what is the second generation? terminology fb, arrived as children = 1.5 generation

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Race at the Starting Gate: The Social and Economic Integration of the New Second Generation by Monica Boyd. What is the second generation? Terminology FB, arrived as children = 1.5 generation CB, with FB parent (s) = 2nd generation CB, with CB parents = 3rd-plus generation. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • Race at the Starting Gate: The Social and Economic Integration of the New Second Generation

    by Monica Boyd

  • What is the second generation?


    FB, arrived as children = 1.5 generationCB, with FB parent (s) = 2nd generationCB, with CB parents = 3rd-plus generation

  • Why the Focus on the SecondGeneration?

    1) DemographicsNumbers, Proportions

    2) Parental Difficulties

    3) Historical Change

  • 2001 Census: 13 % are foreign born arriving after age 1221 % are the 1.5 or second generation66% are third-plus generation

    2006 Census:One in five Canadians (19%) are second generation

  • Why the Focus on Second Generation?Long term integration of immigrants, over generations

    How are immigrants doing shifts to how are their children doing

  • New second generation from recent waves of migrants

    Three concerns:1) Economy has changed2) Parental generation is not doing well3) Racial barriers

  • Canadian Exceptionalism: DoAmerican/European ModelsApply?

    Countries have their own unique histories of immigration,immigration policies, and race and ethnic relations Need to conduct research on immigrant offspring in Canada

  • Data gaps dampened researchbetween 1971-1995

    Censuses, 1971, 2001, 2006Surveys: GSS 2001, 1996; SLID etcFocused Surveys: EDS, case studies

    Caveats: Cross-sectionalcomparisons; not descent groups

  • Immigrants to Canada are increasingly from Asia and the Middle East

  • A defining feature of new second generation is their visible minority status and their origins from non-European source countries, as compared to the largely European-based flows of the past

  • Generational Status varies for Visible Minority/ Non-Visible Minority Populations

  • Most immigrants and their offspring live in CMAs

    Visible minority immigrants and their offspring are most likely to live in CMAs

  • Most of the Visible minority population who are immigrant offspring are under age 30

  • How are the new immigrantoffspring doing; how will they do?

    Answers from 2001 census. Asked persons age 15+ to indicate birthplace of parents First time since 1971Study: age 20-29 in 2001; living in cities

  • Educational Attainments

  • % with University Degree Exceeding 3rd+ non-VisminYes NoArab & W. Asian L. AmChinese BlackS. AsianFilipino

  • Transition StagesAll groups more likely than 3rd plus non-Vismin generation to be:

    Attending schoolWorking part time

  • Percentage Deviations of Logged Weekly Earnings, Unadjusted and Adjusted for Other, Variables, by Sex, Generation, Visible Minority Status, Age 20-29, Living in CMAs, and Working Two or more Weeks in 2000, Canada, 2001.

  • SummaryConsiderable variation within Visible Minority population with respect to how second generation is doing

    Chinese, South Asian vs Latin American and Black

  • CaveatsAt the Starting Gate- quite literally

    Considerable variation within visible minority groups pan-label conceals origin variations

  • CaveatsLocation matters

    City context importantlocal labour markets

  • What factors help explain variations? Other studiesParental CharacteristicsFamily StructureLanguage CompetenceEthnic Communities, IdentitiesOther Factors

  • CONCLUDING THOUGHTSOutcomes for new second generation optimistic for some, not for others

    Appropriate policies, programs of support?

  • School ageSchool programs offering support; buddy mentoring programs

    Promote wide range of ethnic identities

    Community centered programs that increase support networks

  • Future research issuesHigh poverty among immigrantsChildren in SchoolsSchool to Work TransitionsRemove pan-VISMIN labelsLook at second generation groups in same geographical space

  • The FutureImmigrants viewed as resources;

    But their children also are; educational and economic success is important

    The foreign-born population now accounts for 18.4% of total, population highest since 1931Prior to 1961 about 90% of immigrants came from Europe. During the 90s, nearly 60% came from Asia and only 20% from Europe.Canada is home to almost 4 million individuals who identified themselves as visible minorities in 2001, accounting for 13.4% of the total population. Between 1996 and 2001 the visible minority population grew by 25% compared to a growth of 4% for the total population.During the 1990s nearly 75% of immigrants settled in one of the three largest urban areas. There is a high concentration in Toronto and Vancouver. The 43.7% of immigrants in Toronto exceed that of any major city in North America, Europe and Australia.

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