Web 2.0 Mashup Accessibility CSUN 2008

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1. Web 2.0 Mashup Accessibility CSUN 2008 Rich Schwerdtfeger IBM Distinguished Engineer Peter Parente Software EngineerEmerging Technologies 2. Agenda State of Web 2.0 Accessibility Quick look WAI-ARIA Introduction to the Programmable Web and Mashups IBM Mashup Accessibility Analysis Short Term Solutions Long Term: Flexible, Personalized Web 3. State of Accessibility for Web 2.0 Tremendous progress on Web 2.0 Application accessibility IBM led W3C Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA) Reusable, Accessible RIAs springing up: (Dojo AJAX Toolkit, JQuery) IAccessible2, Gnome ATK/ATSPI Allows ATs full access to RIAs through the browser AccProbe Test Tool, (Firefox, Opera, IE) browser support under way ATV support: Window-Eyes, JAWS, ZoomText, Orca, NVDA WAI ARIA Allows for Full interoperability with ATs Keyboard usability of the desktop Semantics for content adaptation Accessibility of all applications has its limitations One size fits all Great if you control all the content/code The web is becoming programmable and distributed 4. Quick Look at WAI-ARIA Extends and fills gaps in (X)HTML to support accessibility Uses Meta data found in Rich Desktop Applications to provide for full interoperability with assistive technologies Role, state, property information for widgets Identify Drag and Drop information Defines relationships between UI components Provides information to handle live regions Provides navigational landmarks Allows Web authors to provide desktop keyboard navigation Tab to significant areas and arrow within the widget All HTML keyboard accessible Allows all items to be focusable without impacting the tab order Is cross-cutting and helps all users 5. The programmable web Companies making Web 2.0 API public as a service API Fragments, data, reusable widgets programmableweb.com> 660 APIs RSS and Atom Data Feeds made public Opportunity for rapid Web 2.0 application development *RSS Real Simple Syndication 6. What is a Mashup? Amashupis a web application combining data or capabilities from more than one source into an integrated experience Popular on the consumer web - over 3.45 new mashups/day are appearing: Zillow SeatSnapper What typically characterizes a mashup?Lightweight integration of applications (enables rapid development) Widgets that make up a mashup are often developed and deployed independently without knowledge of each other Widgets can be mashed and wired together in the browser Utilize web technologies like HTTP, **JSON, XML, JavaScript, Atom, RSS Often incorporates one or more public API and online services Often, mashups can be customized by the end user Pageflakes.com **JSON JavaScript Object Notaton 7. What is a Widget? Awidgetis a portable chunk of code that can run in any web application without requiring separate compilation How is a widget different than a portlet? Widgets are URL addressable fragments and can be written in any language (Java, .NET, PHP, etc.).Portlets are Java code. Widgets can be as simple as an HTML fragment, so they dont have to involve any server side code (but they can). Simplicity of model enables developers to learn how to create widgets in a matter of hours versus days. Widgets dont have a complex packaging structure or require a complex deployment model. >> A simple hello worldwidgetcan be written in a tool like Dreamweaver, and the file can copied into the file structure on the server.A hello worldportletwould require a Java-based tool and also consists of multiple files, packaging, and deployment. No widget standards and many vendors have created their own names: gadgets, blocks, flakes, etc. 8. Mashups are Catching on in the Enterprise, But Why? Lightweight integration enablesrapid developmentandlowers skill set requirements Enables the creation of applications that were previously too costly to build (like situational applications) Extends web app development beyond IT out to even knowledge workers Reduces IT backlog Availability of many widgets and gadgets allows organizations to assemble applications at alower cost Once a component is developed, it can be easilyreusedacross different applications, regardless of the underlying technology.NET and J2EE and PHP widgets can communicate together on a page .NET + PHP widgets can be mashed into a J2EE-based app (and vice versa) Wire up for interoperability Gartner: By 2010, more than 30% of Global 2000 organizations will enter a new era of end-user computing via user-assembled, composite applications created with enterprise mashup environments. 9. Examples of Enterprise Mashups Competition Tracker / Web Site Sales Customer Trip Prep Data Center Administrator Mashup Collaborative Web App for Project Teams 10. Mashup Example 11. Accessibility/Usability Wild Wild West - issues from content aggregation are extensive Is the resource accessible? Will the accessible resource meet my needs (WAI-ARIA is new)? Can the resource be adapted to fit my needs? If the resource cannot meet my needs is there an equivalent alternative? Will the Mashup have consistent keyboard support? Is the end solution too cluttered to assist all users? Will restructuring the mashup produce a more usable solution? 