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    Topic 4Emotions &

    Moods1

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    Learning Objectives Define emotion and discuss links to behaviour

    Differentiate emotions from moods

    Identify the sources of emotions and moods

    Contrast the experience, interpretation andexpression of emotions across cultures

    Discuss the concept ofemotional labourandapply it to workplace situations

    Contrast evidence for and against theexistence ofemotional intelligence

    Explain what emotional intelligence (EQ) isand how to develop EQ skills

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    Reading for this week

    Textbook: Chapter 5

    Essential reading:

    Hayes, S. & Kleiner, B.H. (2001). The managed

    heart: the commercialisation of human feeling and

    its dangers. Management Research News, 24(3/4),

    pp. 81-85. Barsade, S.G. & Gibson, D.E. (2007). Why does

    affect matter in organizations?Academy of

    Management Perspectives, February, pp. 36-59.

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    Reading for this week

    Recommended reading:

    Ekman, P. (1992a). An argument for basic

    emotions. Cognition & Emotion, 6(3/4), pp. 169-

    200.

    Ekman, P. (1992b). Are there basic emotions?

    Psychological Review, 99(3), pp. 550-553.

    Ekman, P. (1999). Chapter 3: Basic Emotions. In T.

    Dalgleish & M. Power (Eds.). Handbook of

    Cognition and Emotion. Sussex, UK: John Wiley &

    Sons, Ltd.

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    Emotions defined

    Intense feelings directed at someone/

    something

    - Robbins et.al., 2011, p. 115 -

    Physiological and psychological effects

    experienced towards an object person or

    event that create a state of readiness

    - McShane et.al., 2010, p. 122 -

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    Affect

    What Are Emotions?

    Emotions

    Moods

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    Historical view of emotions

    Negative:

    Positive:

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    Importance of emotionsTo the layman, emotions may not seem very important, but

    emotions are probably the most important thing there is to

    understanding human behaviour. Emotions appear to serve

    some of the most essential functions in human psychology.First, the emotions are critical to our sheer survival. Second,

    the emotions function as the primary source of all human

    motivation. Third, emotions serve to evaluate our world and

    are the basis for all decision-making. And fourth, emotions

    provide the core underpinning for human learning and

    memory

    (Fordyce, http://gethappy.net/v108.htm)

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    Importance of emotions

    (Hein, http://www.eqi.org/emotions.htm)

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    The Triune BrainPaul MacLeans Triune Brain Hypothesis

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    Emotional HijackingSee Daniel Goleman, 1999

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    Emotional Memory

    Why is fear stored indelibly?

    If you forget what harmed you in the

    past, your ability to survive iscompromised

    Evolution places a high value on not

    having to re-learn about danger

    Le Doux,

    http://www.cns.nyu.edu/home/ledoux/slide_show

    /Slide_show_remember_ferar.htm

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    Link between values & emotions

    Emotions are secondary occurrences

    What are values?

    Emotional hot buttons

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    Anger:

    Sorrow:

    Anxiety/worry:

    Joy:

    Affection:

    A value has been violated, e.g. a belief or damage to

    valuable possession

    A value has been lost, i.e. loss of something valuable

    especially loved, one, your pet, an inherited piece of

    jewelry

    The expected loss of, or danger to something you value,

    e.g. your child leaving for a youth camp, or daughter out

    on a first date, or your child not doing well in exam

    Fulfilling something you value, e.g. graduation, or

    experiencing something you value, e.g. meeting withfamily or friends you have not seen for a year

    Togetherness, e.g. when two people who love/like each

    other meet; or when a pet and its master are together

    (DPJ Smith, 2006) 14

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    Basic Emotions Universal and innate

    They are of rapid onset and last only a few seconds

    at a time

    Include:

    *First researcher to present results on basic emotions Paul Ekman

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    Types of Emotions

    Activation

    Evaluation

    Astonished

    Tranquil

    CheerfulSad

    Fearful Elated

    ContentBored

    LowactivationPositive

    emotions

    LowactivationNegativeemotions

    HighactivationPositive

    emotions

    HighactivationNegative

    emotions

    PositiveNegativeLow

    High

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    Gender & Emotions Women

    Can show greater emotional expression

    Experience emotions more intensely

    Display emotions more frequently

    Are more comfortable in expressing emotions

    Are better at reading others emotions

    Men Believe that displaying emotions is inconsistent with

    the male image Are innately less able to read and to identify with

    others emotions

    Have less need to seek social approval by showingpositive emotions

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    Culturally specific emotions

    Do you think that certain emotionscan only be recognised by a

    specific cultural group?

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    *See Additional Reading on Share drive/ T-drive!!

