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Draft Import Risk Analysis report for the Importation of Fresh Decrowned Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) fruit from Malaysia

October 2011

Commonwealth of Australia 2011

This work is copyright. You may download, display, print and reproduce this material in unaltered form only (retaining this notice) for your personal, non-commercial use or use within your organisation. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, all other rights are reserved. Requests concerning reproduction and re-use should be addressed to [email protected] or Communications Branch, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, GPO Box 858, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia.

Cite this report as:

Biosecurity Australia (2011). Draft import risk analysis report for Fresh Decrowned Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) fruit from Malaysia. Biosecurity Australia, Canberra.

www.daff.gov.au/ba

Disclaimer: The Australian Government acting through Biosecurity Australia has exercised due care and skill in preparing and compiling the information in this publication. Notwithstanding, Biosecurity Australia, its employees and advisers disclaim all liability to the maximum extent permitted by law, including liability for negligence, for any loss, damage, injury, expense or cost incurred by any person as a result of accessing, using or relying upon any of the information in this publication.

Cover image: Fresh pineapple fruit (DoA 2009)

Submissions

This draft import risk analysis (IRA) report has been issued to give all interested parties an opportunity to comment and draw attention to any scientific, technical, or other gaps in the data, misinterpretations and errors. Any comments should be submitted to Biosecurity Australia within the comment period stated in the related Biosecurity Australia Advice on the Biosecurity Australia website. The draft IRA report will then be revised as necessary to take account of the comments received and a provisional final IRA report will be released at a later date.

Comments on the draft IRA report should be submitted to:

Office of the Chief ExecutiveBiosecurity AustraliaGPO Box 858CANBERRA ACT 2601AUSTRALIA

Telephone:+61 2 6272 3933Facsimile:+61 2 6272 3307

Email:[email protected]:www.daff.gov.au/ba

Contents

viFigures

viTables..

viiiAcronyms and abbreviations

viiiAbbreviation of units

11Summary.

11Introduction

11.1.Australias biosecurity policy framework

11.2.This import risk analysis

52Method for pest risk analysis

52.1Stage 1: Initiation

62.2Stage 2: Pest risk assessment

132.3Stage 3: Pest risk management

153Malaysias commercial production practices for fresh pineapple fruit

153.1Assumptions used in estimating unrestricted risk

153.2Production areas

163.3Pre-harvest

203.4Harvesting and handling procedures

203.5Post-harvest

233.6Export capability

254Pest risk assessments for quarantine pests

264.1Armoured scales [Hemiptera: Diaspididae]

324.2Mealybugs [Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae]

374.3Bacterial fruit collapse of pineapple [Enterobacteriaceae]

494.4Rubber leaf drop [Pythiales: Pythiaceae]

544.5Pest risk assessment conclusions

575Pest risk management

575.1Pest risk management measures and phytosanitary procedures

635.2Responsibility of competent authority

635.3Review of processes

635.4Uncategorised pests

67Appendix AInitiation and categorisation for pests of fresh decrowned pineapple fruit from Malaysia

89Appendix BAdditional quarantine pest data

93Appendix CBiosecurity framework

99Glossary..

101References.

Figures

viiFigure 1Map of Australia

viiFigure 2A guide to Australias bio-climate zones

16Figure 3.1Main pineapple production areas in Malaysia

18Figure 3.2Freshly planted Malaysian pineapple field (DoA 2009)

19Figure 3.3Manual weeding of the pineapple field being undertaken in Malaysia

21Figure 3.4Fruit cleaning being undertaken at the packhouse using an air blower

22Figure 3.5 Exportation activities of fresh pineapple to Australia (based on a consignment with a 30 tonne capacity) Process takes approximately 13 days (308hrs)

23Figure 3.610 kg corrugated fibre board boxes currently utilised by the Malaysian pineapple industry for exports to Dubai

Tables

9Table 2.1Nomenclature for qualitative likelihoods

9Table 2.2Matrix of rules for combining qualitative likelihoods

11Table 2.3Decision rules for determining the consequence impact score based on the magnitude of consequences at four geographic scales

12Table 2.4Decision rules for determining the overall consequence rating for each pest

13Table 2.5Risk estimation matrix

17Table 3.1Characteristics of common Malaysian pineapple varieties.