12. Accessibility Study QED Wiki No Accessibility Assessment of Data Feeds (RSS/Atom) Keyboard problems Conflicting accelerator keys, tab ordering, IDs, etc. Content from a remote service traps input focus Dynamic content inappropriately grabs focus Inaccessible services No WAI-ARIA support No keyboard support Fixed sizes, styles, and layout (Cant respond to system settings font/color) Interaction inconsistencies Different defaults Different paradigms Disrespect for local user settings Invisible relationships Missing status indicators for widgets Missing controller-controlled by relations among widgets Drag/Drop Layout construction problems 13. Near term solutions Mashup runtime environment must take responsibility for exposing relations among widgets. Use WAI-ARIA relationships (controls, flowto, labelledby) Use WAI-ARIA to mark regional landmarks (main, secondary, contentinfo, etc.) Mashup runtime should attempt to repair any problems it can. Compute a global tab ordering by inspecting explicit tabindex in widgets. Fix overlapping IDs. (Store Widgets in IFrames where possible) Override widget styling. Mashup designer tooling must support creation of accessible mashups. Provide reusable accessible widgets when available Prompt user for WAI-ARIA information when possible Ultimately, must address the accessibility of the original widget content. Services providers must adopt WAI-ARIA 14. Near Term solutions for Mashup construction Layout grid templates for widgets Allows all users to use keyboard to navigate pre-designed template Use WAI-ARIA to apply keyboard navigation/semantics to the grid Provide accessible utilities to wire up widgets Ensure mashup UI consists of accessible WAI-ARIA enabled components (Dojo Toolkit) 15. Aggregation issues expose bigger problems which also create business opportunity One size fits all approach Usable access may require equivalent alternatives Content Aggregators: Unaware if a resource is accessible (Web 2.0 mashups) 16. Problems with one-size fits all Learning disabilities needs vary greatly Managing content density, highlighting specific text, providing different color schemes, use of symbols, etc. Complex visualizations may require equivalent alternatives for blind consumers Use of closed captioning or transcripts depends on the language spoken by the consumer Restructuring content may benefit mobility impaired user Does not adapt to the environment the user is operating in High background noise, low light, temporary mobility impairment, etc. 17. Basis for the solution resides in the learning space IMS Access For All Specifications(Version 2 under development now) ISO JTC1 SC36 Standard nearly final http://www.imsglobal.org/accessibility *DC **LOM Learning Object Metadata 18. Access for All Standards A description of the users personal needs and preferences (*ACCLIP) A description of a digital resource (**ACCMD) Can be used with or without other personal profiles and other resource metadata *ACCLIP Accessibility Learner Information Package **ACCMD Accessibility Meta Data 19. Business Value Personalization How much business is lost when people walk away from an online purchase? What additional revenue could search companies realize if results were easier to use (advertising service contracts)? Aging workforce, with cash, dont want to show they have a disability Service opportunity for ATVs and accessibility consulting Corporations improve effectiveness of e-training When does a persons environment make the IT unusable? Resource Metadata Lawsuits: How does the content aggregator show they did not produce the inaccessible resource? System Admin: What accessibility standards did the resource comply to and can I deploy it? 20. Strategy Moving Forward Demands Personalization Address accessibility of resource content Continue to evangelize and drive industry toward WAI-ARIA adoption Develop Best Practices for addressing accessibility Merge Issues Perform accessibility study of data feeds (RSS, ATOM, others) Identify transformations needed (Fluid Project) Develop flexible internet highway infrastructure map user preferences with the appropriate resource and adapt the resource where necessary Develop standards for resource meta data and user preferences (IMS AccessForAll) Work with W3C/**OMA Deliver user preferences over *DPE? Deliver Accessibility Preferences from identity brokers? Potential Fluid Project Drive Industry Adoption of flexible highway Providing resource meta data (catalog of accessibility capabilities and equivalent resources Drive understanding of business value *DPE Device Profile Evolution **OMA Open Mobile Alliance 21. Take advantage of ability to: Transform the user interface of resources (display and control) Re-aggregate resources Configure tools to meet user needs 22. On-Demand Personalization Broad Network *DPE Device Profile Evolution RSS/Atom Blog search Aggregating server (search, mashup, etc.) *DPE Server Content and ACCMD Device, User Agent, Environment, ACCLIP 23. On-Demand Personalization Local Network RSS/Atom Blog search Aggregating server (search, mashup, etc.) Identity Broker Content and ACCMD ACCLIP ACCLIP 24. Summary Mashups are in the early stages of addressing accessibility Like WAI-ARIA, IBM is leading to get us ahead of the curveWAI-ARIA places usable access on equal playing field with desktop but Mashups could undo the good work Reusable WAI-ARIA enabled toolkits, like Dojo, are on the rise Use them The advancement of the Web mandates an Open Accessibility Strategy Open architectures Open standards Open Source Leverage social collaboration! Proprietary creates barriers! The time is now to move to a more flexible, accessible web Critical for content aggregation Essential for addressing learning and cognitive accessibility Addressing broader accessibility issue will generate significant business value 25. For a copy of the presentation or more information, contact: Rich Schwerdtfeger at[email_address] Questions?