tongue was Punjabi.

In 1930 a traveler Kirghizia "typical Central Asian polyglot group of seven different


Page 18: Victor Kiernan - traduzido do húngaro para o inglês.pdf

son and a mixed-ethnic parties "did it his way. If these people live close to each other -


- They can work easily "understand a jargon all of them" out, and also formed a group

of "get a

common language ... the Turkish version of the broken " .


In the Steppes sometimes conquerors swept through the mixing of peoples

certainly helped too far not to remain connected to each other dialects. Islam, which

all live in followed by all the tribes provided the same religious ideology. Emigrated to

the West,

and North-West Persia and the Anatolian plateau settled Turkic tribes often retained the


identity, which India lost. "Essentially Turkish cultural traditions" long survived the


Setting up Islamic principalities in Asia, the role of the Turkish language and all the

affairs of state,

and the late 14th century, literature was decisive unfolding.


Page 8

However, the mass is separate from the elite classes are better admired in Persian and

Arabic patterns, as long

while the Turkish court poetry has consisted not only of these imitation of the real

inspiration is only the national folk

the works of poets remained. The three continent-wide establishment of the Ottoman

Empire that had not improved,

but rather worsened this situation. Arabia has often war with Persia, but lacked any kind


national feeling and the golden age of the best soldiers and every high official - the

sultan's household

slaves - prisoners of war in Europe, renegades, and the tax collected and minds of

Muslims as fanatical

recruited from among children raised. As often happens in the realm of the oppressed


An imperial throne highly commended himself to be immersed in culture of ornament.

Every yard of the Muslim world,

larger and smaller competing as an insurer of fame - mainly Persian - winning writers.


Sultans affairs of state used the word lovely flower-filled, known as the Osmanli

language. "In this

more and more ornate style of the Arabic and Persian languages ornaments of heavy

use, and the pure Turkish element

to almost completely grammatical devices meant grip " ,


What are the minimum meanings, but

shockingly long sentences are kept. The traditional English public agencies like the

language of bureaucrats

Psychology hailed; the bureaucracy, the farther you moved away from everyday life, the

more instinctively hiding the

Page 19: Victor Kiernan - traduzido do húngaro para o inglês.pdf

Tires reality behind the words cobwebs. The anthropologist Tylor in the late 19th

century by mocking the Turks

that the Arabs and the Persian "enriched their own barbaric language" - which in recent

times is observed,

such as "man" and for the words "father" .


(Similarly, a contemporary upscale English schoolboy is often referred

his father as "Father" or "Father" [English in the original: the pater, respectively. The

Governor -.. the rev]) national self-esteem

only the final stage was to replace the imperial pride. In 1918, of the empire was gone,

for the first time

discovered by the Turks to form a nation, and is one of the reforms kemalista

inappropriate language

was to increase from cleaning.

Under Ottoman rule when a stable community with Muslim faith as Albania or Bosnia,


retained its original language, though as a second language in public service, candidates

Turks also had

learn. The army and the state leadership author a prominent place in Albania and

Armenia szétrajzó

trader took a lot of words over the speakers, directly or through the mediation of the

other languages that

inhibited the western Indo-European languages were those scientists in detecting .


It was observed that all Slavic

language system maintained complex cases, however, the Bulgarian exception .


This Anglo-Saxon in under foreign oppression

language can be compared to those observed. Bulgaria rest of the Balkans more

thoroughly invaded the

Turkish garrisons around the colonies formed and the number of converts was also

significant. Under normal conditions,

among Turks and other peoples was limited to contact the "mill" system for all religious

people or more

denomination partial autonomy to the government is, as long as still remained generally

left them alone. The

Orthodox communities, the Armenians, the Jews, own private legal systems (which in

the case of the ruling Muslims

was essentially religious in nature) in their affairs according to their things and

themselves gyűjthették together with the government

taxes .


Unless we keep the Albanian language exception, it is unlikely that the Turkish

language in the birth of a new

enough impact on them (as was the case in Latin).

The Ottoman Empire contemporary European countries, as before, some local preferred


enjoyed a role. Supported by the Spanish domination for political ends American

missionary activity played

Page 20: Victor Kiernan - traduzido do húngaro para o inglês.pdf

in this area. The Aztec language, Nahuatl Franciscan preachers used in Mexico and

spread around.

Further south, the more they made the Jesuit Guarani, by being applied to their colonies.

The Guaraní over

Spanish were able to take words, sounds and grammatical structures. Today

In addition to the Spanish second official language of Paraguay, Paraguayan and most

speak both .


Apparently, the Aztec

Mayan language and shortly after the conquest has been described using Latin letters,

and this is certainly

contributed to their survival. As the two of Guarani and Quechua language of the Incas

to the Spanish version

Hire help you "is still very harsh and life" .


