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Languages and conquerors *
Wandering the vast areas and long small, scattered communities in the creation of
proved to be extremely talented. In the early days is probably one of the main activity
can keep your thoughts
Casting new words and new ways of fiction as any other practical question of
energy consumed. I would even venture to say that only freed up enough energy
create, when we have so many people gathered in a particular place - such as the Nile
Valley - not to
They needed to create other languages. Spoken by thousands of people in many
different languages has disappeared, or -
As to forests - is dying. SK Chatterjinek appeared half a century ago to what greatly
- The easternmost Indo-European or Aryan - ancient language at the expense of
neighboring languages .
Quarter of a century has
apparent that about twenty, mostly southern Siberian Turkish dialect is in retreat in
the spread .
Strangely enough, all the historians have generally little attention has been paid to the
people they researched speech
testing, despite the fact that the fate of human language was the most powerful shaper of
war and conquest. If two
factor due to violence are intimately connected, to some extent will always interact. The
many areas depends on whether control is done from the outside - due to a tax recovery
- or invade
the purpose of colonization. In the latter case invading or displacing the old language,
such as Ireland, the English,
or vacate the place, as in the case of the French Normandy Vikings receiving, or after a
very long exposure
nyelvvé new blend. The latter, at least in historical eras, it was rare; by far the most
Norman Conquest as a result of the English language. Much less clear in the language
neopun example, which the Carthaginian
result of mixing a Semitic language of the indigenous population of North Africa very
quickly, even before the Roman conquest
transformed. Typically, however, in the "official purposes and in religious rites is still
adhered to the old
forms " .
The letelepüléssel, colonization opposite process occurs when a nation or a part of a
conquering force displaces the place, and anywhere else installed. This was used by the
Babylonians, the Assyrians, and the New World of
Incas, who recalcitrant villagers systematically evacuated, place and other immense
corners have been manageable, see below .
This facilitated the assimilation and all your official
spread Quechua language, which would hardly have spread to such an extent in the
realm of very brief existence
away. The Mongol rulers of the city occupied their capitals had her body moved from
the craftsmen, architects,
artists who bizonyulhattak useful there. However, the Central Asian cities such as
risk of looting and carnage sight many refugees to India by the Muslim invaders had
Delhi Sultanate founded fastened. The Roman enlistment different provinces scattered
soldiers who shared
Pidgin language as a form of Latin used. In the 18th century, Asian and European
armies and armies of the camp attendants always
They were cosmopolitan in nature. A successful military - such as Timur Lenk -
avalanche while driving
increased. Fortune, there were a mass of almost everywhere.
Countless people were dragged through the Roman Empire, the Muslim world and
especially in the 16th and 19th
century between the Atlantic Ocean to dispose of them as slaves. Angola as a
Portuguese colony was mainly
been valuable because it was a source of labor in Brazil. The language of such effects
even in extreme cases, even
were only one-way. The Spanish language is changed after crossing the ocean .
Towards the end of the colonial age
According to the rumor, "the Carolina Urine was spoken of as the Negroes. This seems
to be the origin of southern accents ";
a similar phenomenon was also observed in Jamaica .
The enslavement of course, much stronger effects taszítottakat value. Throughout
history, many ethnic groups
digestion of up and broke apart countless individuals, cultures and hanyatlottak
nyelveikkel down together.
Human eternal destiny of this instability can be sustained in the absence of human
mental balance is
inferred. The colonial relations - such as the French in Algeria - the colloquial Arabic
and the low level
resulted in a mixture of French spoken confused, which will certainly be held liable for
some of the opinion that the
összezavarásáért consciousness operating patterns. Thinking is easy to lose orientation
in all parts of the Colonist
points, and primitive, almost infantile nature easily amaze the outside observer .
Women are good reasons to qualify colonisée has, or at least a large part of the history
belonged to the lower strata of society: it is very likely that they formed the first
working class. Usually the
deported them as part of spoils of war; even if it is not reached such a fate, even the men
of physical strength -
disguised by the superior wisdom of philosophers and preachers - were victims.
kizáratásuk was probably influenced by the men lived in public life, although they
usually left few records
maintained. The Athenian women were a couple in their own words; These part -
presumably - a former folk group inherited
while another part might have been developed to keep hidden meanings before his ears.
The Zulus polygamy
lived on society, a community-based conquests under which men and cattle from the
virtue. A big ranch is certainly different dialects exist, which result in women's speech
not only a new version of mixed represented. "The King králjában sometimes difficult
to understand the king's wives" -
we read .
Africa and elsewhere
- For example, in New Guinea - the farm was often an economic unit and is the resting
place of the owner; in from here and there
collected wives had to find ways to coordinate their tasks.
If two people are in contact due to violence, language társadalomszerkezetük outcome,
especially in the authoritarian
position in the group, as well as marriage and family patterns determined. The result of
complete separation - such as India, towards the end of British rule, and South Africa -
and the mixed marriages
any point on the scale between perfect mixing arising possible. Africa and Asia in a
continuous migration direction can be observed; Central Asia also, combined with one
from east to west
movement. Rarely hiked a whole people, rather it was a little girl traveling belligerent
troops who have everything
have been taken to another site on the go or settling women acquire. Too often willingly
accept the view that such language when the settlers merge because - Basil Davidson's
"Mothers determined how the children talk about." Caution should also beckons on this
However, it is mentioned as an example the case when the 19th century, the Fulani
captured the northern Nigeria
Hauszaföldet and then took over the Hausa language .
On the other hand, the Zulu and other Bantu languages occurring, but
Away from those clicking sounds only come from through the hottentottáktól and
busmanoktól, the women seized from them.
The polygamy you can multiply the number of "men's language" speakers if they are to
preserve their identity
some - such as religious - motivated. The medieval Muslim societies, the Europeans
Contrary little distinction was made between the wives and offspring of the bed, and
especially because of the
newly acquired areas - such as India Muslim regions of the early days - quickly had
their numbers increased.
In all long-term foreign occupation is relatively complex, but the "natural" level of
society have not yet reached
are more likely to penetrate receipt for language. Learning the many options open,
especially before the scribes. The first conquerors of the - go within the top layers -
place to change, especially when an alluring new culture associated with the language.
