What can teachers / learners do? Chapter Overview 1. Learner characteristics 2. Learner styles 3. Learner strategies 4. Learner motivation Cohen, Andrew

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> What can teachers / learners do? Chapter Overview 1. Learner characteristics 2. Learner styles 3. Learner strategies 4. Learner motivation Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education. </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Successful L2 Learning Success in learning a foreign or second language (L2) depends on a variety of factors such as duration and intensity of the language course characteristics and abilities of the teacher appropriateness of the teaching methodology quality of the textbook size and composition of the learner group amount of natural L2 practice opportunities the characteristics of the language learner Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, p. 161. </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Characteristics Outside the Teacher's Control Age Gender Language Aptitude Learning Styles Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, pp. 161-162. </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Age and L2 Acquisition recent research shows that 'the younger the better' principle is only valid in environments where there is a constant and natural exposure to the L2 (for example, learning French in France); in typical classroom environments where the amount of exposure is relatively small, older learners seem to have the advantage over their younger peers, that is, here, older is better. Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, pp. 161-162. </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Language Aptitude It is best seen as the language-related aspect of intelligence, and it determines the rate of learning and the amount of energy the progress is likely to require of the learner. it is important to note that language aptitude does not determine whether or not someone can learner a language.this can be compensated for by various other factors. Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, p. 162. </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Learning Styles Preferences Sensory / perceptual style preferences Cognitive style preferences Personality-related style preferences Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, p. 163. </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Sensory / Perceptual Style Preferences Being more Visual Auditory Tactile / kinesthetic (hands-on) Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, p. 163. </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Cognitive Style Preferences Being more Global or particular / detail-oriented A synthesizer and/or being analytic Deductive or inductive Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, p. 163. </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Personality-Related Style Preferences Being more Extroverted or introverted Abstract/intuitive or concrete/sequential Open or closure-oriented Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, p. 163. </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> How can knowing learning styles help you? AS A LEARNER: Play to your own strengths AS A TEACHER: Try to provide activities that will cater to different learner styles Try to help students stretch their style muscles (if NOT more) </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Factors that the Teacher Might be able to Influence Learner Strategies Motivation Stretching of Individual Learners Style Teaching and Practicing of Learner / Communication Strategies Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, p. 163ff. </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Strategy Types 1. Language Learning Strategies 2. Language Use/Communication Strategies 3. Self-Motivating Strategies Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, p. 164ff. </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Language Use Strategies 1. Retrieval Strategies 2. Rehearsal Strategies 3. Communication Strategies 4. Cover Strategies Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, p. 164. </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Communication Strategies the verbal (or non-verbal) first aid devices which may be used to deal with problems or breakdowns in communication. These devices enable learners to stay active partners in communication even when things do not go well. [My emphasis added] Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, p. 165. </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Motivation Motivation can be promoted consciously, which is good news for L2 teachers: it means that by employing certain methods it is possible to change learners' motivation in a positive direction. For this reason, skills in motivating learners are an important aspect of any teacher's methodological repertoire. Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, p. 169. </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> L2 Language / Culture The learning of a foreign language involves far more than simply learning skills, or a system of rules, or a grammar; it involves an alteration in self-image, the adoption of new social and cultural behaviours and ways of being, and therefore has a significant impact on the social nature of the learner. Williams, M. 1994. Motivation in foreign and second language learning: An interactive perspective. Educational and Child Psychology 11: 77-84 (page 77). Cited in Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, pp. 169-170. </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Motivation as a Dynamic Process 1. Choice motivation 2. Executive motivation 3. Motivational retrospection Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, p. 170. </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Choice Motivation or Orientation Integrative orientation: reflects a positive disposition toward the L2 group and the desire to interact with and even become similar to valued members of that community. Instrumental orientation: language learning is primarily associated with the potential pragmatic gains of L2 proficiency, such as getting a better job or a higher salary. Integrative motive Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, p. 171. </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Motivational Roles Teachers: group conscience, reference, standard rapport with students how present tasks, feedback, praise Parents: long recognized Learner Group: how classmates react to you Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, pp. 171-172. </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Teaching Strategies Research has found that it is possible to teach learners to enhance their strategy use, that is, to help them to be more conscious and systematic about the strategies that they already use and to add new strategies to their repertoire [and cites several studies. Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, p. 173. </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Motivation, Style, and Strategy Planning In reality, it may be just such planning which makes the teaching of a language course more productive for both the teacher and the students, as well as more enjoyable. Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, p. 176. </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Self-Motivating Strategies 1. Commitment control 2. Meta-cognitive control 3. Satiation control 4. Emotion control 5. Environmental control Cohen, Andrew D. &amp; Zoltn Drnyei. 2002. Focus on the Language Learner: Motivation, Styles and Strategies. In Norbert Schmitt, editor, pp. 170-190. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics. London: Arnold, Chapter 10, pp. 184-185. </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Gardners Motivation Theory It is important to digress here for a moment to note that in 1972, instrumentality and integrativeness were referred to as types of motivation. A number of years later, Gardner and MacIntyre (1991) more appropriately referred to the dichotomy as a case of orientation. Brown, H. Douglas. 2000. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, fourth edition. White Plains, NY: Pearson Education, p. 162. </li> </ul>

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