North Africa, Nigeria and Central Sudan

Hausa language of colonial times as a means of communication prevalent everywhere.

A number of colonial Swahili

During the flag was used as the language of education, and today - all local, tribal

marginalizing language - independent

Tanzania's official language.

On the other hand, the modern European states and empires in the late stage in their

often hostile to the

national minorities or language of the colonies. They wanted to accelerate the Roman or

under Arab rule

gradually and naturally occurring process by which the subject peoples lose their

conductive layer. The

Habsburg Empire, the Slovak Republic, including large holders of method Hungary was

that the

aspirants to office tracks the Hungarian language learning, including Hungary, the

Slovak political divorce order

In order to make sense immobile. The French have lived somewhat like methods

colonies icon. And work to ensure the loyalty of their subjects, they are committed to

learning French, thereby

facilitating the isolation own people, and black or Asian franciává divorce. Algeria,

which is not in accordance with law

colony, but was part of the mainland, was not authorized by the Arabic language

education. This restriction fitted into

typical of the racist mindset of modern Europe, to which, as Edward Said pointed out,

"it seems to

language and race are inextricably linked. " Renan, an expert in Semitic languages of

the Semitic spirit

held evidence of inferiority .


Fanon, according to colonization to secure their own position, trying to destroy the

indigenous culture; the

colonial rebellion took part in the protection of this culture .


Memmi, " Portrait du Colonist "in accusing the

Page 21: Victor Kiernan - traduzido do húngaro para o inglês.pdf

colonialism that you want to convince the natives: their language is poor and

incomplete, and all higher purpose

Page 9

order for it to rely on the European languages. For the discovery and development of

their own language, with all its

together with attendant emotional played a key role in "self re-discovery" .


Ironically, when Arnold Toynbee visited Algeria in 1964, he found that the French

military domination

It was easier to get rid of than the French culture: "The political emancipation of France

and the

Cultural assimilation "into France took place at the same time. Cairo was audible

throughout the joke, which

According to Algeria called the first Egyptian teachers "should help to re-Algerians can


Ancient Arabic tongues " .


Despite the decolonization primarily of English there are still many third world elite

(For example, both Indian and Pakistani) lingua franca yeah, what aspiring towards the

ruling or influential class

Individuals should talk. This double-edged legacy of the imperial period, intellectually

stimulating, socially divisive.

At the end of 1989, the Sri Lankan government, when the non-privileged

megmozdulásait tried to remove violent elements,

decided to make the English language compulsory school subject for everyone.

Translated by: Gabor Szommer

"We found as early history ...

who dealt with women's religiosity ... " Conversation with Romana Guarnieri

Romana Guarnieri was born in 1913 in The Hague. The medieval women's

mysticism is one of the most influential Italian

expert. She also including their simple souls by medieval mystic text more

The discovery and publication of the manuscript, the author - Marguerite Porete -

Identification and art historical background and

Publication of the afterlife. From 1938 until 1962, working closely with Don

Giuseppe De active

Luca, whom several of the most important religious history journals ( Archivio

italiano per la storia della Pietà, Bailamme )

and a series of publications ( Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura ) edited. - Firstly, I would like to ask you in what way did the women's mysticism as a research

area, and

including primarily Poretéhez Marguerite, who is identified in bringing you the most

famous scientific name


- Let's start at the beginning. German language and literature I graduated in 1939, and

subsequently won the

Rome's Istituto Storico Germanico two-year scholarship. This was a tragic war period.

For the same

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period 1938-39 fall from religious repentance, which is very simple so happened that

reared the

Gospel and fell in love. This is interesting from the point of view because in retrospect,

I feel, has been the religion itself

my turn to some form of mysticism approached.

Going back researchers beginning of my career, I had to find a postgraduate scholarship

research topics,

At the end of the second year, which was submitted to paper. By now it was clear to me

that the history of religion

Choose a theme, so almost gave himself up to the Netherlandish deal to do with

religiosity. Theologians

never interested in examining the more attracted direct relationship with Christ. I knew

a medieval

Netherlandish mysterious woman in the Middle Ages, with a certain Hadewijchről, and

began to read his works, which

proved to be a much larger undertaking than initially thought, since neither

linguistically nor was technically not

sufficiently equipped for the task. Hadewijch was inevitable while studying at the

renowned Ruysbroeck

deeper understanding as well. Ruysbroeck reading was very enlightening for me, since

he was basically a theologian

it was bound to mysticism. However, the real "love" Hadewijch left. Read the works,

and the

knowledge necessary for acquiring too, after a while, the problem started to turn me on

to this Netherlandish

ways in which religion is related to the Imitation of Christ to offer, and the effects of

this northern religiosity

It was if it was for Italy. Ruysbroeck main work of spiritual mennyegző 's, Subiacóban

is a Latin manuscript. Important

noting that Subiaco after the German monastic monasticism is one of the most

important Italian center.

