victory and peace

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VICTORY AND PEACE

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Page 1: Victory and peace

VICTORY AND PEACE

Page 2: Victory and peace

Russia Withdraws

In 1917 Russia went through a revolution.

Vladimir Lenin, the new leader wanted to get Russia out of the war.

In March 1918 Lenin signed the treaty of Brest – Litovsk which ended the war for Russia, but also took a lot of their land.

Page 3: Victory and peace

The Final Push

After the Treaty of Brest – Litovsk the Germans were finally able to focus on the western front.

By May 1918 German troops were within 40 miles of Paris and it seemed like they had a chance of victory, however they were considerably weakened.

With the help of fresh American troops the Allies were able to hold the Germans back.

July 1918 at the second battle of the Marne with 2 million more American troops the Allies were able to push Germany back.

Page 4: Victory and peace

Surrender

Germany’s allies quit and German soldiers refused to fight, and on November 9, 1918 Kaiser Wilhelm II was forced to step down.

A representative of the new Germany met with the Allies in Paris and signed an armistice, an agreement to end the fighting at 11:00 November 11, 1918.

Page 5: Victory and peace

Treaty of Versailles

After the war was over the peace still needed to be worked out.

Beginning January 18, 1919 a conference took place at the palace of Versailles. The conference lasted for a year, and there were often disagreements and debates.

Delegates from 32 countries were present, but ultimately it was the Allies/the big four who decided what would happen to post war Europe.

Page 6: Victory and peace

Big Four – Wilson and Clemenceau

Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States.

Georges Clemenceau, minister from France.

Page 7: Victory and peace

Big Four – George and OrlandoDavid Lloyd George, minister from Great Britain.

Vittorio Orlando, minister from Italy.

Page 8: Victory and peace

Wilson’s Fourteen Points

1. Open Diplomacy – no secret treaties.2. Freedom of Navigation – open seas in war and peace.3. Free trade – customs barriers and taxes/duties should

be removed.4. Multilateral disarmament – all countries should

reduce their armed forces to the lowest levels possible (limited military power).

5. Colonies – people in European colonies should have a say in their future.

6. Russia – should be allowed to have whatever government they want.

7. Belgium – should be restored to how they were before the war.

Page 9: Victory and peace

Wilson’s Fourteen Points

8. France – should get Alsace – Lorraine back and any other land taken during the war.

9. Italy – their borders should be readjusted according to nationality.

10. National self – determination – the nations in Europe should be given their own countries whenever possible.

11. Romania, Montenegro & Serbia – should be restored and Serbia should get sea access.

12. Turkey – people of Turkey should have a say in their future.13. Poland – should become independent and have sea access.14. League of Nations – a group of nations should come

together to meet and solve conflicts peacefully rather than by war.

Page 10: Victory and peace

Final Treaty

The final treaty looked very little like Woodrow Wilson’s fourteen points.

Germany was not happy with the treaty, but they had no choice but to sign it.

Page 11: Victory and peace

Final Treaty - Terms

League of Nations International Peace

Organization was formed. It would include 32 Allied and neutral nations.

Germany and Russia were not included.

The US did not end up joining.

Territorial Losses Germany had to

return land. Germany had to

give up their colonies.

Anschluss – Germany was not allowed to form an alliance with Austria – Hungary.

Page 12: Victory and peace

Final Treaty - Terms

Military Restrictions Limited the size of

Germany’s army. Germany prohibited

from importing or making weapons/war material.

Germany forbidden is build or buy submarines or have an airforce.

War Guilt Sole responsibility

for the war is placed on Germany’s shoulders.

Germany must pay Allies $33 billion in reparations over 30 years.

Page 13: Victory and peace

Other Defeated Nations

The other nations in the Central Powers suffered some consequences too, but not as bad as Germany:

Hungary lost land and had a limited army. They were also told they had to pay reparations, but an amount was never set.

Bulgaria lost land and had a limited army. They had to pay $90 million in war reparations.

Turkey lost land in Greece and the League of Nations took Turkey’s colonies.

Page 14: Victory and peace

End Results

Europe Before WWI Europe After WWI

Page 15: Victory and peace

End Results

New nations were created such as: Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and Poland.

The Ottoman Empire was broken up into smaller countries, many came under British and French control.

Russia felt alienated from the Allies and lost land.

Page 16: Victory and peace
Page 17: Victory and peace

Legacy of the War

The Treaty of Versailles was known as the “peace built on quicksand.” The treaty set the world up for a lot of problems later down the line.

Many countries felt bitter with the outcome. US didn’t accomplish its goals. Germany was stuck with the war guilt. Japan and Italy had both entered the war to gain territory and neither had truly been successful.

Even though the League of Nations had been formed the US wasn’t a member and they were weak.

World War I was the first total war on a global scale that made use of new technology.

8.5 million soldiers died, 21 million were wounded and many civilians died as well.

The war had a devastating economic impact on Europe, and it shook European society as never before.