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Video editing

Video editingunit 1,16,29Task 4By Talia Vachman

Some History ofVideo EditingCinematography which was a device that projected motion pictures was an invention founded by the Lumiere brothers in 1895.Films today can be very entertaining and are quite popular, however in the early days of this invention, a film would simply be one long projected motion picture, with no editing and so could be long and boring and show nothing worth seeing that the public couldnt see in person. It was said by the inventor of film himself that cinematography had no future.Then Edwin S. Porter changed it, and used footage to change the original meaning of a story to something more interesting, and showed that film didnt have to be one excessively long film, but could be made entertaining.In 1908 D.W Griffiths For Love of Gold film features the first ever continuity cut in a scene. It was then realised that emotion could be portrayed through the camera angles and editing as well as the actors themselves, starting off the development that lead to film editing today.

WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF VIDEO EDITING?Video editing is the process of changing, cutting segments and altering a video, piecing together raw video footage in a (rational) sequence to create a final video product which suits ones desired result.Editing is a powerful tool as it can create transitions with special effects and alter time and space to a motion video production. It also has the authority to decide what viewers may be able to interpret in the video through how it is used, for example, the use of special effects may help to give a futuristic tone to a Science fiction film to make it more believable. Special effects and some of the editing techniques you will learn about in this presentation such as match on action, fading in and out, etc. can also help draw in the attention of the audience and enhance the quality of the footage.Editing may also allow the viewer to understand certain emotions of characters which otherwise would not be able to be expressed in a clear way and so is a really important part of the making of a film. For example, the use of cutting from one person to another in a conversation helps the viewer to understand the perspectives of both characters instead of just one, so that they are then able to understand the effect one persons words may have on the other.Today, a Director spends the majority of his time with the Editor of a film out fo all the crew members.

The Principles of Video Editing:StorytellingCreating paceCombination of shotsThe 180 degree rule

STORYLINE AND STORYTELLING This is the process of piecing together scenes in a way that the audience can be told a story so that a message can be clearly delivered.The plot of a story can be told in different ways; it can be done in a linear narrative which means that the events of the story are told in the order in which they occur, or it can be done in a non-linear narrative which shows the events in a different order to which they took place. The latter may be used to attract the attention of the audience, as the beginning may leave them confused and they would have to keep watching to understand what is happening. A film/ video can also have a closed storyline where the story is resolved at the end or an open-ended storyline which is an incomplete ending or cliff-hanger, leaving it open to interpretation.The scenes may be cut in time with the beat which helps create certain moods, too. For example, a quick beat with fast cuts may help to build up suspense in an action film, and as it gains speed, draws in the full attention of the viewer before reaching the climax in a scene.

EXAMPLESThe animation film How To Train Your Dragon is a linear narrative film that has a resolved conclusion at the end and so is an example of a film with a closed storyline.Home Alone(1990), Pirates of the Caribbean (2003), Wild Child (2008) are all some examples of linear narrative films, where the events that take place in them are set in a chronological order.The film Fried Green Tomatoes (1991) is an example of a non linear narrative film as it goes back and forth from present day to events from the past of an old lady.

CREATING PACEThe pace created in a film may slow down or speed up in specific part of the scenes in a film or video depending on the action taking place and the effect the director want it to give to the audience. The pace creates the mood that the director want to convey.Action films for example, would most likely use a fast pace, particularly during a fight scene or a chase, cutting quickly between shots to match the pace of the film, whereas a romance film would perhaps take on a slower pace so that the emotions and the small details of scene are paid closer attention to.An example of a fast paced scene is in the James Bond film Skyfall (2012) where James Bond is on a mission to find a man -

COMBINATION OF SHOTSThis is combining a mixture of shot types in varies angles to attract an audiences attention and construct settings, relationships and emotions that may be introduced in a scene. This may be used in an action film, for example, during a car chase. The camera might quickly cut from a wide shot of both cars to a close up of the drivers face to the wheels of the car, etc. so that the scenes dramatic edge is emphasised to give the full impact unto the viewer and keep it engaging and interesting.This may also help the viewer gain a better understanding of the scene and what each character feels in the midst of a fast pace scene.The animation film Incredibles (2001) and Mr and Mrs Smith are example of films that had intense action scenes at some point during the film This clip below is also an example of a combination of shots from the James Bond film Skyfall (2012) - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JCEqYlrrOq0

THE 180 DEGREE RULEThis rule states that once two or more actors/characters have been established on a certain side of the screen, than they must remain on that side throughout the edit, regardless of how the camera angles may vary.Sometimes this rule may be broken. This is because by breaking this rule, the audience watching may become disoriented and confused as, for example, it may seem as though two actors facing each other may be looking in the same direction. If a director is filming a scene where he wants to portray a feeling of confusion to match the characters mood, he may break this rule to emphasise this feeling onto the audience as it would have a disorientating effect on the viewer(s).When the camera passes over the invisible axis of the two subjects, it is called crossing the line, and the shot becomes a reverse angle', which may be used to give more perspective to the viewer and reveals what both side may be feeling during a confrontation. Some examples of this are over the shoulder shots, angled shots, left/right alternating shots, or even a combination of all three.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h0xiCIMIwLY

BREAKING THE 180 DEGREE RULESome film makers decide to break this rule in certain scenes in order to gain a certain visual result that can help the scene create the right impact on the audience, that otherwise, may not be possible.Of course, there are only a few times when it may be possible to use it correctly as it can easily confuse the audience (though in some films, that is the effect the Director is looking for). It may be particularly confusing if the characters are making lots of movement and action.In the 1980 film The Shining breaks this rule during the hallucination of a character. This helps the audience to share his disoriented state of mind and understand that something is not quite right, giving the right effect that otherwise, would not be able to be conveyed in such a direct manner. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oF_5k4AWTFw (second scene shown in clip)

Shot Reverse ShotShot reverse - shot helps the audience understand what is happening in a scene better as they get to see both sides the people in a confrontation or certain situations.This is how to works: Character A looks at character B. Then the shot cuts to character B looking at Character A and then the camera goes back to the original shot.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vc1UqeHhjeo - Twilight (2008) in Chemistry class https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zIxGhLILsNs Mr and Mrs Smith (2005) shooting scenehttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h0xiCIMIwLY Spiderman (2001), when the father of Peters best friend becomes a villain https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o1Ey0a6LJRA Hunger Games (2012) Katniss and Peta talk

EDITING TECHNIQUESContinuity EditingFade in/Fade outParallel EditingShot Reverse ShotMatch on ActionSuperimpositionDissolveEllipsisWipeJump Cut

CONTINUITY EDITINGContinuity editing is ensuring that the mise-en-scene is kept constant throughout cuts in a video so that the transition from each shot flows smoothly. This means that the settings of each scene as well as the props and costumes used are without fault or error by changing something in the same scene after a cut.It is important that this is kept constant throughout any film as it keeps the audience under the influence of the story and gives the film a more realistic impresstion, rather than creating a distraction away from the plot and drawing the viewers focus on technical issues and faults of the film.An example of a continuity mistake is in The Huger Games movie (2012):https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xDCPcfT-UT8e An example of good continuity editing is in the music video Till The World Ends by Brittney Spears:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pu9NQCfurDY

MATCH-ON-ACTIONMatch on Action is an editing technique used in continuity editing. It is when an action that begins in one shot is continued or completed in the next shot but by a different object or person(s) and most often is shown through a differ