Particularly attracted to examine how what these centers spread a peninsula, the


- Marked by Angela Foligno, Catherine of Sienna or name - totally different mystique.

- During this period, you are already working relationship with Don Giuseppe De


- Yes, this extraordinary man has been in this period stood next to me, and both

personal and professional

point of view, though discreetly, but incredible helped me a lot.

- To drop a few words about it? After all, you probably know him better than anyone, it

was not by chance you who Don De Luca

first biography released, and a separate volume two of them published a friendship as


Page 10

- In 1938, at the age of 25, I met this very charismatic priest, who, however, is dedicated

historian of religion

It was. I moved home during the war, and nuns went to live to be near her, as you

We have a close working relationship. In practice, he worked beside her until his death

in 1962. Together, we created the

Page 23: Victor Kiernan - traduzido do húngaro para o inglês.pdf

Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura series, and edited with the Archivio Italiano per la

Storia della Pietá by

magazine. Both the Flemish mysticism concerning my research and the research Porete

departure of standing next to me, and

incredibly helpful. The interesting

our relationship we had, that began as a working relationship. First, we were working

and kutatótársakká, and only

After we became friends. Humanly a lot from me, that De Luca priest existence very


in me, even though I continued my lifestyle completely foreign to him then. I could say,


To put it in languages that you do not accidentally in a state of sin to reach people in the

eye-opener. He is originally from the famous Henri

Bremond was a student, but later moved away from each other. Among the most

striking difference was

Bremond in the literature that focused on story, while Don De Luca theological interest.

Then, in the early years of the war, up to the close of the Vatican Library in 1943,

literally one another

In addition we were looking for. While I was doing research Ruysbroeck traces of the

Vatican, he has been at my side in the same

worked for a large-scale program, which piety-story ( storia della Pietà called). The

piety of his

intense inner life, describing experiences or mystical theological works did. One day,

while the Vatican

Working directory, and catalog enormous manuscript volumes covered on my desk, and

he's the next table

conducted his own research, also amassed a large amount of manuscript itself every

day, once only stays up

over the könyvhalmok: look at this one, perhaps you may be interested! - And a very

small manuscript was handed to me.

- This was the Marguerite Porete Simple Souls Latin manuscript of the mirror?

- So I did not know this. I knew that in the Netherlands Ruysbroeck life came into

contact with a

particularly women, to a certain Heilwig Bloemardinne risen by some religious circles

who revered, and whose many

was a follower, and I also knew that you Ruysbroeck strongly condemned this woman

tenets that s piritus Libertatis for

said. This woman has been able to remain on the books containing the teachings of

which, however,

disappeared. I started to read the description of the manuscript hoping if I found one of

these works.

After the thing became more and more suspicious, I started to scan documents of

different Inquisition, and I found

another thread that led not to Belgium but French territory, another beginához. I learned


In 1310, burnt for heresy in Paris Book of disseminating a woman, Marguerite Porete

certain, and this

I found a document related to inquisition, which some classify this book heretical

claims held


Page 24: Victor Kiernan - traduzido do húngaro para o inglês.pdf

- And these quotes were found in a manuscript in front of you?

- Exactly. In practice, this has been identified Marguerite Porete.

- I published in 1946?

- Yes, after the war, I felt the need to give news felfedezésemről and subsequently might

not be the

the best choice, the official Vatican newspaper, the Osservatore Romano gave the pages

of my research news

first results, in practice the fact that the Speculum simplicium animarum located in


The author's manuscript is none other than the Marguerite Porete executed in 1310.

Thus, for me it is decided that

previous research of this topic with me giving up and devote my energies.

- University career never thought of?

- It is done it would have the chance. Right after graduation, and later, in the 60s

repeatedly offered university

job, but I decided not to undertake. I felt the need to focus all my research, and from


diverted from teaching.

- And then?

- In the track starting off I went to research a variety of directions kutakodva more. This

is great

helped me Don De Luca, who was more experienced in this type of research, and it is

very good "nose

was "to know where to start. I read an incredible amount of text, and a surprising

number of traces

I have found that this extraordinary book a wide variety of communities known and

used in Italy in the Middle Ages

the last centuries, without the author of the word or its fate would have been killed. The

States and the Dominican

bencésektől from across the jezuátákon fraticellókon and a variety of lay women's

movements in many places

I found track. After examining the implications of the Italian began to employ what was

the situation in Europe

rest. This work was very great use to me Herbert Grundmann's female mysticism

written book, which

by including better meet the Rhineland mysticism and spiritual movements of the age.