A new religion is widely exercised
attractive effect and time available each class. Islam has benefited exceptionally from
the fact that the first Muslim
sacred language of the conquerors, the heaven was adjusted ipsissima Verba
intermediary language. Value of this magic was linked
words; a number of these talismans carved up the wearer could read it or not. Islam
violence rarely preached about unbelievers; this religion was able to wait until their own
It may be particularly interesting in the Middle East - that is, the western part of Asia -
where three continents, and the nearer
countries met in the far south and east. The cradle of ancient civilizations shows that
wild cavalcade of languages, which
faithfully depicts the Tower of Babel myth. Egypt was Hamitic. Various parts of Asia
Minor, the Hittites and other
Indo-European speaking peoples - who, as it emerged in recent times, Anatolia was not
in the starting area k
then invaded by the Persians. The origins of the southern Mesopotamian Sumerian
origin unknown. The rest of the Semitic languages
language was part of the family, whose members are to each other Indo-European
languages, it is much closer, and the first recorded
changed much less since it was launched ,
as related to their cultures or societies to which.
As far as can be traced, most of the time in the Middle East was Semitic. According to
Roux, could not come all the Semitic
speaking people in a semi-desert Arabian Peninsula ,
However, less barren regions of Arabia and North
edge formed the "great Semitic collection point" ,
where a, mostly small, but occasionally flood of
swelling permanent migration is likely. The majority of the Middle East is certainly
mostly short-dominated locomotion, resulting in a semi-nomads and semi-nomads into
szántóvetőkké then normal, in the countryside have become városlakókká. Each
transformation more or less social
or is associated with ethnic friction; In addition, "the nomads yearly, after the summer
harvest, seasonal, pasture
mass migrations to temporarily become letelepüléssé or armed attack on " .
The hunger for land and the people as a result of natural movements in the Middle East
and the surrounding countryside is not just another
In addition to live, but to each other by riding nations were also cavalcade. Greece - it
seems - even the Doric invaders
centuries distinguished themselves in the conquered natives; the Hittites probably also a
formed a minority .
The second half of the second millennium BC, there was a Hittite Empire. Formed in
this region as a whole
it is the stage where the world's first empires were born; it seems as if the civilizations
and empires of the same
aspect of two things would have competed with each other to rise. The 15th century BC
by the Egyptian Amenhotep
northern Palestine and southern Syria mass deportation of residents boasted (no doubt
somewhat exaggerated, which
likewise observed in humans halászainál than simple angling only); According to data
of nearly 100,000
person was involved .
The Sumerian areas ultimately absorbed by the Semitic Mesopotamia; became the first
living north akkádoké
the leading role, and the succession of Babylonian and Assyrian hadijelvényei warlords
Canaan, or Palestine - a narrow passage between the northern boundary of Arabia and
the Mediterranean Sea - always multilingual, but
basically Semitic-speaking population possessed. The later arrivals are here and Syria in
were the most important. Canaan quickly ousted language precursor and relatives in
Hebrew; the latter fate -
it seems - the ancient imperialism memorable episodes, after the fall of Jerusalem, 586
BC, the Babylonian captivity
sealed. From then on, a part of Judea was pushed back quickly in Hebrew and Aramaic
in the field of
opposite; The spoken language had disappeared long before the birth of Christ. Time,
however, brought back the bustle of the Hebrew
grave, and today only the Aramaic used in some corner of Syria and Iraq. In another
area, marshy southern Iraq
However, there are regions of ghostly afterlife. A discovery reported by the marsh
Arabs living in Manichaean
religion containing elements of the rites of the Aramaic language .
Thus, a dead language can serve as a new
generations, so long as it did also in Latin.
The Arameans as their városállamaikban settled, but it lived on in the form of long-
distance trade in old
nomadic way of life, by which their language is spread along trade routes in the Middle
East. This different
Empires also significantly promoted, sometimes very heavy hand. BC 8-9. century, a
number of Assyrians in North
Syrian enclave destroyed, prevent the riots and deported most of the population, are
scattered throughout the
territories under their rule. For the next two centuries, Neo-Babylonian kings of the
Assyrians coming by then replaced by the
already widely known in Aramaic as diplomacy and the administration for their
instrument, thus helping to
Mesopotamia, Syria and Palestine is commonly used language. This is a classic
example of when a
used by invading a foreign language instead of trying to make it mandatory to own.
When Cyrus the Persian BC
539 he overthrew the Babylonian Empire and the Akhaimenida dynasty (BC 6-4.
Century) had domination of the
Aramaic was the only language with which the pieces were put together an empire
operated, so even
the former uralomnál is widely used for official purposes in the provinces.
The "civilization" from the beginning (at least in the Old World), the story of two
language-related component of the written and
spoken language. A number of language, spelling very little, although the latter is more
important in several respects
was for the development of mankind, since the writing of human thinking, planning or
Egypt has developed hieroglyphics. The Sumerians created a check-syllable words signs
I learned the Akkadians and their offspring, and clay tablets chiseled ékírásrendszerré
developed. However good
pair also took over the Sumerian god, and much later, when no one spoke Sumerian,
"the priests still in this language
they said their prayers and spells " .
I waited a civilization alphabet.
"There is only one alphabet, which spread almost all over the world" ,
However, this extremely diverse variations
born. Often derive from the late Egyptian writing simplified picture. This view remains
to be confirmed,
In any case the alphabet in the first half of the second millennium BC, the
Mediterranean shores, northwest Semitic dialect
appeared between speakers engaged in a long-distance trade, small city-states enmeshed
in the region. The remote
maintained contact with diverse people probably snatched the "innovators" ingrained
habits of system,
kereskedőhivatásuk and led them to the written records and recognize the value of time.
Excelled them in
tekintgető Phoenicians, to the western sea, but the Arameans also used the alphabet - no
later than 1000 BC onwards - who up
could recognize the potential of the "future simple, practical writing of the"
Like their language they are written to spread, displacing the inconvenient cuneiform
writing long-held position. Like
Rostovtzeff says it's surprising victory, but explained the new method can even be
delivered to Egypt
simplicity and the fact that the Aramaic
Participants felt it indispensable in trade .
Canaan was one of the roots, whose inhabitants
first of all mediation between Egypt and Mesopotamia dealt with, and therefore had the
to spread "the greatest contribution to the human development" .
The small alphabet, free - but
"Kereskedőfejedelmeket" is not lacking - it was peoples creations, but value as well as
the Aramaic language, soon
also recognized the stronger powers. The emperors were in need of a written note to the
organization, the alphabet is in addition to huge power savings reported, freed them
from the cuneiform writing
dependence friend alone in a narrow group of clerks. It is now high-ranking officials, or
even own a
King also learned how to read the reports. Needless to emphasize that the new spellings
much has changed or improved. A Semitic alphabet could not be equally appropriate
language of different origin
The changes in alphabet and later form a new chronicle of Babel story is intertwined
with many points
rise and fall of kingdoms. The limits of China's Uighur Turks living in the Sogdian
acquired a version of
After I changed into Arabic Islam Teresa; In the meantime, the Mongol conqueror
Genghis Khan - who died in 1227
and whom joined as allies - the former took over from them as new realm of governance
needed a writing system after the collapse of both the Mongol Empire and the Ottoman
successor states, driving up the
15th century this spelling was used on .
