weight management: overweight, obesity, & underweight

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Weight Management: Overweight, Obesity, & Underweight Slide 2 Slide 3 Overweight Overweight (BMI 25-29.9) and obesity ( 30) are widespread health problems that are continuing to increase. Many refer to overweight and obesity as an epidemic. For good health, weight management is important. Slide 4 Slide 5 Overweight Fat Cell Development Fat cell numbers Fat cell numbers increase most rapidly in later childhood and early puberty. Fat cell numbers increase in times of positive energy balance. Hyperplastic obesity Slide 6 Fig. 9-2, p. 283 During growth, fat cells increase in number. Hyper- plastic When energy intake exceeds expenditure, fat cells increase in size. Hypertro- phic When fat cells have enlarged and energy intake continues to exceed energy expenditure, fat cells increase in number again. With fat loss, the size of the fat cells shrinks but not the number. Stepped Art Slide 7 Overweight Fat Cell Development Fat cell size Fat cell sizes increase when energy intake exceeds expenditure. Hypertrophic obesity The adverse effects of fat in non-adipose tissue are called lipotoxicity. Slide 8 Overweight Fat Cell Metabolism Lipoprotein lipase promotes fat storage. Gender differences Men are at increased risk for developing central obesity and women are at increased risk for lower body fat. Slide 9 Overweight Set-Point Theory The bodys natural regulatory centers maintain homeostasis at set point. The human body tends to maintain a certain weight. Slide 10 Causes of Obesity Obesity may not be as simple as food intake exceeding metabolic needs. Some factors, such as overeating and inactivity, are within our control. Genetic, hormonal and emotional factors may require professional intervention. Slide 11 Causes of Obesity Genetics Leptin (also called the ob protein) Protein that acts as a hormone to increase energy expenditure and decrease appetite Produced by fat cells under the direction of the ob gene May be deficient in obese individuals More research is needed. Slide 12 w@io R 114'14Et4,T ssout-co 13E AC-XGF-P INVO -STIR 0 0 Slide 13 Slide 14 I'm in shape. Round is a shape. Slide 15 Causes of Obesity Environment The gene pool of our population remains relatively unchanged. Overeating Present and past eating influences current body weight. Increased availability of convenient food, large portions, and energy-dense foods Physical Inactivity Modern technology replaces physical activities. Physical activity is important to allow people to eat enough food to get needed nutrients. Slide 16 Buy a lot of McDonalds food and get a big, fat ass, absolutely free. Slide 17 Slide 18 Causes of Obesity Environment The gene pool of our population remains relatively unchanged. Overeating Present and past eating influences current body weight. Increased availability of convenient food, large portions, and energy-dense foods Physical Inactivity Modern technology replaces physical activities. Physical activity is important to allow people to eat enough food to get needed nutrients. Slide 19 Slide 20 . LAZINESS IS NOT A HANDICAP. Slide 21 Obesity: Risk Factors Genetics Family history of obesity Psychological factors Social and cultural factors Medical Illnesses Medications Alcohol consumption Smoking Cessation Slide 22 Problems with Obesity Obesity problems depend on many factors such as the extent of overweight, age, health status and genetic makeup. Risk factors may differ among individuals. Slide 23 Makes a point about a topic Give a man a fish and he will eat for a day. Teach him how to fish, and he will sit in a boat and drink beer all day. Lets just say you weigh too much and the less said about your future the better Slide 24 Problems with Obesity Health Risks Obese or overweight people with the following life-threatening-conditions may improve health by losing weight: Heart disease Type 2 diabetes Sleep apnea Slide 25 Problems with Obesity Perceptions and Prejudices Social Consequences Prejudices and discrimination Judged on appearance rather than character Stereotyped as lazy and lacking self-control Psychological Problems Feelings of rejection, shame and depression are common. Ineffective treatments can lead to a sense of failure. Slide 26 Fig. 9-4, p. 289 I am fat and unhappy. I lose a little weight, but then regain it (and sometimes more). I want to be happy. If I lose weight, I will be happy. I try too hard to reach an unrealistic goal. Stepped Art Slide 27 Problems with Obesity Dangerous Interventions Fad Diets False theories Inadequate diets Can be a danger to health Slide 28 Treatment Modalities Diet (proper Healthy nutrition) Exercise Behavior therapy/modification/change Pharmacotherapy Surgery Slide 29 Treatment Modalities Diet vs proper nutrition Exercise Behavior therapy/modification/change Pharmacotherapy Surgery Slide 30 Dieting and Dollars Dieting? Today ~40% of women, ~25% of men Nationwide, 55% trying to maintain