vocabulary, sentences and grammar.. vocabulary (review)
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Vocabulary, Sentences and Grammar.
Synonyms & Antonyms
• Synonym= a word that has the same or nearly the same meaning as one or more other words.
EX: program / curriculum
• Antonym= a word that has the opposite meaning of another word.
EX: black / white
Homonym & Homograph
• Homonym= a word that sounds the same as another but has different spelling and a different meaning.
EX: waist / waste
• Homograph= a word that has the same spelling as another word but a different meaning and sometimes a different pronunciation
EX: batter (for cakes– to abuse)
Prefix & Suffix
• Prefix= a group of letters added to the beginning of a base word that changes the meaning of the word.
EX: unlikely• Suffix= a group of letters added to the end of a
base word that changes the meaning of the word.
• A contraction is a word formed by joining two other words.
• An apostrophe shows where a letter of letters have been omitted.
EX: she will = she’ll
*Exception is won’t (will not)
• A compound word is a word that is made up of two or more words. The meaning of many compound words is related to the meaning of each individual word.
Connotation & Denotation
• Denotation is the exact meaning of a word as stated in a dictionary.
• Connotation is an added meaning of a word that suggests something positive or negative.
Types of Sentences
1- Declarative: makes a statement. It is followed by a period.
2- Imperative: expresses a command or request. It is followed by a period.
3-Interrogative: asks a question. It is followed by a question mark (?).
4- Exclamatory: expresses strong emotion. I can also express a command or request that is made with great excitement. It is followed by an exclamation mark (!).
• The “do-er” of the action. Every sentence MUST have a subject.
• COMPLETE: includes all the words that tell who or what the sentence is about.
• SIMPLE: the main word in the complete subject.
• COMPOUND: is made up of two or more simple subjects.
• The action (or verb) itself. Every sentence must have a predicate (as well as a subject).
• COMPLETE: includes all the words that state the action or condition of the subject.
• SIMPLE: a verb within the complete predicate. • COMPOUND: is made up of two or more
• DIRECT OBJECT: tells who or what receives the action of the verb. The direct object is a noun, proper noun or pronoun that follows an action verb.
EX: You told the (truth) direct object
• INDIRECT OBJECT: the noun, pronoun or proper noun that tells to whom or for whom an action is done. In order to have an indirect object, a sentence must have a direct object.
EX: Who sold (you)indirect object that fantastic (bike)direct object?
• A clause is a group of words that contain a subject and a predicate.
• There are 2 kinds of clauses.
1- The Independent Clause
2- The Subordinate Clause
• Can stand alone as a sentence because it expresses a complete thought.
EX: (The students came) in when the bell rang.
• This clause has a subject and a predicate but cannot stand alone as a sentence because it does not express a complete thought.
• A subordinate clause must be combined with an independent clause to make a sentence
EX: The stamp (that I bought) was already in my collection.
Types of Subordinate Clauses
1- Adjective Subordinate Clause• A subordinate clause that modifies a noun or a
pronoun. It answers the adjective question which one? or what kind?
• It usually modifies the word directly preceding it. • Most adjective clauses begin with a RELATIVE
• Relates an adjective clause to the noun or pronoun that the clause modifies.
EX: The coat (that I bought) was on sale.
Types of Subordinate Clauses (cont.)
2- Adverb Subordinate Clause • A subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an
adjective or another adverb. • It answers the adverb question how? under
what condition? or why? • Most adverb clauses begin with a
• The ‘joining’ words that introduce adverb clauses.
-When -Because-After -Although-Before -Since
Now that we understand clauses, we can begin to understand the different ways to join together clauses to add interest to our writing.
• Contains only one independent clause. The subject, predicate or both may be compound.
The courthouse is the oldest building in town.
Gale and Louise are making costumes and dressing up.
Compound Sentences(ind + ind.)
• Consists of two or more independent clauses. Each independent clause in a compound sentence can stand alone as a separate sentence.
• The independent clauses are usually joined by conjunctions :– and - or – but - for– so - yet
• Sometimes a semicolon (;) is used to join two independent clauses in a compound sentence
Compound Sentences (cont.)
• Pay attention to how commas are used in these sentences!
EX:Jack brought the chairs, but Mary forgot the
The music started; the dance had begun.
We can wait for Jesper, or we can go on ahead.
Complex Sentences(ind. + sub.)
• Contains one independent clause and one or more subordinate clauses.
EX: The person (who helps me carry these) gets
The shadows (that had fallen between the trees) were a deep purple.
Complex-Compound Sentences(ind. + ind. + sub.)
• Consists of two or more independent clauses and one or more subordinate clauses.
Magda stayed at my house because she lost her keys, and her parents were not home.