Each branch of the Turkic-speaking peoples, the good Muslims properly
Arabic script was used, despite the fact that their fonetikájukhoz did not fit.
In the example above well before the early version of the alphabet found their way to
India, where a "remarkable
adjustment process "has developed as a result of the bráhmívá,
and for the first time allowed the Sanskrit
texts notation. Reached here through dealers, but its use was limited to the upper
on your own - always a last resort, military force based - political and cultural rise of
their supported him. The
ruling strata - as a status symbol - usually their speech style is always in demand. The
writing, which carefully
developed artificial fashion is concerned, not so much the voice of the child, birth
mother could be more
to call it. Cicero and Horace Latino or Kálidásza Sanskrit would not have existed
without writing, have been unable to
would rise above the various Italian or Indian dialects. When creating it, then the fair
level of chatter
is far away from further strengthened the separation between the ruling class and
The Sanskrit dramas of kings and aristocrats pompous speak Sanskrit, while the subjects
of Prakriti, the popular
language used. The Alphabet however, in contrast to the old ways of writing, it is quite
easy to democratizing
to the effect, and thus seek even against the elite. India has certainly contributed to the
flourish, broadened the horizons of merchant classes, mainly targeted at these groups of
Buddhism and Jainism sails kneaded. Buddha and his disciples Pali, the lower reaches
of the Ganges
taught the language of the people, which further strengthened the position of Ashoka,
who - in search of a new realm of ideological foundations
- 3rd century BC with Buddhism. In search could not find a more effective power of
famous columns into which countries set up here and there carved regulations. The
language of Buddhism in his hand
India to Southeast Asia, where many words - just like the writing style, which in the
forked over more toward adaptation - established. Iravádi from the source region of
Burma became a Buddhist mon őslakosait overran who have kept their old language,
but all the religions, all the
writing system adopted ,
is an interesting example of the spoken and written versions are often different fate.
The long Mesopotamia, Persia, and later towards the starting direction of Western
aspirations of conquest High
Victory over Darius Alexander turned victory. After Alexander's death in 323 BC
occurred the acquired
areas diverged immediately, but remained under Macedonian rule; even Greece 146
under Roman rule continued to live long after avoiding the Hellenistic kingdoms, such
as Egypt until 30 BC -
latest. The Roman Empire's eastern flank of creative fields since Latin was the official
language, but the culture
mediator of remains from the Greek. Interesting - as I have already pointed out - that the
Greeks against other languages showed a particular disinterest .
I do not feel the urge elsajátításukra, more
ascend the barbarians who want to learn the Greek. The Hellenistic kingdoms that
wanting residents had to do it, so it certainly many people have become bilingual. The
Hellenistic life -
something new and vibrant phenomenon - irresistibly attracted to the upper classes,
between different ethnic groups
összeházasodásra is also the example of Alexander himself. The Greek language, as in
the earlier Aramaic, the economic
also exerted a strong influence on life. "The Greek or hellenizálódott traders and
industrialists led by the Greek
one huge market perfectly corresponded to the trade. "
One evidence of large cities
Another consequence of private debut in the Greek language. To be able to perform new
I had, as long as it was a mixture of dialects only. "Now the common Greek, the Koine
was the language Attica
began to use the modified form of royal power, so it became the universal language of
the Greek world. "
mass of members of the public did not occur, because until recently, neither has a
task for the common people to read and write teaching. In fact, nothing surprising in the
Roman Hans Kohn
"Political power," explained the absence of negligence .
Some ancient languages such as Lydia disappeared, but
Overall, the "individual mother tongues in particular, there were resistant" and the
Phrygian - just an example
name a few - it seems just a new life in the Greek means of writing done .
It is similar to today's missionaries and the Soviet
activities of educators, which is given in writing in languages not previously been
covered by alphabet, thereby preserving
them. First centuries after the birth of Christ has been some attempts in the Greek
spelling of Egyptian language
associate, the fourth century, however, failed to achieve significant results before the
Christian missions and Translations
There were no new speech mixture; did not exist in the Roman West nyelveivé new
transition, one of the foundations of the new tax nations, the
Pidgin like Latin, Greek life force broke Pidgin versions. This is mainly due to the gap
between urban and rural
thus formed. The Latin West was mostly easy to learn even by the common people of
strangers vulgar language; the east
Greek rather from the urban elite medium of the written mediation. Here, the Greek and
the Latin competed with each other, as well as
both are different from the more local languages, such as Latin dated from. In addition,
a major factor was the weight behind the
The rise of Christianity in trials to benefit. Being an outlaw, but the new religion of the
have received word via subjected dialects; However, having accepted the empire's
government, the masses
standing discontent and political nationalism on the old primitive languages
began to manifest.
Mazzarino a second-century Christian poet to as an example, that the fall of the Empire
and every ethnos, ie
nationality - "concept is more or less the Roman world was in contact with the tongue "
- Longed for freedom.
The next century Mazzarino talks on the Syrian and Coptic birth, which is "national
literature" is largely the
have been created due to the religious needs of the masses " .
North Africa - where both Punic and Berber language used
was - occur after the Christianization of the deviation donatizmusban dissatisfaction
manifested itself. The Empire
but never confirmed herself living on the Greek-Roman culture by raising the status of
Pre-1914 Austro-Hungarian Empire did not have the dedication to the Slavic and other
languages of the peoples
Germans and Hungarians equal acknowledging save himself.
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, the eastern part of
the name has fought a thousand years
for survival. When they reached the Muslims called Erzurum city of Asia Minor still
Was "Rum", that part of Rome. The educated classes are much closer to the Greek
language is much Justinian 6
which has further strengthened its position as the official and legal - - gained ground
against measures to Latin-century before. This
process is a public official, John Lidia quoting an ancient prophecy - which, if the
Romans to give up
language, leaving them Fortuna - condemned .
This could be either the language of patriotism unusually early
manifestation, but obviously inspired by the professional desire for the jobs for lawyers
are reserved. According to John Lidia responsible for changes fueled by revolutionary
desires to open the
Offices are in front of people who have mastered all the little-known but well educated
person language, but
otherwise not suitable .
It could have been a Victorian Englishman who has knowledge of Homer and Virgil
considered essential to any office in the Treasury or Indian.
Saudi Arabia even before the Islamic conquest flag had been opened, congestion and
showed familiar signs of restlessness. Syria and Jordan border small Arab states
neighbors adopted the Aramaic language, hellenizálódtak, some later he became a
Christian as well. The desert
ancient outward movement culminated in Islam, even before the Arabs had stalled, and
Turks have taken over their role. Politically, the only Middle Eastern empires of the
ancient practice of despotism and
religion has brought about a repetition of the covenant; Lapidus's words, "an ancient
civilization new release
calculated form " .