Page 11

Grundmann became a disciple of sense at this time. Fiber has proved to be particularly

useful for simple

their souls at the end of the manuscript of approbation which theologians say three

positive opinion on the

traktátusról. These three individuals were identified and reconstructed with the help of

the few among

biographical information that is available today Poretéről. Please also note that all of

this work I

practically I did not have a real pre-qualified, you could say at work, "the track" I got


theology, religious history and philological knowledge.

Page 25: Victor Kiernan - traduzido do húngaro para o inglês.pdf

- How is discovered Porete only French manuscript of his book, published in Chantilly

your manuscript?

- To tell the truth I could last, and the last step is to find it in the course of this

multifaceted research.

After a while, I contacted the then Director of the National Library of Paris, who was

very helpful to me.

So I found him the only French-language manuscript of which the first times I got to

photocopy and

I traveled to France to personally examine the manuscript. I worked for many years

Chantilly manuscript transcriptions, which at that time was a big help to me Don De

Luca. In 1961, I made

it is a temporary publication, copies of which were distributed to 100 different experts.

In the meantime, however,

In 1962, Don De Luca died, and it is very difficult for the additional work, since the

Arhcivio per la Storia della

Pietà for he was the spiritual father. After the death of that work I was forced to take

over, and finally the fourth this journal

Volume (1965) gave a final form of the French manuscript, accompanied by a larger

study, in which the

or Free Spirit Free Spirit's (Spirito libero worked on the story called) movement.

- As I understand it, was the mirror of simple souls some other manuscripts, some of

which were already known before

researchers, but even without that could have guessed the identity of the book's birth

and conviction of the real author


- The Latin manuscripts no one knew, I discovered them. Formerly an English version

was known, of which Clare

Kirchberger modern translations without having made the '20s that had the slightest

notion of the author,

or even the history of ideas if Square. There was also a French gentleman named

Corbero But I've a while the 60 -

ies simultaneously worked on the French manuscript. But he is not the philological-

historical point of view, but

published devotional purposes only marginal parts of a journal, which is soon to leave.

- And the Hungarians?

- At 16, my first love was a Hungarian military officer in Perugia. Seriously though, I

was sure

that some Hungarian scientists had been the work of an Italian manuscript of which

Hungary St. Margaret

attributes of Simple Souls mirror . The Italian who lives in Florida is included Banfi

personally met and

we consulted the '40s.

- How to live through that Marguerite Porete, whom you practically discovered in the

last 30 years, very fashionable

has become a topic?

- It is very strange experience for me, as megélhettem both extremes. In the beginning,

I'm certain

I was confident that I have achieved a particularly important result, however, the first

few times this besides me

Page 26: Victor Kiernan - traduzido do húngaro para o inglês.pdf

thought so. You know, the researcher is usually not the kind of person who can

advertise, sell yourself. A scientific

discovery usually stay within a very narrow circle, as the science of public opinion is a

very closed, small

number of groups made up. I think there are two kinds of research: one researcher

remain all his life, and dedicated his life

while the other kind of company office, or rector professor will be, and has other

options, like us, who were the first group

constructed. Getting back to your question, I've lived, and did not wear it too much,

some barely out of me when

could anything Poretéről; s pretty much my life has not changed, either, when you later

"from the tap is Porete

continued, "and so I became somewhat known as his" discoverer ".

- Over the past decades, a variety of feminist and gender studies is a popular topic of

research motivated

become Porete. What do you think?

- The active phase of the feminist movement in the 70s I paid attention, but completely

missed it.

Simply lived in an environment where they are not involved in the issues that are raised

by the women's movement,

which they fought. I feel like maybe it's because I lived very little conventional life, but

as a woman all along the

I have lived in complete freedom.

I really really late, but at the end of the 80s, 90s, met such motivated historians, and

I got some of them, such as Luisa Muraróval this day-long friendship. However, the me

motivated my choice of subject is completely different, though, as I said at the

beginning, certainly not by chance that a woman

in spite of being attracted to women for the mystical and say Ruysbroeck was found

boring. However, when the

Page 12

story writing also appeared as a new trend of women in history, including sudden

discovered as early antecedents, who

decades before women's religiosity dealt with themes of female fashion.

- Finally, allow me a personal question! You, as a historian who lived almost a century,

this exceptional

life experience behind him, how do you see the progress of the 20th century history?

- I am very positive elements, including the European developmental processes. I feel

like I manage to slow

Get rid of the bad sense of the limitations of nationalism. The Church also with regard

to feel as if slowly,

haltingly, but divorce is basically a continuous open about the church history. History is

my all

horror, war, and despite the negative phenomenon, continuous enrichment, as I'm going

to progress.

- Thank you for the interview!

A conversation with David Falvay by

Romana Guarnieri works

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