volcano notes what materials erupt from volcano? 1.gases 2.molten rock 3.solid fragments

Download Volcano Notes What materials erupt from Volcano? 1.Gases 2.Molten Rock 3.Solid Fragments

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  • Volcano NotesWhat materials erupt from Volcano?GasesMolten RockSolid Fragments

  • GASESSTEAM is most abundant, 66%Other gases CO2, N, S, H, Cl, Ar, FWhite clouds: indicate STEAMBluish/brown: indicate SULFUR

  • FUMAROLECrack in a volcanoTemps range 200-400 degreesAlaskas Valley of 10,000 SmokesSOLFATARA: special fumarole, releases SULFUR

  • Gases: determine eruptionEXPLOSIVE: thick magma, trapped gases, Ex: Mt Pelee

    GENTLE: magma is fluid, gases can escape, Ex: Hawaii

  • Trapped gases undergroundHOT SPRINGS form when groundwater boils

    GEYSER is special type that erupts periodically

  • MOLTEN ROCKMAGMA: melted rock below the earths surface

    LAVA: melted rock above the earths surface

  • Types:AA: rough, jagged, sharp lava

    PAHOEHOE: smooth, satin-like, ropey lava

  • Examples:PILLOW LAVA: forms when lava flows into the ocean

    PILLAR LAVA: as lava cools, surface shrinks, forms hexagonal columns

  • SOLID FRAGMENTSDUST: smallestASH: next largestLAPILLI: grape-sizedCINDERS: glassyBOMBS: tear-droppedBLOCK: largestTUFF: combinationPUMICE: light gray rock, floatsSCORIA: heavier, more red

  • Lapilli, Bomb, Pumice, Block

  • NUEE ARDENTEA mixture of steam, other gases, pumice, ashFlows down hill like an avalanche

  • Sources of MagmaBATHOLITH: larger than 40 square miSTOCK: less than 40 square miLACCOLITH: Domed surfaceDIKE: vertical intrusionSILL: horizontal intrusionPIPE: connectsNECK: center of coneDOME: may form

  • FISSURE or RIFTCrack in the surface of earthMagma escapesMay be miles long

  • Top of Volcano:CONE: visible part of volcano, the rim is called the crater

    If rim collapses and enlarges it is called a CALDERA


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