Linguistic sense, the Arabic smoothed out before the trip to Macedonia and Rome's rule
Despite the masses of the Semitic language spoken in most neighboring countries.
These people are unhappy with the upper
classes in those long ago taken over by a foreign culture was isolated. Christianity and
official church proved to be spectacularly incapable of lessons and their "pagan" or
eliminate the gap between the groups. How Islam and the Arabic language along with
the upper and lower layers
took both, he could restore a sense of place, though far from perfect social unit.
It has been a long-term process, which is the fastest near the centers of empire, first in
colonial residence, Damascus, and Baghdad took place. Military service is normally
Muslims are seen, which is why the army - the change is one of the very active
promoter of the Roman Empire - less
played a role in this transformation. Of course, people have been so faithful to
was a need for a lingua franca to also serve as Muslims from all regions of the empire
army. In Islam, the existing egalitarian trend also encouraged many average people
In Egypt, Copts still a couple of hundred years - Upper Egypt even further - Spoke Lane
Lived around 1400 writer's assertion that women and children are hardly used anything
In similar situations in the
Men and women are certainly not the same quickly learned a new language. Lane era,
the 19th century
middle of the Coptic Christian minority even among the dead after the language, though
in ecclesiastical ceremonies
it was used exclusively ,
is an example of when it comes to religion and bebalzsamozza parts of an extinct
Culture of pre-Islamic Arabia was the main ornament of poetry in which many of the
tribal minstrels -
such as Ireland and Wales - type created artificial sophistication and mixed with local
These well-crafted poems poem moderate and complex rules had that characteristic
from the Arabic
literature never again could not get rid of. Moreover, these sixth-century golden age,
just before the great eruption
This imperial prestige afforded them, and writing poetry more professional knowledge,
calculated as the result of inspiration .
The medieval Arabic literature almost exclusively "in the narrow, privileged
It was owned by the ruling minority " ,
the masses and had to be satisfied with religion.
For the studied groups and glorious early days of the Islamic caliphate not only
individuals, and "a lot of people
co-operation "was born as a result of a more rapid Arabic-speaking rather than Arab
considered as a new version of the cosmopolitan Hellenistic culture, which was in
Arabic instead of Greek in Koine or
written lingua franca , and is intended to sweep the musty Byzantine storms of air
attacks. Extensive spread
As a result of the Arab - by Alexander the Great to be like a foreign country for
integration of the Greek language -
will soon be simplified so that learning has become easier .
The dawn of a new order, and kept the momentum of the past
Greek mastery bilingual people now learned Arabic instead or next. In most Muslim
were created as a result of conquest, the goal has been set up additional land acquisition
and rarely were monolingual. "The
Islamic history many of the leading literary figure was bilingual, not a few are known in
three languages. "
Khayyam had it in Arabic mathematics (since scientists everywhere read this language),
native language, written in Persian. Live under Arab rule is written in Arabic, Persian
poetry, but it was a completely different mood,
than those born later in their national language .
The further away from the Arab occupied territories had no spoken language. Sindh in
the 8th century, the first Muslim
India has become a popular area of Islam (as in Persia not Orthodox as always), but the
disappeared. However, with the trade and the influence of religion remote languages
(Malay and Swahili) "vocabulary, and
Within certain limits, the fonológiájára and grammar is "extensive .
Modern Swahili, with 40 percent
Arabs fear created by the merger of a new language can be considered real. Maybe we
can talk about a horse like
spoke Arabic and formed the Italian vulgar admixture for Malta. The cultural history of
the Arab Muslim world
impact of Persian language was extremely important. The Arabic language in all three
cases appeared through conquest.
A similar situation happened in the westernmost your reservation in Spain, even though
the Arabs were small in number, the
Berber invaders made up the bulk of their followers .
To what extent the spoken Arabic into Latin in the new emerging
Spanish replaced - especially in Andalusia - highly controversial. Questions regarding
this problem to be dealt with family
come to the fore. In general, it was assumed that the attackers had brought women, so
the first time
locals base their family had acquired by force. It is quite possible that, without the
arrived, but in the same Berbers from nearby Africa is no longer clear. As with similar
situations, it is assumed that indigenous mothers were referred to their language to their
Muslim religious education - at least in the higher social circles - have offset. The
Spain Language was basically the Romance, but after the Latin word took over most of
the Arabic .
The Arabic loanwords mainly related to activities in which the Muslim occupation of
an improvement. One of them was irrigated agriculture, although the complexity of this
fact has not been recognized
due up. The Islamic civilization was essentially urban nature everywhere. Neither the
Arabs nor the Berbers, not the
Moorish Spain was not a lot of Jewish inhabitants farmer. The innovations are certainly
two ancient Rome
éléskamrájából, Sicily and Egypt emanated in some way, and encouraged the peasants
be added to the Islamic faith and the Arabic language used. A large number of Christian
farmer is left with Catholicism Force or disappear long it took.
Persia at the time of administration of the caliphate was the Arabic language, and the
people, which was just so fed up with the
Zoroastrian priesthood as a couple Byzantine province of Christianity, Islam came. The
However, language is essentially preserved. Received several thank Arabic phrases,
governmental, religious, and philosophical -
very surprisingly - was enriched literary words which on occasion has also made it
difficult. The Arab
Despite versification system is manifestly inappropriate in the Persian poetry was
through his own. The Arab power
However, the decline of the Persian world feeling rose again in the literature as a sign of
a re-awakening. This eastern areas
started, where the Arabs control more easily be shaken off. The movement and the
oppression of Arabs and
rebel against cultural superiority great poet, Firdauszíban (941-1019) found hero .
In his new "Islamic Persian
Pahlavi language of many Arabic words was expanded, modified form " .
Such language mergers
result of foreign vocabulary and grammar of the local system (which the abrasive effect
of long cohabitation
simplified) merged - as an attack on the Danish and the Norman conquest consequence
of the Anglo-Saxon also
occurred. The Persians held the Arabic spelling, but India and other countries to some
gyorsírásába also reached nasztalík artistic forms developed.
Persia has occurred at more similar to the ancient empire, instead of Islam
- Particularly over Turkey's neighbors - cultural and linguistic domination gained. It
comprises the Kingdom has always been
made numerous, mostly of Turkish origin minority. Other relatives with these peoples
in a long process of expansion
keresztüláramlottak Northern Persia, and were scattered between East Asia and the
Balkans; Their fate is multi-threaded
knit Persia. The former China Tang described them as Uighurs. Placed under the control
of Central Asia oázisait and
disappeared in connection with its Buddhist culture and part of the Indo-European
language. The end of the 11th century in Asia Minor
Seljuk Turks expect strong power, Persian court adviser, Nizam al-Mulk and the
It was one of the greatest Muslim state theory. This topic is not mentioned in books
written in Persian language
question, but it has the potential wordy different peoples sons recruited army of checks
of usability .