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    Higher Cognitive Emotions

    Also universal like basic emotions, but they exhibitmore cultural variation

    Take longer to build up and longer to die away

    Include:

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    Emotions, feelings, moods

    Emotions = the perception of a certain state of the

    body along with the perception of a certain mode of

    thinking and of thoughts with certain themes

    Feelings follow emotions (Damasio) Feeling =conscious experience of an emotion

    (Le Doux)

    Moods =are different from emotions, they typically

    last much longer than basic emotions, working in the

    background by raising or lowering our susceptibility

    to emotional stimuli (Evans)

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    Behaviour

    Emotions, Attitudes and Behaviour

    Perceived Environment

    Attitude Feelings

    Beliefs

    Behavioural

    Intentions

    Cognitiveprocess

    Emotionalprocess

    Emotionalepisodes

    E.g. our

    organisation ismerging and

    there is a risk

    that some staff

    will lose their

    jobs 21

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    How emotions influence attitude &behaviour

    Emotions are automatic and unconscious most

    of the time

    Like perception, we form emotions about

    incoming sensory information unconsciously

    Emotions shape our longer-term feelings

    towards aspects of our jobs, colleagues,

    managers etc If we experience a positive emotion we are

    likely to have a positive attitude

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    Emotional Labour Effort, planning and control needed to express

    organisationally desired emotions during

    interpersonal transactions (Referred to as display

    rules) People expect us to behave in a certain way as

    appropriate to our jobs

    Originally linked to service industry jobs:

    Flight attendants Debt collectors

    Funeral parlour attendants (e.g. Hochschilds work;

    Goffmans front/backstage)

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    Emotional Labour Emotional labour likely in:

    Face-to-face or voice-to-voice contact jobs

    Roles that require workers to produce an

    emotional state in others Enables employers a degree of control over staff

    (Hayes and Kleiner, 2001)

    Higher when job requires:

    Frequent and long duration display of emotions Displaying a variety of emotions

    Displaying more intense emotions

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    Emotional Labour Challenges

    Thought to lead to dysfunctional behaviour inemployees (low job satisfaction)

    Difficult to display expected emotions

    accurately, and to hide true emotions Hard to determine whether emotions are

    managed or if people are acting naturally

    Linked mainly to service jobs more work in

    different areas needed Emotional dissonance

    Conflict between true and required emotions

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    Phineas Gage

    Bradberry, T. & Greaves, J. (2005). The Emotional Intelligence Quick

    Book. New York: Simon & Schuster 26

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    Emotional Intelligence Defined

    Ability to detect and manage emotional cues

    and information

    - Robbins et.al., 2011, p. 123 -

    Ability to perceive and express emotion,

    assimilate emotion in thought, understand and

    reason with emotion, and regulate emotion inoneself and others

    - McShane et. al., 2010, p. 130 -

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    Self-awareness = Know how you feel

    Self-management = Manage your emotions &impulses

    Self-motivation = Can motivate yourself & persist

    Empathy = Sense & understand what others feel

    Social Skills = Can handle the emotions of others

    Emotional Intelligence

    Research findings: Characterise high performers ashigh EI scores, not high IQ scores

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    Socialawareness

    Self-management

    Perceiving and understanding themeaning of others emotions

    Managing our own emotions

    Self-awareness

    Perceiving and understanding themeaning of your own emotions

    Relationshipmanagement

    Managing other peoples emotions

    Lowest

    Highest

    Model of Emotional Intelligence

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    Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R. & McKee, A. (2002). Primal Leadership: Realizing the power of

    emotional intelligence. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

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    EQ Competencies

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    Self-awareness

    Social

    awareness

    Self-management

    Relationshipmanagement

    Self(personal competence)

    Other(social competence)

    Recognition

    of emotions

    Regulationof emotions

    Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R. & McKee, A. (2002). Primal Leadership: Realizing the power of

    emotional intelligence. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

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    Homework Write a reflection on the link between emotions

    and values. Can emotions make you aware of your

    values?

    Visit the following websites and complete the EQtests to discover your level of emotional

    intelligence:

    http://discoveryhealth.queendom.com/eiq_abridg

    ed_access.html http://psychology.about.com/library/quiz/bl_eq_

    quiz.htm

    http://www.ihhp.com/quiz.php

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    http://discoveryhealth.queendom.com/eiq_abridged_access.htmlhttp://discoveryhealth.queendom.com/eiq_abridged_access.htmlhttp://psychology.about.com/library/quiz/bl_eq_quiz.htmhttp://psychology.about.com/library/quiz/bl_eq_quiz.htmhttp://www.ihhp.com/quiz.phphttp://www.ihhp.com/quiz.phphttp://psychology.about.com/library/quiz/bl_eq_quiz.htmhttp://psychology.about.com/library/quiz/bl_eq_quiz.htmhttp://discoveryhealth.queendom.com/eiq_abridged_access.htmlhttp://discoveryhealth.queendom.com/eiq_abridged_access.html
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    HomeworkRead and prepare the case study:

    Becoming a Facial Decoderon p.

    136 of the textbookRead and prepare the case study:

    Fran Hayden joins Dairy Engineering

    on Blackboard/share drive (T-drive)Bring these case studies along to the

    tutorial for discussion

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