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Vietnam overview

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  • 1.Vietnam -Overview
    • Longest war in U.S. history
  • More than 58,000 killed
  • 300,000 wounded
  • 14,000 disabled
  • 800,000 Vietnam veterans diagnosed as having significant to severe problems of readjustment.

2. Overview

  • In Vietnam over 2 million dead
  • In Vietnam 4 million wounded and 10 million displaced from their homes.

3. Public Opinion

  • Two out of three Americans judge the Vietnam war tohave been a mistake .
  • Over 50% do not have a clear idea what the war was about.
  • About1/3 cant evenremember which side we supported.
  • 50% of Americans did not know where Vietnam was located

4. A Different War

  • First living-room war people watched footage of combat on the nightly news first was in which television played a major role.

5. 76% of the men sent to Vietnam were from lower to middle class families. The average age of a soldier was 19. Most soldiers were drafted few enlisted. Soldiers served a tour of duty about 1 year. 6. Soldiers did not return home at the same time usually by themselves. 7 Presidents made decisions concerning Vietnam. Music clearly proved how divided the people were in the United States. Soldiers invented their own vocabulary for the war. 7. Background of the War

  • Vietnam was a French colony that was invaded by the Japanese during WWII.
  • Ho Chi Minh leader of the Vietnamese called the Vietminh.
  • Ho Chi Minhsupported Communism

8. Background

  • 1945 French return to control Vietnam
  • Ho Chi Minh controlled North Vietnam and was sent aid by China.
  • France was sent aid by the United States
  • 1950 Pres. Truman sent $15 million to France to help with war. United States is paying 75%-80% of Frances military cost.

9. Reasons for U.S. Involvement

  • Pres. Trumans policy ofcontainment American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world.
  • Pres. Eisenhowers domino theory belief that if one country falls to communism, neighboring countries would fall.

10. 11. France in Trouble

  • 1954 Operation Vulture France wants the U.S. to use the atomic bomb Ike said no.
  • May 1954 Dien Bien Phu France holds area for 50 days and then falls to Ho and his men.Major turning point France will pull out of Vietnam after this defeat .

12. A Divided Vietnam

  • July 1954 Geneva Accords Vietnam is divided near the 17 thparallel into two separate nations North Vietnam Ho Chi Minh
  • South Vietnam looking for leader

13. Map Locations

  • North Vietnam
  • South Vietnam
  • Gulf of Tonkin
  • China
  • Laos
  • Cambodia
  • Hanoi
  • Dien Bien Phu
  • Saigon
  • 17 thParallel
  • Ho Chi Minh Trail
  • Mekong River
  • Red River
  • Mekong Delta
  • My Lai Massacre
  • Vinh
  • Hanoi
  • Pleiku
  • Cam Ranh Bay
  • Ho Chi Minh City/Saigon

14. Roots of American Involvement

  • Sept. 26, 1945 Lt. Col.Peter Dewey served in Office of Strategic Services isshot and killed by the Vietminh.
  • Dewey is officially the first American killed in the Vietnam war.

15. The Two Leaders of Vietnam

  • Ho Chi Minh leader of the North but also many in South Vietnam look to him for leadership
  • Hero because he broke up large estates and redistributed land to the peasants.
  • He had beaten the French

16. The Two Leaders

  • Ngo Dihn Diem placed into office by the United States.
  • Told to hold free elections we later refuse.
  • Corrupt govt. that suppressed opposition of any kind.
  • Offered little or no land distribution to peasants.

17. Ngo Dinh Diem

  • He is aCatholic most people want to follow Buddhism.
  • He will restrictBuddhist practices across South Vietnam.

18. Trouble

  • 1957-Vietcong, called VC by theAmericans, - they were guerrilla fighters that wanted Diem out of South Vietnam.

19. VC get help

  • Ho Chi Minh will use theHo Chi Minh Trail a network of paths used by N. Vietnam to transport supplies to the Vietcong (VC) in S.Vietnam

20. JFK and Vietnam

  • Called Vietnam the cornerstone of the free world.
  • Gen. Taylor and Vice President Johnson go on fact finding mission recommend sending 8,000 combat troops
  • JFK will send advisors help the South Vietnam govt.

