vietnam overview powerpoint
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- 1.Vietnam -Overview
- Longest war in U.S. history
- More than 58,000 killed
- 300,000 wounded
- 14,000 disabled
- 800,000 Vietnam veterans diagnosed as having significant to severe problems of readjustment.
- In Vietnam over 2 million dead
- In Vietnam 4 million wounded and 10 million displaced from their homes.
3. Public Opinion
- Two out of three Americans judge the Vietnam war tohave been a mistake .
- Over 50% do not have a clear idea what the war was about.
- About1/3 cant evenremember which side we supported.
- 50% of Americans did not know where Vietnam was located
4. A Different War
- First living-room war people watched footage of combat on the nightly news first was in which television played a major role.
5. 76% of the men sent to Vietnam were from lower to middle class families. The average age of a soldier was 19. Most soldiers were drafted few enlisted. Soldiers served a tour of duty about 1 year. 6. Soldiers did not return home at the same time usually by themselves. 7 Presidents made decisions concerning Vietnam. Music clearly proved how divided the people were in the United States. Soldiers invented their own vocabulary for the war. 7. Background of the War
- Vietnam was a French colony that was invaded by the Japanese during WWII.
- Ho Chi Minh leader of the Vietnamese called the Vietminh.
- Ho Chi Minhsupported Communism
- 1945 French return to control Vietnam
- Ho Chi Minh controlled North Vietnam and was sent aid by China.
- France was sent aid by the United States
- 1950 Pres. Truman sent $15 million to France to help with war. United States is paying 75%-80% of Frances military cost.
9. Reasons for U.S. Involvement
- Pres. Trumans policy ofcontainment American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world.
- Pres. Eisenhowers domino theory belief that if one country falls to communism, neighboring countries would fall.
10. 11. France in Trouble
- 1954 Operation Vulture France wants the U.S. to use the atomic bomb Ike said no.
- May 1954 Dien Bien Phu France holds area for 50 days and then falls to Ho and his men.Major turning point France will pull out of Vietnam after this defeat .
12. A Divided Vietnam
- July 1954 Geneva Accords Vietnam is divided near the 17 thparallel into two separate nations North Vietnam Ho Chi Minh
- South Vietnam looking for leader
13. Map Locations
- North Vietnam
- South Vietnam
- Gulf of Tonkin
- Dien Bien Phu
- 17 thParallel
- Ho Chi Minh Trail
- Mekong River
- Red River
- Mekong Delta
- My Lai Massacre
- Cam Ranh Bay
- Ho Chi Minh City/Saigon
14. Roots of American Involvement
- Sept. 26, 1945 Lt. Col.Peter Dewey served in Office of Strategic Services isshot and killed by the Vietminh.
- Dewey is officially the first American killed in the Vietnam war.
15. The Two Leaders of Vietnam
- Ho Chi Minh leader of the North but also many in South Vietnam look to him for leadership
- Hero because he broke up large estates and redistributed land to the peasants.
- He had beaten the French
16. The Two Leaders
- Ngo Dihn Diem placed into office by the United States.
- Told to hold free elections we later refuse.
- Corrupt govt. that suppressed opposition of any kind.
- Offered little or no land distribution to peasants.
17. Ngo Dinh Diem
- He is aCatholic most people want to follow Buddhism.
- He will restrictBuddhist practices across South Vietnam.
- 1957-Vietcong, called VC by theAmericans, - they were guerrilla fighters that wanted Diem out of South Vietnam.
19. VC get help
- Ho Chi Minh will use theHo Chi Minh Trail a network of paths used by N. Vietnam to transport supplies to the Vietcong (VC) in S.Vietnam
20. JFK and Vietnam
- Called Vietnam the cornerstone of the free world.
- Gen. Taylor and Vice President Johnson go on fact finding mission recommend sending 8,000 combat troops
- JFK will send advisors help the South Vietnam govt.
21. Trouble for Diem
- In protest to the Diem-Buddhist monks set themselves on fire.
- VC is gaining support in S. Vietnam
22. Diem Out
- U.S. will support a military coup takeover of Diem
- Nov. 1, 1963 Diem is executed
- Gen. William Westmoreland overallcommander of Vietnam
23. Vietnam Terminology
- BC body count
- Boonies the jungle
- Bought the farm killed in action
- Bouncing Betty a type of mine that when triggered, is propelled into the air and explodes at groin to head level.
- Charlie the VC
- Cobra heavily armed Army helicopter
- Dead Mans Zone slang for the DMZ 17 thparallel
24. LBJ andVietnam
- LBJ willescalate- increase U.S. involvement in the war.
- Sec. of Defense Robert McNamara recommends the U.S. send more troops
25. Trouble in the Gulf
- August 1964 Gulf of Tonkin
- TheU.S.S. Maddox wasattacked by N. Vietnamese torpedo boats
- 2 days later shipC. Turner Joy is supposedly attacked
- LBJ ask Congress to act
26. Tonkin Resolution
- Gulf of Tonkin Resolutiongave LBJ a Blank check to do whatever steps needed to repeal attacks.
- 1965 VC attack advisers near Pleiku and kill 8 Americans.
- 1965 Operation Flaming Dart used of B52 bombers on North Vietnam
- Operation Rolling Thunder intense bombing of N. Vietnam.
- Maintarget Ho Chi Minh Trail
- 1965 200,000 U.S. troops in Vietnam
- 1967Operation Cedar Falls- U.S. attack VC headquarter in the Iron Triangle .
- Troops uncover massive tunnel complex used as a base for guerrilla raids .
- Tunnel Rats men responsible forgoing down tunnels to flush out the VC
29. 30. 31. Terms
- Dear John letter-letter from a girlfriend at home ending the relationship.
- DEROS Date Eligible for Return from Overseas.
- In Country Vietnam
- Kit Carson Scouts VC defectors recruited by Marines to serve as scouts.
- MASH Mobile Army Surgical Hospital
- MIA Missing In Action
- Million-dollar wound a noncrippling wound serious enough to warrant a return home to the U.S.
- Newbie - new soldier
- Point Man man in the front of a squad on patrol.
33. Tet Offensive
- Jan. 31 1968
- New Year 70,000 North Vietnamese and Vietcong attack cities in South Vietnam.
- Boldest move 19 VC attacked the U.S. Embassy in Saigon killed 5 Am. soldiers .
34. Tet- turning point in war
- Why turning point:
- A. military victory for U.S. but psychological victory for VC.
- B. American public thought U.S. was winning war but watched as Americans were killed at the U.S. Embassy
35. Tet Offensive cont .
- C. Createdcredibility gap fewer Americans trusted the govt.
- D. Pres. Johnson said he would halt bombing of N. Vietnam that will not be the total truth
- E. Pres. Johnson announces that he will not seek re-election.
36. My Lai
- March 16, 1968
- Charlie Company group of U.S. troops under the command ofLt. William Calley
- Doing search and destroy mission find charlie and destroy them.
37. My Lai
- 300 civilians mostly old men, women and children killed by Calley and men.
- Officer Hugh Thompson pilot will report killings to U.S. headquarters.
38. My Lai
- Robert Haeberle Army photographer that took pictures of the mission.
- His pictures will be released 2 years later.
- After My Lai many Americans view all Vietnam veterans as baby killers .
39. Battle for Heart and Minds
- Clearing the jungle reason to expose the Vietcong tunnel and hideouts
- U.S. planes droppednapalm a gasoline-based bomb that setfire to the jungle .
40. Battle for Hearts and Minds
- U.S. also usedAgent Orange leaf-killing toxic chemical that devastated t