India Muslim conquest of Nizam al-Mulk's proposal in the spirit of assembled troops
Mahmoud gas was initiated in 1001. The army is the backbone of Central Asian Turks
was created, more or less
elperzsásodott leaders. The attackers in today's Afghanistan - a wild area inhabited by
several people - marched through
During their trip fortune hunters themselves thrown. The eastern region is actually an
extension of Persia
from where Persian was one of the allied Pashtun and
the other main language. In the 18th century, the Persians, especially in Persia has
always been infested udvaroncjelöltek, office
job seekers and poets patrónusvadász continuous influx helped to keep alive the
language of India.
The Turkish language has given way to higher culture as the Berbers of the Arabs in
Spain; the pen
proved to be stronger than the sword. As in Spain, the newcomers are mostly old or
garrison troops were stationed in the city, which was much more familiar environment
of the Persians, as the
pastoralist way of life in India is unable to continue the Turks; Furthermore in relation
to the latter, the Persians
much less a living image of the mainland, which would kötődhettek. Very few, such as
significance Csaba and some titles such as Khan or
the Bega their words left his lips Indians. One would expect that the second wave of
16th-century Muslim conquests
gave new impetus to the Turkish language. Babar, the first Mughal emperor, in
Turkestan Fergánából exiled prince, one of the
heroic butcher Timur many descendants in the eastern Turkish, Chagatai literature that
is the memorial computer
wrote memoir. The language of the ancients, is a sign of dynastic pride, learned all
However Dzsehángír already in Persian, the court language and culture, wrote his
memoirs. The present rulers of Central Asia computer
Turks from the Uzbek branch quietly as mercenaries flowed into the 18th century, but
quickly assimilated into the
had already földuzzadt Muslim minority.
Large Islam expenses - for special reasons - two secluded region, west Punjab (now in
range) and the eastern part of Bengal (now Bangladesh) occurred. The former Persia
and Central Asia
Islamic influence from the way lay through Afghanistan. Eastern part of Punjab was
pastoral, often - at least nominally - en masse reimbursed strains. East Bengal Buddhist
spread best, which was exposed to the resurgence of Hinduism powerful attacks;
redemption for greetings. These regions are little lured settlers, and the royal courts
lacked attractiveness, so
the local, mostly rural residents have maintained their language, even though this
Muslim areas of language (Punjabi and Bengali), the
Persian-Arabic vocabulary borrowed the most. Much closer parallels can be seen in the
Persian, and the "Islamic Persian" spoken near Delhi Hindi dialects between the effects
Muslim elite spoke and wrote in Persian, Hindus belonging to the upper mower is
contained in a wide variety of literary and religious purposes, the
Sanskrit was used in the general population is already Muslim conquest in the early
days of the new language development has begun.
Mixture used in the local language of the common people, and Persian words in Urdu -
that the army and the royal camp,
ie the "Orda" (a Turkish word, the original Horde) lingua franca yeah - as has been
known. In this case, the grammar funds
largely local in origin, the superstructure was more alien.
The Urdu Delhi and neighborhood developed, and the moving tent city forming army
and camp followers
accompanied by huge spread. You can not just Indians and aliens, but the different
Indians also understood from each other. As time goes by "egregious impact on all
countries to explore
language ", and even the somewhat smaller Southern dravidára and ancient languages as
It is assumed that elsewhere
played a role, or marriages between foreigners such as the nobles and women of Islam
huge, hence there are also women and slaves and households in háremeiben author.
Urdu is hardly long played a role in writing. India was well equipped with scribes, and
the government can easily
found that people who are employed in Persian were willing to learn and interpret. The
Since those generations alkasztjába specialize in this session. The British arrive in their
readily learned. Their work could be profitable; Bihar province today such job
kájasztha families dealing with wealth and influence with regard to a match for the
However, the Mughal Empire and the Persian culture in the 18th century decline of
Urdu new dimension in writing
agent. Verse quickly found his place as prose; Persian first years of British rule still
used for official matters. To do this, somewhat similar to the Anglo-Norman language
was more appropriate verselésre,
as prose, perhaps because the official matters addressed largely in Latin.
To meet the new requirements, in Urdu many Persian and Arabic words, poetic images
exotic shades took over the Urdu poets and freely used the Persian syntactic structures.
Much earlier in the same literary instrument developed and amplified by the number of
Sanskrit words long
common people or more dialektusgyűjteménynek your language Hindi. The
conversation is still the lingua
Franck 's computer in Urdu - also referred to as the Hindustani - paper competing
religions and class interests
related nyelvvé split in two. Different (very remotely related to Persian, Arabic and
Sanskrit or Devanagari)
they used writing systems, and thus become even less mutually intelligible to each
duality similar to the Serbo-Croatian language, which was of Slavic or Cyrillic alphabet
used in Serbia and the
Orthodox Church there, and with Latin Catholics in Croatia, which is within the
In the 19th century the rival India has become increasingly fierce competition of writing
systems, and demanded more space for those
in education and in employment of labor, and as a result (especially along the Ganges
provinces) sharp clashes took place. Highly controversial to what extent this was the
British "divide and
conquer "tactic results. It is unlikely that a growing national contrasts facing foreign
government had forgotten about their own interests. Pozitívumaként be mentioned that
all over the country recruited
szipolyhadseregében requested and funded by the Hindustani language is simple; when
the army moved Faudzsí
Akbar was new functionality, you picked a neutral Latin letters.
Meanwhile, the Indian languages - Urdu and English very well knowing - Jawaharlal
took over the English words and phrases are unnecessary and harmful amounts. Years
ago, I heard a
socialist student speaker who hindusztániul this idea would have liked to express: "The
development of workers
promotes healthy progress, "namely with the words" Ham stallion healthy development
Karenga development "[in English in original Ham proletariat to healthy men evolution
faculty development permit - the rev.].
Similarly the great 20th-century poet, Ikbal Urdu poem one line: Khilafat-i-Mania-i-
Taliban-i-Ahl-i-din few men ,
where the last word in Hindi, the rest of the Persian vocabulary can be found in Arabic
and Persian grammar. Ikbal
half of pure poetry in Persian language, written in English for an international audience
of religious-themed lectures and
political speeches, mother tongue was Punjabi.
In 1930 a traveler Kirghizia "typical Central Asian polyglot group of seven different
son and a mixed-ethnic parties "did it his way. If these people live close to each other -
- They can work easily "understand a jargon all of them" out, and also formed a group
of "get a
common language ... the Turkish version of the broken " .
