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    A COMPARISON OF THE VIOLIN PEDAGOGY OF AUER, FLESCH, AND

    GALAMIAN: IMPROVING ACCESSIBILITY AND USE THROUGH

    CHARACTERIZATION AND INDEXING

    By

    KELLEY M. ARNEY

    Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of

    The University of Texas at Arlington in Partial Fulfillment

    of the Requirements for the Degree of

    MASTER OF MUSIC IN MUSIC EDUCATION

    THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT ARLINGTON

    May 2006

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    Copyright by Kelley M. Arney 2006

    All Rights Reserved

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    iii

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    I would like to thank Dr. Scott Conklin for providing the initiative and guidanceto form this study and Dr. Jeffrey Howard for seeing the project through by guiding the

    writing and content of this paper. I would also like to recognize the formatting and

    editing support from Dr. Graham Hunt and Dr. Diane Lange who also serve as members

    of the committee. It has been a pleasure to work with four of the most selfless, talented,

    and knowledgeable professors during the past year.

    I would like to thank the University of Texas at Arlington library system, Dr.

    Jeffrey Howard, and family members for provided the research materials for this

    project. I would like to thank Paul Kelly for his interest and support as well as the great

    community of musician friends around the world who have contributed in many ways.

    In addition, I would like to express thanks to my husband Nolan and my sister

    Rose specifically and my family generally for their support. I humbly appreciate the

    never failing love and support of my Father in Heaven and His great son Jesus Christ,

    and for members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Dallas Stake who

    have been my family in Texas.

    This thesis is dedicated to all my wonderful students who not only pursue

    excellence in performance but are also caring leaders among their peers.

    April 13, 2006

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    ABSTRACT

    A COMPARISON OF THE VIOLIN PEDAGOGY OF AUER, FLESCH, AND

    GALAMIAN: IMPROVING ACCESSIBILITY AND USE THROUGH

    CHARACTERIZATION AND INDEXING

    Publication No. ______

    Kelley M. Arney, MM

    The University of Texas at Arlington, 2006

    Supervising Professor: Dr. Jeffrey Howard

    The development of the index and characterization tools allows pedagogical

    texts to be used as resource texts. The common index allows any researcher to access

    applicable and significant information of a text quickly without destroying the

    continuity of the original text. The characterization charts aid the researcher in using

    the information in historical and philosophical ways. Thus, the index and

    characterizations of the Auer, Flesch, and Galamian texts gives string educators of

    advanced students (especially conservatory and university violin teachers) and

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    performers access to three important pedagogical texts by an accessible, applicable, and

    scholarly approach.

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    vi

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS....................................................................................... iii

    ABSTRACT .............................................................................................................. iv

    Chapter

    1. GENERAL OVERVIEW AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS........................ 1

    1.1 Topic ....................................................................................................... 1

    1.2 History of Violin Treatises ...................................................................... 2

    1.3 Resources................................................................................................. 6

    1.4 Current Research...................................................................................... 7

    1.5 Distinctive Factors................................................................................... 9

    1.6 Purpose and Problems.............................................................................. 11

    2. LITERATURE REVIEW .............................................................................. 12

    2.1 Auer: Violin Playing as I Teach It ........................................................... 12

    2.2 Flesch: The Art of Violin Playing, Book One ......................................... 16

    2.3 Flesch: The Art of Violin PlayingBook Two: Artistic Realization and Instruction................................ 20

    2.4 Galamian: Principles of Violin Playing and Teaching ............................ 23

    3. METHODOLOGY........................................................................................ 29

    3.1 Index Methodology.................................................................................. 29

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    3.1.1 Short History of Indexing ......................................................... 29

    3.1.2 Types of Indexes....................................................................... 303.1.3 Reasons for Index Use .............................................................. 31

    3.1.4 Indexing Process....................................................................... 32

    3.2 Characterization Methodology................................................................. 33

    3.2.1 Content of Characterization Charts .......................................... 34

    3.2.2 Characterization Instructions.................................................... 35

    4. RESULTS...................................................................................................... 37

    4.1 Philosophy: General Approach to Teaching............................................ 37

    4.2 History: Kreisler ...................................................................................... 41

    4.3 Holding the Instrument: Body Posture .................................................... 42

    4.4 Practice: Too Much Practice.................................................................... 43

    4.5 Tone Production: Portamento or Slide .................................................... 45

    4.6 Teaching: Incompetent Instruction .......................................................... 47

    4.7 Bowing: Legato........................................................................................ 49

    4.8 Left Hand: Intonation............................................................................... 51

    4.9 Ornaments: Trills ..................................................................................... 54

    4.10 Nuance: Need for Nuance...................................................................... 58

    4.11 Style: Individual Magnetism.................................................................. 61

    4.12 Psychological: Stage Fright ................................................................... 62

    4.13 Repertoire: Developing an Appropriate Repertory................................ 64

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    4.14 Conclusion ............................................................................................. 67

    5. IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS........................................ 69

    5.1 Implications ............................................................................................. 69

    5.2 Applications............................................................................................. 69

    5.2.1 Personal Applications (Playing and Teaching)......................... 70

    5.2.2 Educational Applications (Studio or Classroom) ..................... 71

    5.2.3 Professional Research............................................................... 715.3 Further Study ........................................................................................... 71

    Appendix

    A. COMMON INDEX TO THE AUER, FLESCH,AND GALAMIAN TEXTS ............................................................. 74

    B. AUER CHARACTERIZATION CHART ................................................. 84

    C. FLESCH CHARACTERIZATION CHART ............................................. 86

    D. GALAMIAN CHARACTERIZATION CHART ..................................... 88

    REFERENCES .......................................................................................................... 90

    BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION......................................................................... 95

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    1

    CHAPTER 1

    GENERAL OVERVIEW AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS

    Private violin pedagogy has generally been an oral tradition throughout four

    centuries; the knowledge that is passed from teacher to student is mostly verbal in a

    one-on-one setting. Each teacher has developed his or her own style and approach but

    few teachers have written down these ideas. In general, performers and teachers of

    advanced violin students in the United States use the violin treatises by Auer, Flesch,

    and Galamian. The focus of this thesis is to create tools that would enable teachers and

    performers the ability to use these texts faster. A common index coordinates the

    contents of the texts so that the teacher or performer is able to access several approaches

    to the same concept. Because the texts were written in different eras, characterization

    charts are needed to preserve the histor

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