19Table 3.2Pest and disease control in Malaysian pineapple production systems

24Table 3.3Major export destination of Malaysian pineapples.

25Table 4.1Quarantine pests for fresh pineapple fruit from Malaysia

55Table 4.2Summary of unrestricted risk estimates for quarantine pests associated with pineapple fruit from Malaysia

58Table 5.1Phytosanitary measures proposed for quarantine pests for decrowned pineapple fruit from Malaysia

Figure 1Map of Australia

Tropic of CapricornTropic of Capricorn

Figure 2A guide to Australias bio-climate zones

Acronyms and abbreviations

Term or abbreviation

Definition

ACT

Australian Capital Territory

ALOP

Appropriate level of protection

AQIS

Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service

DAFF

Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry

DoA

Department of Agriculture, Malaysia

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

IPC

International Phytosanitary Certificate

IPM

Integrated Pest Management

IPPC

International Plant Protection Convention

IRA

Import Risk Analysis

ISPM

International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures

NPPO

National Plant Protection Organization

ACT

Australian Capital Territory

NSW

New South Wales

NT

Northern Territory

Qld

Queensland

SA

South Australia

Tas.

Tasmania

Vic.

Victoria

WA

Western Australia

WTO

World Trade Organization

Abbreviation of units

Term or abbreviation

Definition

C

degree Celsius

F

degree Fahrenheit

kg

Kilogram

km

Kilometre

m

Metre

micrometre (one millionth of a metre)

ml

Millilitre

mm

Millimetre

ppm

parts per million

s

Second

Summary

This import risk analysis (IRA) report assesses a proposal from Malaysia for market access to Australia for fresh decrowned pineapple fruit.

Australia permits the importation of fresh pineapple fruit from the Philippines, Thailand, SriLanka and Solomon Islands, subject to a range of phytosanitary measures.

The draft report proposes that the importation of fresh decrowned pineapple fruit from all commercial production areas of Malaysia be permitted, subject to a range of quarantine conditions.

This draft report identifies pests that require quarantine measures to manage risks to a very low level in order to achieve Australias appropriate level of protection (ALOP). The pests requiring measures are: Dysmicoccus grassii, Dysmicoccus neobrevipes, Planococcus minor and Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi.

Only one pest has been identified as regional quarantine pest: Planococcus minor for Western Australia. The proposed quarantine measures take into account regional differences.

This draft report proposes a combination of risk management measures and operational systems that will reduce the risk associated with the importation of decrowned fresh pineapple fruit from Malaysia into Australia to achieve Australias ALOP, specifically:

Pre-shipment or on-arrival methyl bromide fumigation or alternative post harvest treatment as approved by DAFF for mealybugs

an operational system for the maintenance and verification of the phytosanitary status of pineapple fruit, including:

registration of export plantations

registration of packing houses and auditing of procedures

registration of fumigators / treatment facilities and auditing of procedures

packaging and labelling requirements

specific conditions for storage and transport

pre-export phytosanitary inspection and certification by Department of Agriculture, Malaysia; and

on-arrival phytosanitary inspection, remedial action when required, and clearance by the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS).

This draft IRA report contains details of the risk assessments for the quarantine pests and the proposed quarantine measures in order to allow interested parties to provide comments and submissions to Biosecurity Australia within the 60 day consultation period.

1Introduction

1.1. Australias biosecurity policy framework

Australia's biosecurity policies aim to protect Australia against the risks that may arise from exotic pests entering, establishing and spreading in Australia, thereby threatening Australia's unique flora and fauna, as well as