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Westward expansion

Westward expansionMr. Palmer / US History

ColumbusIn 1492, he was contracted by Spain to find a route to Asia by sailing west across the Atlantic OceanEnded up landing on the Caribbean islands of Cuba and HispaniolaNever actually set foot in America (common myth)His discoveries still pleased the Spanish monarchy and they funded three more voyages to colonize these lands

Impact of Europeanson Native AmericansArrival devastated Native AmericansUsed as slave laborExposed to death and diseaseThousands diedon AfricansColonists turned to Africa for slave laborAtlantic slave trade (triangular trade) demolished African societiesDrained Africa of at least 10 million peopleon EuropeansSparked migration across the AtlanticOverseas expansion inflamed national rivalriesTreaty of Tordesillas: Spain and Portugal agreed to divide the Western hemisphere

Columbian Exchange

First English ColoniesJamestownLed by John Smith (the guy from Pocahontas)Settlers ignored farming in search of gold and many eventually died due to disease and hungerColony almost failed but was eventually savedPlymouthLed by the Pilgrims (Puritan Separatists)Wanted to separate from the English Church and purify it of Catholic influenceMassachusetts BayPuritan society dominated the Massachusetts colony; taxes supported the Puritan church and laws required church attendanceJohn Winthrop was a notable Puritan influence

King Philips WarNative Americans helped first settlers by providing them with land and agricultural advice Disputes soon arose over land and religionMetacom, the Wampanoag chief, organized his tribe and others into an alliance to wipe out the invadersWar lasted for over a year; mass bloodshed and brutal destructionNative Americans eventually fled or surrendered due to food shortages, disease and heavy casualties

Thirteen ColoniesMore British colonies were founded throughout the 1600s and 1700sExisted primarily for the benefit of EnglandExported a rich variety of raw materials to EnglandImported manufactured goods from EnglandThirteen colonies founded over a period of 125 yearsRepresented a wide variety of people, skills, motives industries, resources and agricultural products

MercantilismMercantilismBegan in the 16th century where nations competed for wealth and powerNew economic system in which a nation could increase its power in two ways1. obtain as much gold and silver as possible2. establish a balance of trade where it sells more goods than it buysUltimate goal for a nation was to become self sufficient so that it didnt have to depend on other countries for goods

Navigation ActsPurpose was to tighten control on colonial tradeThese acts enforced the following rules:Goods had to be shipped in English or colonial vesselsAll crews had to be at least three-quarters English or colonial The colonies could export certain products only to England (tobacco, sugar, indigo, cotton, wool, ginger, copper ore, molasses, furs, iron, lumber and other)Almost all goods shipped between the colonies and the rest of Europe had to pass through and English portObviously benefitted England Proved to be good for most colonies as wellBy limiting trade to English and colonial ships, it created a boom in the shipbuilding industry and paved the way for other colonial industries

Enlightenment and Great AwakeningDuring the 1700s, the Enlightenment and the Great Awakening influenced peoples thinking throughout the thirteen coloniesEnlightenmentIntellectual movement that began in EuropePhilosophers valued reason and scientific methodsGreat AwakeningA colonial religious movementChallenged the authority of established churches

Enlightenment (Age of Reason)Emphasized reason, analysis and individualismReason: the process of the mind to think and form judgments using logicAnalysis: detailed examination of somethingIndividualism: being independent/self-reliantFocused less on traditional authorityChallenged the authority of deeply rooted institutionsLooked for ways to reform society through the use of tolerance, science and skepticismTolerance: the ability to tolerate or accept something one does not necessarily agree withScience: the study of the physical and natural world through observation and experimentSkepticism: the attitude of doubting something

Lasting EffectsBoth movements caused people to question traditional authorityAlso stressed the importance of the individualEnlightenment: emphasized human reasonGreat Awakening: de-emphasized the role of church authorityImportant in creating the intellectual and social atmosphere that eventually gave birth to the RevolutionEssentially, these movements helped people think for themselves and inspired them to fight for their individual rights

The road to Revolution begins!