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  • Whitepaper

    3D Projection Technology Active-, Passive- Projection Technology

    © Competence Centre for Virtual Reality and Cooperative Engineering w. V. – Virtual Dimension Center (VDC)

    Dr.-Ing. Dipl.-Kfm. Christoph Runde Virtual Dimension Center (VDC) Fellbach Auberlenstr. 13 70736 Fellbach www.vdc-fellbach.de

    Active-, Passive- Projection Technology

  • VDC-Technology screening: 3D projection technology

    � Basics � Projection systems � Construction types projection systems � Further trends

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    xxx

    Content:

    Basics

    Projection systems

    Construction types of

    projection systems

    •Display systems:

    •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays

    Further trends

  • Basics: Terms and motivation

    � 3D visualization = spatial vision � Providing two, slightly offset perspectives

    for the viewer � Possibly head tracking

    Thereby:

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    Content:

    Basics

    Projection systems

    Construction types of

    projection systems

    •Display systems:

    •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays

    Further trends

    Thereby: � Brain assigns spatialities better � Better feeling for the near and far � Building a mental, spatial environment

    model is easier � Support for 3D interaction (space must

    be known for this)

  • Graphical depth criteria

    � What does the brain calculate/ work with?

    Source: Runde, C.: Konzeption und Einführung von Virtueller Realität als Komponente der Digitalen Fabrik in Industrieunternehmen. Zugl.: Stuttgart,

    Univ., Diss., 2007, IPA-IAO Forschung und Praxis, 455. Heimsheim: Jost-Jetter Verlag, 2007

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    xxx

    Content:

    Basics

    Projection systems

    Construction types of

    projection systems

    •Display systems:

    •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays

    Further trends

  • Basics: Stereo solutions

    � Two views are generated � These 2 views have to be transported separately to the two eyes � Note: natural eye distance (about 6.5cm) allows reasonable

    stereoscopic vision at a distance of up to 15m � Greater distance: increase parallax � Quality criteria, amongst others:

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    xxx

    Content:

    Basics

    Projection systems

    Construction types of

    projection systems

    •Display systems:

    •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays

    Further trends

    � Quality criteria, amongst others: o Optical crosstalk (eye receives false signal): ghosting o Overall brightness o Uniformity of brightness distribution (hot spots) o Focus (tinting)

    o Contrast, dynamics

  • Stereo technologies

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    xxx

    Content:

    Basics

    Projection systems

    Construction types of

    projection systems

    •Display systems:

    •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays

    Further trends

  • Stereo technology 1: Color filter

    � Anaglyph technology (complementary color views and filters)

    ⊕ Any display, screen, projector, wall is suitable, even printed products

    Red-Cyan-Anaglyph glasses

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    Content:

    Basics

    Projection systems

    Construction types of

    projection systems

    •Display systems:

    •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays

    Further trends

    suitable, even printed products ⊕ Glasses passive ⊕ Glasses are light and cheap

    Θ Crosstalk Θ View is black and white

    Anaglyphic image from Google Earth

  • Stereo technology 2: Polarization filter technology

    Basic technology: � Polarization filter technology

    (Light waves polarization, passive stereo)

    ⊕ Light glasses, passive ⊕ No sync necessary

    Projectiondesign F32

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    Content:

    Basics

    Projection systems

    Construction types of

    projection systems

    •Display systems:

    •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays

    Further trends

    ⊕ No sync necessary ⊕ No flickering Θ Two projectors necessary Θ Rack and calibration Θ Special projection medium necessary

    (polarization obtaining) Θ Irregular brightness distribution

    suitable projection screens tend to hot spotting

    Polarization filter glasses

    Silver screen

  • Polarization technology: Brightness

    Consideration luminous flux in passive solutions

    Achieved lumens: � Integrated solutions

    improve significantly

    External polarization of DLP projectors

    40% 2000

    stereo lumen

    5000 lumen

    Source:

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    Content:

    Basics

    Projection systems

    Construction types of

    projection systems

    •Display systems:

    •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays

    Further trends

    significantly

    BARCO Gemini/VR workroom Stereo Lumens Boost

    80%

    stereo lumen

    4000 stereo lumen

    5000 lumen

    100% improvement

  • Stereo technology 3: INFITEC®

    � Passive-INFITEC

    ⊕ Any wall can be used ⊕ No sync necessary ⊕ Passive glasses (no power supply) ⊕ Color fidelity remains largely preserved

    Filter characteristics INFITEC

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    Content:

    Basics

    Projection systems

    Construction types of

    projection systems

    •Display systems:

    •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays

    Further trends

    ⊕ Color fidelity remains largely preserved ⊕ No flickering

    Θ Two projectors necessary Θ Loss of brightness Θ Rack and calibration

    INFITEC glasses

    Projectiondesign F32

  • INFITEC: Brightness

    Consideration luminous flux in passive INFITEC solutions Achieved lumens: � Efficiency:

    oColor spectrum is only partly transmitted � 30% of the light from

    Source:

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    Content:

    Basics

    Projection systems

    Construction types of

    projection systems

    •Display systems:

    •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays

    Further trends

    � 30% of the light from projector

    o 3% loss due to glasses o 27% overall efficiency

    � INFITEC Plus: o Color correction („DynaColor“)

    compensation of color shifts o More brightness gets lost:

    result: 17%

  • Stereo technology 4: Active-Shutter

    Basic technologies � Shutter technology, LCD, active stereo � Display: at least 120Hz refresh rate ⊕ Depending on the system, very low

    crosstalk ⊕ Any wall can be used when projecting

    Shutter glasses Nvidia IR emitter

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    Content:

    Basics

    Projection systems

    Construction types of

    projection systems

    •Display systems:

    •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays

    Further trends

    ⊕ Any wall can be used when projecting Θ Glasses are heavier Θ Active glasses: power supply Θ Glasses polarized Θ Usually an emitter for synchronization of

    image glasses is necessary Θ Loss of brightness Θ Possibly flickering (cheap projectors)

    In the past: CRT projector

    Today: DLP.

    Example: projectiondesign F10 AS 3D

  • Active-Stereo: Brightness

    Consideration luminous flux in active solutions DLP/CRT

    Achieved lumens: � Active glasses:

    o Light reaches eye in

  • Active-Stereo: DLP-Link

    � Active stereo without IR emitter: DLP- Link®

    � White image is sent between graphics and is used to synchronize the glasses

    ⊕ No external IR emitter has to be set up

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    xxx

    Content:

    Basics

    Projection systems

    Construction types of

    projection systems

    •Display systems:

    •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays

    Further trends

    ⊕ No external IR emitter has to be set up anymore

    Projectiondesign F10 AS3D

    XPanD X102 DLP-Link shutter glasses

  • Stereo technology 5: Active-Infitec

    � Active-INFITEC inFACT: functionality

    Shutter glasses

    L LRLR 144 Hz

    Traditional active stereo

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    Content:

    Basics

    Projection systems

    Construction types of

    projection systems

    •Display systems:

    •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays

    Further trends

    L LRLR

    Active Infitec: Infitec color wheel, synchronized with L/R images

    144 Hz

  • Active-Infitec

    Basic technologies � Active INFITEC - inFACT

    (INFITEC in time division)

    ⊕ Any wall can be used ⊕ No sync necessary

    INFITEC glasses

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    Content:

    Basics

    Projection systems

    Construction types of

    projection systems

    •Display systems:

    •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays

    Further trends

    ⊕ No sync necessary ⊕ Passive glasses (no power supply) ⊕ Color fidelity remains largely

    preserved ⊕ Less hot spotting compared to

    polarizing filters Θ Loss of brightness Θ Costs

    BARCO Galaxy 12

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