In the Steppes sometimes conquerors swept through the mixing of peoples
certainly helped too far not to remain connected to each other dialects. Islam, which
all live in followed by all the tribes provided the same religious ideology. Emigrated to
and North-West Persia and the Anatolian plateau settled Turkic tribes often retained the
identity, which India lost. "Essentially Turkish cultural traditions" long survived the
Setting up Islamic principalities in Asia, the role of the Turkish language and all the
affairs of state,
and the late 14th century, literature was decisive unfolding.
However, the mass is separate from the elite classes are better admired in Persian and
Arabic patterns, as long
while the Turkish court poetry has consisted not only of these imitation of the real
inspiration is only the national folk
the works of poets remained. The three continent-wide establishment of the Ottoman
Empire that had not improved,
but rather worsened this situation. Arabia has often war with Persia, but lacked any kind
national feeling and the golden age of the best soldiers and every high official - the
slaves - prisoners of war in Europe, renegades, and the tax collected and minds of
Muslims as fanatical
recruited from among children raised. As often happens in the realm of the oppressed
An imperial throne highly commended himself to be immersed in culture of ornament.
Every yard of the Muslim world,
larger and smaller competing as an insurer of fame - mainly Persian - winning writers.
Sultans affairs of state used the word lovely flower-filled, known as the Osmanli
language. "In this
more and more ornate style of the Arabic and Persian languages ornaments of heavy
use, and the pure Turkish element
to almost completely grammatical devices meant grip " ,
What are the minimum meanings, but
shockingly long sentences are kept. The traditional English public agencies like the
language of bureaucrats
Psychology hailed; the bureaucracy, the farther you moved away from everyday life, the
more instinctively hiding the
Tires reality behind the words cobwebs. The anthropologist Tylor in the late 19th
century by mocking the Turks
that the Arabs and the Persian "enriched their own barbaric language" - which in recent
times is observed,
such as "man" and for the words "father" .
(Similarly, a contemporary upscale English schoolboy is often referred
his father as "Father" or "Father" [English in the original: the pater, respectively. The
Governor -.. the rev]) national self-esteem
only the final stage was to replace the imperial pride. In 1918, of the empire was gone,
for the first time
discovered by the Turks to form a nation, and is one of the reforms kemalista
was to increase from cleaning.
Under Ottoman rule when a stable community with Muslim faith as Albania or Bosnia,
retained its original language, though as a second language in public service, candidates
Turks also had
learn. The army and the state leadership author a prominent place in Albania and
trader took a lot of words over the speakers, directly or through the mediation of the
other languages that
inhibited the western Indo-European languages were those scientists in detecting .
It was observed that all Slavic
language system maintained complex cases, however, the Bulgarian exception .
This Anglo-Saxon in under foreign oppression
language can be compared to those observed. Bulgaria rest of the Balkans more
thoroughly invaded the
Turkish garrisons around the colonies formed and the number of converts was also
significant. Under normal conditions,
among Turks and other peoples was limited to contact the "mill" system for all religious
people or more
denomination partial autonomy to the government is, as long as still remained generally
left them alone. The
Orthodox communities, the Armenians, the Jews, own private legal systems (which in
the case of the ruling Muslims
was essentially religious in nature) in their affairs according to their things and
themselves gyűjthették together with the government
Unless we keep the Albanian language exception, it is unlikely that the Turkish
language in the birth of a new
enough impact on them (as was the case in Latin).
The Ottoman Empire contemporary European countries, as before, some local preferred
enjoyed a role. Supported by the Spanish domination for political ends American
missionary activity played
in this area. The Aztec language, Nahuatl Franciscan preachers used in Mexico and
Further south, the more they made the Jesuit Guarani, by being applied to their colonies.
The Guaraní over
Spanish were able to take words, sounds and grammatical structures. Today
In addition to the Spanish second official language of Paraguay, Paraguayan and most
speak both .
Apparently, the Aztec
Mayan language and shortly after the conquest has been described using Latin letters,
and this is certainly
contributed to their survival. As the two of Guarani and Quechua language of the Incas
to the Spanish version
Hire help you "is still very harsh and life" .
North Africa, Nigeria and Central Sudan
Hausa language of colonial times as a means of communication prevalent everywhere.
A number of colonial Swahili
During the flag was used as the language of education, and today - all local, tribal
marginalizing language - independent
Tanzania's official language.
On the other hand, the modern European states and empires in the late stage in their
often hostile to the
national minorities or language of the colonies. They wanted to accelerate the Roman or
under Arab rule
gradually and naturally occurring process by which the subject peoples lose their
conductive layer. The
Habsburg Empire, the Slovak Republic, including large holders of method Hungary was
aspirants to office tracks the Hungarian language learning, including Hungary, the
Slovak political divorce order
In order to make sense immobile. The French have lived somewhat like methods
colonies icon. And work to ensure the loyalty of their subjects, they are committed to
learning French, thereby
facilitating the isolation own people, and black or Asian franciává divorce. Algeria,
which is not in accordance with law
colony, but was part of the mainland, was not authorized by the Arabic language
education. This restriction fitted into
typical of the racist mindset of modern Europe, to which, as Edward Said pointed out,
"it seems to
language and race are inextricably linked. " Renan, an expert in Semitic languages of
the Semitic spirit
held evidence of inferiority .
Fanon, according to colonization to secure their own position, trying to destroy the
indigenous culture; the
colonial rebellion took part in the protection of this culture .
Memmi, " Portrait du Colonist "in accusing the
colonialism that you want to convince the natives: their language is poor and
incomplete, and all higher purpose
order for it to rely on the European languages. For the discovery and development of
their own language, with all its
together with attendant emotional played a key role in "self re-discovery" .
Ironically, when Arnold Toynbee visited Algeria in 1964, he found that the French
It was easier to get rid of than the French culture: "The political emancipation of France
Cultural assimilation "into France took place at the same time. Cairo was audible
throughout the joke, which
According to Algeria called the first Egyptian teachers "should help to re-Algerians can
Ancient Arabic tongues " .
Despite the decolonization primarily of English there are still many third world elite
(For example, both Indian and Pakistani) lingua franca yeah, what aspiring towards the
ruling or influential class
Individuals should talk. This double-edged legacy of the imperial period, intellectually
stimulating, socially divisive.
At the end of 1989, the Sri Lankan government, when the non-privileged
megmozdulásait tried to remove violent elements,
decided to make the English language compulsory school subject for everyone.