21. Trouble for Diem

  • In protest to the Diem-Buddhist monks set themselves on fire.
  • VC is gaining support in S. Vietnam

22. Diem Out

  • U.S. will support a military coup takeover of Diem
  • Nov. 1, 1963 Diem is executed
  • Gen. William Westmoreland overallcommander of Vietnam

23. Vietnam Terminology

  • BC body count
  • Boonies the jungle
  • Bought the farm killed in action
  • Bouncing Betty a type of mine that when triggered, is propelled into the air and explodes at groin to head level.
  • Charlie the VC
  • Cobra heavily armed Army helicopter
  • Dead Mans Zone slang for the DMZ 17 thparallel

24. LBJ andVietnam

  • LBJ willescalate- increase U.S. involvement in the war.
  • Sec. of Defense Robert McNamara recommends the U.S. send more troops

25. Trouble in the Gulf

  • August 1964 Gulf of Tonkin
  • TheU.S.S. Maddox wasattacked by N. Vietnamese torpedo boats
  • 2 days later shipC. Turner Joy is supposedly attacked
  • LBJ ask Congress to act

26. Tonkin Resolution

  • Gulf of Tonkin Resolutiongave LBJ a Blank check to do whatever steps needed to repeal attacks.
  • 1965 VC attack advisers near Pleiku and kill 8 Americans.
  • 1965 Operation Flaming Dart used of B52 bombers on North Vietnam

27. Escalation

  • Operation Rolling Thunder intense bombing of N. Vietnam.
  • Maintarget Ho Chi Minh Trail

28. Escalation

  • 1965 200,000 U.S. troops in Vietnam
  • 1967Operation Cedar Falls- U.S. attack VC headquarter in the Iron Triangle .
  • Troops uncover massive tunnel complex used as a base for guerrilla raids .
  • Tunnel Rats men responsible forgoing down tunnels to flush out the VC

29. 30. 31. Terms

  • Dear John letter-letter from a girlfriend at home ending the relationship.
  • DEROS Date Eligible for Return from Overseas.
  • In Country Vietnam
  • Kit Carson Scouts VC defectors recruited by Marines to serve as scouts.

32. Terms

  • MASH Mobile Army Surgical Hospital
  • MIA Missing In Action
  • Million-dollar wound a noncrippling wound serious enough to warrant a return home to the U.S.
  • Newbie - new soldier
  • Point Man man in the front of a squad on patrol.

33. Tet Offensive

  • Jan. 31 1968
  • New Year 70,000 North Vietnamese and Vietcong attack cities in South Vietnam.
  • Boldest move 19 VC attacked the U.S. Embassy in Saigon killed 5 Am. soldiers .

34. Tet- turning point in war

  • Why turning point:
  • A. military victory for U.S. but psychological victory for VC.
  • B. American public thought U.S. was winning war but watched as Americans were killed at the U.S. Embassy

35. Tet Offensive cont .

  • C. Createdcredibility gap fewer Americans trusted the govt.
  • D. Pres. Johnson said he would halt bombing of N. Vietnam that will not be the total truth
  • E. Pres. Johnson announces that he will not seek re-election.

36. My Lai

  • March 16, 1968
  • Charlie Company group of U.S. troops under the command ofLt. William Calley
  • Doing search and destroy mission find charlie and destroy them.

37. My Lai

  • 300 civilians mostly old men, women and children killed by Calley and men.
  • Officer Hugh Thompson pilot will report killings to U.S. headquarters.

38. My Lai

  • Robert Haeberle Army photographer that took pictures of the mission.
  • His pictures will be released 2 years later.
  • After My Lai many Americans view all Vietnam veterans as baby killers .

39. Battle for Heart and Minds

  • Clearing the jungle reason to expose the Vietcong tunnel and hideouts
  • U.S. planes droppednapalm a gasoline-based bomb that setfire to the jungle .

40. Battle for Hearts and Minds

  • U.S. also usedAgent Orange leaf-killing toxic chemical that devastated t