current weight. Approximately 45 million Americans diet each year. 80% of adult women have dieted $40 billion annually trying to lose weight or maintain weight. ~1 to 2 billion on weight lose programs. Slide 31 w@io R 114'14Et4,T ssout-co 13E AC-XGF-P INVO -STIR 0 0 WHO EVER INVENTED DIETS SHOULD BE TAKEN OUT AND SHOT! Slide 32 Types of Weight Loss Diets Low Carbohydrate aka High Protein Low Fat aka High Carbohydrate Very Low Calorie aka Modified Fast Novelty Diets Weight Loss Programs Slide 33 Slide 34 Why Weight Loss Programs Do Not Work Negative Impact Temporary Perfect- Orientation Project Mentality Do not Address Cause Slide 35 Consequences of Dieting Decrease in rate of weight loss Loss of lean tissue with fat loss Decrease in metabolism, 10-40% Decrease in Protein turnover Preoccupation with food Increase in irritability, moodiness Tires easier, less physical activity Apathy, depression Slide 36 Re-feeding after Weight Loss Increase in pre-dieting food intake Preference for high fat foods Regain in weight, but greater increase in % BF Metabolism slow to return to normal Regain Weight quicker with each diet Increase in abdominal fat deposits Less likely to return to pre-diet physical activity Decrease in self-efficacy/esteem Slide 37 Recognizing an Unsound Diet Promotes Quick Weight Loss Limits Food Selection Testimonials or Famous People/Places Expensive Supplements or Products No Attempt to Permanently change eating or physical activity Critical of Scientific Community They know more, or something new Slide 38 Characteristics of a Sound Diet Nutritionally adequate yet low in calories Fit into current lifestyle Foods that are liked Slow rate of weight loss Followed for life Slide 39 Slide 40 Predicting Weight Loss Positive Affirmations Strong Motivation Supportive Environment Appropriate Behaviors Changes in Body Shape Slide 41 Predicting Weight Loss Positive Affirmations Self esteem Self confidence/efficacy Good attitude Positive outlook Slide 42 Predicting Weight Loss Strong Motivation Desire or want Belief it is possible Commitment to doing it Positive attitude Persistence Slide 43 Predicting Weight Loss Supportive Environment Family and friends Support group or organization Professional Slide 44 Predicting Weight Loss Appropriate Behaviors Healthy eating Exercise that produces goal Changing problem behaviors Slide 45 Predicting Weight Loss Changes in Body Shape Body Composition changes Circumference changes Looks better, Cloths fit better, etc. Slide 46 Predicting Weight Loss Positive Affirmations Strong Motivation Supportive Environment Appropriate Behaviors Changes in Body Shape Slide 47 I was going to buy the book THE POWER OF POSITIVE THINKING and then I thought what the hell good would that do! Slide 48 Slide 49 Treatment Modalities Diet proper Healthy nutrition Exercise Behavior therapy/modification/change Pharmacotherapy Surgery Slide 50 Well keep looking, keep looking! I see no reason why you should not engage in strenuous activity Slide 51 Exercise In response to the question whether diet plus exercise is more effective than diet alone in causing weight loss, the conclusion of the consensus panel was as follows "--- in most studies exercise does not significantly increase initial weight loss over and above that obtained with diet only. However, in almost all studies the diet plus exercise group lost somewhat more weight than the diet alone condition." Slide 52 THE 100 METER MOSEY Slide 53 Exercise Time minutes % of calories expended 100% FAT Carbohydrate 051020 Slide 54 Three more, two more, one more, okay!...Five million leg lifts right leg first! Ready Slide 55 Exercise Two short sessions/day or one long session? Slide 56 Exercise Two short sessions/day or one long session? Yes! Slide 57 Exercise Two short sessions/day or one long session? Yes! Mode: Walking, Daily Activity Frequency: 5 - 7 times / week Duration: 40-60 minutes 20-30 minutes X 2 Intensity: Moderately Slide 58 My mother started walking five miles a day when she was 60. She's 77 now and I have no idea where she is. Slide 59 Treatment Modalities Diet proper nutrition Exercise Behavior therapy modification/change Pharmacotherapy Surgery Slide 60 To make a long story short, what ever you are doingSTOP IT! Slide 61 Behavior therapy Behavior modification To lose weight and keep it off, you need to make changes in your lifestyle. But there's more to changing your lifestyle than choosing different foods and putting more activity into your day. It also involves changing your approach to eating and activity, which means changing how you think, feel and act. Slide 62 Behavior therapy A behavior modification program can help make lifestyle changes Behavior modification programs may include examining current habits to find out what factors or situations may have contributed to excess weight. Exploring current eating and exercise habits gives a place to start when changing behaviors. Slide 63

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