Translated by: Gabor Szommer
"We found as early history ...
who dealt with women's religiosity ... " Conversation with Romana Guarnieri
Romana Guarnieri was born in 1913 in The Hague. The medieval women's
mysticism is one of the most influential Italian
expert. She also including their simple souls by medieval mystic text more
The discovery and publication of the manuscript, the author - Marguerite Porete -
Identification and art historical background and
Publication of the afterlife. From 1938 until 1962, working closely with Don
Giuseppe De active
Luca, whom several of the most important religious history journals ( Archivio
italiano per la storia della Pietà, Bailamme )
and a series of publications ( Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura ) edited. - Firstly, I would like to ask you in what way did the women's mysticism as a research
including primarily Poretéhez Marguerite, who is identified in bringing you the most
famous scientific name
- Let's start at the beginning. German language and literature I graduated in 1939, and
subsequently won the
Rome's Istituto Storico Germanico two-year scholarship. This was a tragic war period.
For the same
period 1938-39 fall from religious repentance, which is very simple so happened that
Gospel and fell in love. This is interesting from the point of view because in retrospect,
I feel, has been the religion itself
my turn to some form of mysticism approached.
Going back researchers beginning of my career, I had to find a postgraduate scholarship
At the end of the second year, which was submitted to paper. By now it was clear to me
that the history of religion
Choose a theme, so almost gave himself up to the Netherlandish deal to do with
never interested in examining the more attracted direct relationship with Christ. I knew
Netherlandish mysterious woman in the Middle Ages, with a certain Hadewijchről, and
began to read his works, which
proved to be a much larger undertaking than initially thought, since neither
linguistically nor was technically not
sufficiently equipped for the task. Hadewijch was inevitable while studying at the
deeper understanding as well. Ruysbroeck reading was very enlightening for me, since
he was basically a theologian
it was bound to mysticism. However, the real "love" Hadewijch left. Read the works,
knowledge necessary for acquiring too, after a while, the problem started to turn me on
to this Netherlandish
ways in which religion is related to the Imitation of Christ to offer, and the effects of
this northern religiosity
It was if it was for Italy. Ruysbroeck main work of spiritual mennyegző 's, Subiacóban
is a Latin manuscript. Important
noting that Subiaco after the German monastic monasticism is one of the most
important Italian center.
Particularly attracted to examine how what these centers spread a peninsula, the
- Marked by Angela Foligno, Catherine of Sienna or name - totally different mystique.
- During this period, you are already working relationship with Don Giuseppe De
- Yes, this extraordinary man has been in this period stood next to me, and both
personal and professional
point of view, though discreetly, but incredible helped me a lot.
- To drop a few words about it? After all, you probably know him better than anyone, it
was not by chance you who Don De Luca
first biography released, and a separate volume two of them published a friendship as
- In 1938, at the age of 25, I met this very charismatic priest, who, however, is dedicated
historian of religion
It was. I moved home during the war, and nuns went to live to be near her, as you
We have a close working relationship. In practice, he worked beside her until his death
in 1962. Together, we created the
Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura series, and edited with the Archivio Italiano per la
Storia della Pietá by
magazine. Both the Flemish mysticism concerning my research and the research Porete
departure of standing next to me, and
incredibly helpful. The interesting
our relationship we had, that began as a working relationship. First, we were working
and kutatótársakká, and only
After we became friends. Humanly a lot from me, that De Luca priest existence very
in me, even though I continued my lifestyle completely foreign to him then. I could say,
To put it in languages that you do not accidentally in a state of sin to reach people in the
eye-opener. He is originally from the famous Henri
Bremond was a student, but later moved away from each other. Among the most
striking difference was
Bremond in the literature that focused on story, while Don De Luca theological interest.
Then, in the early years of the war, up to the close of the Vatican Library in 1943,
literally one another
In addition we were looking for. While I was doing research Ruysbroeck traces of the
Vatican, he has been at my side in the same
worked for a large-scale program, which piety-story ( storia della Pietà called). The
piety of his
intense inner life, describing experiences or mystical theological works did. One day,
while the Vatican
Working directory, and catalog enormous manuscript volumes covered on my desk, and
he's the next table
conducted his own research, also amassed a large amount of manuscript itself every
day, once only stays up
over the könyvhalmok: look at this one, perhaps you may be interested! - And a very
small manuscript was handed to me.
- This was the Marguerite Porete Simple Souls Latin manuscript of the mirror?
- So I did not know this. I knew that in the Netherlands Ruysbroeck life came into
contact with a
particularly women, to a certain Heilwig Bloemardinne risen by some religious circles
who revered, and whose many
was a follower, and I also knew that you Ruysbroeck strongly condemned this woman
tenets that s piritus Libertatis for
said. This woman has been able to remain on the books containing the teachings of
disappeared. I started to read the description of the manuscript hoping if I found one of
After the thing became more and more suspicious, I started to scan documents of
different Inquisition, and I found
another thread that led not to Belgium but French territory, another beginához. I learned
In 1310, burnt for heresy in Paris Book of disseminating a woman, Marguerite Porete
certain, and this
I found a document related to inquisition, which some classify this book heretical
- And these quotes were found in a manuscript in front of you?
- Exactly. In practice, this has been identified Marguerite Porete.
- I published in 1946?
- Yes, after the war, I felt the need to give news felfedezésemről and subsequently might
not be the
the best choice, the official Vatican newspaper, the Osservatore Romano gave the pages
of my research news
first results, in practice the fact that the Speculum simplicium animarum located in
The author's manuscript is none other than the Marguerite Porete executed in 1310.
Thus, for me it is decided that
previous research of this topic with me giving up and devote my energies.
- University career never thought of?
- It is done it would have the chance. Right after graduation, and later, in the 60s
repeatedly offered university
job, but I decided not to undertake. I felt the need to focus all my research, and from
diverted from teaching.
- And then?
- In the track starting off I went to research a variety of directions kutakodva more. This
helped me Don De Luca, who was more experienced in this type of research, and it is
very good "nose
was "to know where to start. I read an incredible amount of text, and a surprising
number of traces
I have found that this extraordinary book a wide variety of communities known and
used in Italy in the Middle Ages
the last centuries, without the author of the word or its fate would have been killed. The
States and the Dominican
bencésektől from across the jezuátákon fraticellókon and a variety of lay women's
movements in many places
I found track. After examining the implications of the Italian began to employ what was
the situation in Europe
rest. This work was very great use to me Herbert Grundmann's female mysticism
written book, which
by including better meet the Rhineland mysticism and spiritual movements of the age.
Grundmann became a disciple of sense at this time. Fiber has proved to be particularly
useful for simple
their souls at the end of the manuscript of approbation which theologians say three
positive opinion on the
traktátusról. These three individuals were identified and reconstructed with the help of
the few among
biographical information that is available today Poretéről. Please also note that all of
this work I
practically I did not have a real pre-qualified, you could say at work, "the track" I got
theology, religious history and philological knowledge.
