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  • 1. World War IRupert Brooke andWilfred Owenby Ms.M.Sammut Dimech

2. On the morning of 28th June 1914Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir apparentto the throne of Austria-Hungary, was shotdead as he was being driven in the streetsof Sarajevo. His wife also died at the hands of theassassin, a Bosnian student. 3. No single incident in modern history hashad such repercussions. This assassination at Sarajevo, hadshattering consequences for the world. It set in train a sequence of events that leddirectly to war on a colossal scale WWI How could a couple of pistol shots inSarajevo lead to such a catastrophe? 4. A WEB OF ALLIANCES The GREAT POWERS, as the principleEuropean states were then called, had by1914 divided themselves into rival armedcamps, each camp bound together by acomplex web of mutual assistancetreaties, in case of attack. 5. On the one side was the so-called TRIPLEALLIANCE. The leading member of the Triple Alliance wasKaiser Wilhelm IIs GERMANY, by any measurethe mightiest force in continental Europe. Allied to Germany, by ties of blood as well asinterest, was the Austro-Hungarian Empire, witha comparitively lightweight Italy, completing theTrio. 6. Against the triple Alliance stood the TRIPLE ENTENTE: RUSSIA FRANCE BRITAIN Both sides had followed the now familiarpath of arming themselves to the teeth inorder to protect themselves against theother. 7. Princip, the Bosnian student whoassassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand,was a member of a terrorist organizationwith close links with elements in theSerbian government. Austria-Hungary seized on the incident asan opportunity to settle scores with Serbiaonce and for all. 8. And it was emboldened to this by virtue ofKaiser Wilhelms full-blooded support. The view from Berlin was that Russiawould not intervene to defend its Serbianfriends and fellow Slavs, and by failing todo so would lose credibility as a GreatPower. But 9. Key Dates 28 June Archduke Franz Ferdinandassassinated 28 July Austria-Hungary declares war onSerbia 1 August Germany declares war onRussia 3 August Germany declares war onFrance and invades Belgium 4 August Britain declares war on Germany 10. In such a seemingly careless way did theGreat Powers of Europe find themselvesat war. What sort of war did they expect it to be? Military experts and the public at large, onboth sides, were, in general, agreed onone point: that it would not last long. 11. There was patriotic frenzy in all Europeancapitals during those heady days of earlyAugust. In the first 18 months of war, more thantwo million men were borne to therecruiting stations on a wave ofnationalistic fervour. 12. This carnival-likeatmosphere infected thesoldiers too- as theydashed off to the Front.It will be over byChristmas 13. War Poetry The English poetry of WWI can be dividedroughly into two periods. At the outbreak, the poets celebrated thewar and shared a simple heroic vision ofnoble sacrifice for ones country 14. The embodiment of this type of poetry isRupert Brookes The Soldier. 15. But the nave idealism died amid theappalling carnage of the Battle of theSomme in 1916. The young men who experienced it,forged a new kind of poetry; poetry that forthe first time faced up to the full horror ofthe war. Wilfred Owens Dulce et DecorumEst is the best example. 16. Rupert Brooke 1887-1915 17. He was commissioned in the Royal NavalDivision and in October 1914 took part inthe unsuccessful attempt to relieveAntwerp his only limited experience ofmilitary action. While back in England for training, hewrote the five 1914 Sonnets. The Soldier is the most famous of all 18. At the end of February 1915, Brookesailed with the Hood Battalion for theDardanelles. While apparently recovering fromsunstroke and a sore on his lip, he wassuddenly taken seriously ill. Diagnosed as suffering from acute bloodpoisoning, he was transferred to a Frenchhospital ship, and died on 23rd April 1915. 19. He was buried in an olive grove on theGreek island of Skyros. 20. THE SOLDIER If I should die; think only this of me:That theres a corner of a foreign fieldThat is for ever England. 21. There shall beIn that rich earth a richer dust concealed; 22. A dust whom England bore, shaped, made aware 23. Gave once, her flowers to love 24. her ways to roam, 25. A body of Englands, breathing English air,Washed by the rivers, 26. blest by suns of home 27. And think, this heart, all evil shed away,A pulse in the eternal mind, no lessGives somewhere back the thoughts byEngland given; 28. Her sights and sounds; 29. dreams happy as her day;And laughter, learnt of friends 30. and gentleness,In hearts at peace, under an English heaven . 31. WILFRED OWEN1893 - 1918 32. My subject is War, and the pity of War. The poetry is in the pity. All a poet can do today is warn. 33. Poisonous Gas in WWIThe first gas attack took place on 22 nd April1915, when French-Algerian troops werestationed near the Belgian town of Ypres.The chlorine gas could be seen as agreenish-yellow cloud moving towards thesoldiers from the German front. 34. Types of GasesCHLORINE severe breathing difficultiesDIPHOSGENE & PHOSGENE severebreathing difficultiesTEAR GAS instant pain in the eyes,cramp of the eyelids, irritation to nose,mouth, throat and airways 35. MUSTARD GAS The most widely reported and perhaps themost effective gas of WWI. It was introduced by Germany in July1917. It burned and blistered the skin, causedtemporary blindness, and if inhaled,flooded the lungs and led to death. 36. It caused internal and external bleedingand attacked the bronchial tubes. This was extremely painful and mostsoldiers had to be strapped to their beds. 37. Gas Masks The first masks supplied to soldiers weresomewhat makeshift basic gogglesprotected the eyes, and mouth pads madeof flannel or other absorbent materialswere worn over the mouth. Chemical-soaked pads neutralized thegas although soldiers sometimes soakedthem in their own urine. 38. By the middle of the war more protectivemasks were issued to soldiers whichconsisted of full face masks or goggles and respirators. 39. Dulce et Decorum estBent double like old beggars under sacks, 40. Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, wecursed through sludge,Till on the haunting flares we turned ourbacks,And towards our distant rest began totrudge. 41. Men marched asleep. Many had lost theirbootsBut limped on, blood-shod. All went lame;all blind; 42. Drunk with fatigue; deaf even to the hootsOf tired, outstripped Five Nines thatdropped behind. 43. - An ecstasy of fumbling,Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time; 44. But someone still was yelling out andstumbling,And floundring like a man in fire andlime 45. Dim, through the misty panes and thickgreen light,As under a green sea, I saw himdrowning. 46. In all my dreams, before my helpless sight,He plunges at me, guttering, choking,drowning 47. If in some smothering dreams, you toocould paceBehind the wagon that we flung him in, 48. And watch the white eyes writhing in hisface,His hanging face like a devils sick of sin;If you could hear at every jolt, the bloodCome gargling from the froth-corruptedlungs, 49. Obscene as cancer, bitter as the cudOf vile, incurable sores on innocenttongues,- 50. My friend, you would not tell with suchhigh zestTo children ardent for some desperateglory,


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