waste | jim baird

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  • 1. Carbon Accounting in the Waste Sector
    Prof Jim Baird
    Caledonian Environment Centre
    Glasgow Caledonian University
    1

2. Scotlands Waste

  • Households

3. 3.2 Million Tonnes 4. Offices/Schools/Shops/Industry 5. 8.4 Million Tonnes 6. Construction and Demolition 7. 10.4 Million Tonnes2
8. Landfill Directive (1999/31/EC)
Tightened up standards for operation
Required pre-treatment of waste prior to landfill
And Perhaps most significantly:
Set targets for the diversion of Biodegradable Municipal Waste
Municipal Waste
Biodegradable
3
9. Definitions
Municipal Waste
EU - waste from households, as well as other waste, which, because of its nature or composition, is similar to waste from household
UK Waste Collected by or on behalf of the Local Authority
Biodegradable
Any waste that is capable of undergoing anaerobic or aerobic decomposition, such as; food and garden waste; and paper and cardboard
Leads to Biodegradable Municipal Waste (BMW)
4
10. Effect of Recycling on Biodegradable tonnage
3.2Mt/yr
2.5Mt/yr
1.2
Landfill Directive Targets
1.0
2.0
1.5
1.32
0.88
0.6
2020
2013
2010
2002/3
2005/6
5
11. Implications

  • By 2010 need 300kt/yr treatment capacity

12. 5 of these6
13. Implications

  • Or

14. 4 of these7
15. Implications

  • Or a lot more of this:

8
16. Or Even better -
9
17. Evolving Drivers Recycling Targets

  • Scotland currently recycles/composts around 30% of MSW

18. New recycling/composting targets: 19. 40% by 2010 20. 50% by 2013 21. 60% by 2020 22. 70% by 2025 23. New National Waste Plan with single outcome agreements for each local authorities 24. Max. 25% mixed waste treated using efficient energy technologies (e.g. EfW)10
25. First Wave:
Recycling and Composting
11
26. CO2 E
CO2 E
Resources
Resources
CO2 E
Landfill
Householders (Councils)
Waste
Sector
Energy Sector
Manufacturing Sector
Business Consumers
Reprocessor
Materials
EfW
12
27. Current Situation -41%Recycling
An Example Council
Population: 60,000 households
13
28. Increased Recycling 52% Recycling
14
An Example Council
Population: 60,000 households
29. Carbon Impacts 4 Components
Collection vehicles locally collecting waste
Local Reprocessing includes transport to markets
Displacing Virgin Material
Landfilling residual
15
30. Displacement of Virgin Materials
16
31. Carbon Emissions Recycling Programmes
17
32. Carbon Emissions Recycling Programmes
18
33. Carbon Emissions Recycling Programmes
19
34. Carbon Emissions Recycling Programmes
20
35. Carbon Emissions Recycling Programmes
21
36. Scotlands Emissions Mt CO2E
22
37. Scotlands Carbon Emissions (CO2E)
Scotland
Scotlands Waste Sector
2.36Mt (4%)
59Mt

  • Fugitive landfill Emissions

38. Gas Recovery 39. Energy Sector 40. Industrial Processes 41. Agriculture 42. Land Use/Forestry 43. Waste 44. Collection 45. Reprocessing 46. Recycled materials23
47. Impact of Scotlands Municipal Waste
3.2Mt/yr to manage two scenarios
Scenario 1 No recycling all waste to landfill
Scenario 2 52% recycling remainder to landfill
Expanding of kerbside collection services
Recycling Centres
Focus of organic materials being recovered
24
48. Impact of Scotlands Municipal Waste
25
49. CO2 E
CO2 E
Resources
Resources
CO2 E
Landfill
Householders (Councils)
Waste
Sector
Energy Sector
Manufacturing Sector
Business Consumers
Reprocessor
Materials
EfW
26
50. Waste Management Contributing to Scotlands Carbon Reduction Programme
Landfill Diversion helping to reduce the 2.36Mt/yr
BMW reductions help Landfill gas as energy recovery remains critical
Doesnt address commercial organic wastes though
Recycling helping to reduce the 59Mt/yr
Small contribution to emissions from collection
Through raw material substitution major contribution
Yet what fiscal carbon mechanism works to support the waste sector?
none
27
51. But what about Waste Prevention
Avoiding the production of waste is best
Taking a basket of materials (Paper/card/plastic/textiles/glass/metals)
Avoided CO2 per tonne of material (USEPA data)
Apply 10% reduction of these materials across MSW and C&I waste streams in Scotland
Predicts 1Mt/yr in CO2TE emissions reduction!
28
52. Waste Supporting Carbon Reduction
Well targeted waste policies have a compounding effect and could contribute 6% towards Scotlands 80% reduction targets
29
53. To Conclude:
Waste Management can play an important role in reducing Scotlands GHG Emissions
The IPCC Reporting Mechanisms limit the extent to which the waste sectoris credited for its contribution.
30