- How is discovered Porete only French manuscript of his book, published in Chantilly
- To tell the truth I could last, and the last step is to find it in the course of this
After a while, I contacted the then Director of the National Library of Paris, who was
very helpful to me.
So I found him the only French-language manuscript of which the first times I got to
I traveled to France to personally examine the manuscript. I worked for many years
Chantilly manuscript transcriptions, which at that time was a big help to me Don De
Luca. In 1961, I made
it is a temporary publication, copies of which were distributed to 100 different experts.
In the meantime, however,
In 1962, Don De Luca died, and it is very difficult for the additional work, since the
Arhcivio per la Storia della
Pietà for he was the spiritual father. After the death of that work I was forced to take
over, and finally the fourth this journal
Volume (1965) gave a final form of the French manuscript, accompanied by a larger
study, in which the
or Free Spirit Free Spirit's (Spirito libero worked on the story called) movement.
- As I understand it, was the mirror of simple souls some other manuscripts, some of
which were already known before
researchers, but even without that could have guessed the identity of the book's birth
and conviction of the real author
- The Latin manuscripts no one knew, I discovered them. Formerly an English version
was known, of which Clare
Kirchberger modern translations without having made the '20s that had the slightest
notion of the author,
or even the history of ideas if Square. There was also a French gentleman named
Corbero But I've a while the 60 -
ies simultaneously worked on the French manuscript. But he is not the philological-
historical point of view, but
published devotional purposes only marginal parts of a journal, which is soon to leave.
- And the Hungarians?
- At 16, my first love was a Hungarian military officer in Perugia. Seriously though, I
that some Hungarian scientists had been the work of an Italian manuscript of which
Hungary St. Margaret
attributes of Simple Souls mirror . The Italian who lives in Florida is included Banfi
personally met and
we consulted the '40s.
- How to live through that Marguerite Porete, whom you practically discovered in the
last 30 years, very fashionable
has become a topic?
- It is very strange experience for me, as megélhettem both extremes. In the beginning,
I was confident that I have achieved a particularly important result, however, the first
few times this besides me
thought so. You know, the researcher is usually not the kind of person who can
advertise, sell yourself. A scientific
discovery usually stay within a very narrow circle, as the science of public opinion is a
very closed, small
number of groups made up. I think there are two kinds of research: one researcher
remain all his life, and dedicated his life
while the other kind of company office, or rector professor will be, and has other
options, like us, who were the first group
constructed. Getting back to your question, I've lived, and did not wear it too much,
some barely out of me when
could anything Poretéről; s pretty much my life has not changed, either, when you later
"from the tap is Porete
continued, "and so I became somewhat known as his" discoverer ".
- Over the past decades, a variety of feminist and gender studies is a popular topic of
become Porete. What do you think?
- The active phase of the feminist movement in the 70s I paid attention, but completely
Simply lived in an environment where they are not involved in the issues that are raised
by the women's movement,
which they fought. I feel like maybe it's because I lived very little conventional life, but
as a woman all along the
I have lived in complete freedom.
I really really late, but at the end of the 80s, 90s, met such motivated historians, and
I got some of them, such as Luisa Muraróval this day-long friendship. However, the me
motivated my choice of subject is completely different, though, as I said at the
beginning, certainly not by chance that a woman
in spite of being attracted to women for the mystical and say Ruysbroeck was found
boring. However, when the
story writing also appeared as a new trend of women in history, including sudden
discovered as early antecedents, who
decades before women's religiosity dealt with themes of female fashion.
- Finally, allow me a personal question! You, as a historian who lived almost a century,
life experience behind him, how do you see the progress of the 20th century history?
- I am very positive elements, including the European developmental processes. I feel
like I manage to slow
Get rid of the bad sense of the limitations of nationalism. The Church also with regard
to feel as if slowly,
haltingly, but divorce is basically a continuous open about the church history. History is
horror, war, and despite the negative phenomenon, continuous enrichment, as I'm going
- Thank you for the interview!
A conversation with David Falvay by
Romana Guarnieri works
"Burckhardt in Italia (Centenario di un viaggio) 'in Rinascita II / 5 (1939, 96-107.
1946 "Lo" Specchio delle Anime semplice 'e Margherita Poirette "in L'Osservatore Romano,
16 giugno 1946, 3
1947 Hadewych, Cinque visioni, Brabantine con testo, traduzione e premessa di Romana
Guarnieri, Brescia 1947th
Hadewijch, Cinque poesie, Brabantine con testo, traduzione e premessa di Romana
Guarnieri, Brescia 1947th
Fri Livarius Oliger OFM, Secta De spiritus Libertatis in Umbria SAEC. XIV.
Disquisitio et Documenta, Edizioni di
Storia e Letteratura, Roma 1943, pp.. XXII-116th (Book review), in Rivista di Storia
della Chiesa in Italia 1 (1947), 99 -
"Hadewych l 'Estatic" in L'Osservatore Romano 1 dicembre 1947th
1949 Massimo Petrocchi Il quietismo italiano del Seicento, Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura,
Roma 1948, pp.. 120
(Book review), in Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia 3 (1949), 95-119.
1950 Hadewych, Cinque lettere , con testo Brabantine, premessa e traduzione di Romana
Guarnieri, Brescia 1950
1951 "Ricordi d'una visita del 1566 apostolica the cistercensi di Toscana" in Rivista di Storia
della Chiesa in Italia 5
"Il quietismo in otto manoscritti Chigiani (polemiche this condanne tra il 1681 e il
1703)" in Rivista di Storia della
Chiesa in Italia 5 (1951), 381-412.
"Per la fortuna di Ruusbroec in Italia. Sorpresa Le di un Codice Vaticano "in Rivista di
Storia della Chiesa in Italia 6
1963 "Notizia bio bibliografica Don Giuseppe De Luca di" in Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in
Italia 17 (1963), 15-76.
"Margherita PORETTI" encyclopaedia Cattolica, vol. 9, 1770-1771.
1964 "Frères du Esprit Libre" in Dictionnaire de Spiritualité vol. 5 Paris in 1964, coll. From
1241 to 1268.
1965 "Avvertenza 'all' Archivio italiano per la storia della Pietà 4 (1965), XI-XII.
"Il Movimento del Spirito Libero, this physical documenti" in Archivio italiano per la
storia della Pietà 4 (1965), 351-708.
Bernard-Henri Maître Romana Guarnieri, Don Giuseppe de Luca et l'Abbé Henri
Bremond (1929-1933). But 'L'
Histoire littéraire du sentiment Religieux en France "à l '" Archivio italiano per la
storia della Pietà, " Roma 1965th
Tommaso da Kempen, L 'imitazione di Cristo Versione di Don Giuseppe De Luca,
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