Why Do We Need Web Science Research?
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<ul><li> 1. Why Do We Need Web Science Research?December 2009 Sangki Han, Ph.D. Professor / GSCTKAIST </li></ul><p> 2. Web Science by Tim Berners-Lee in 20062 3. PERSPECTIVESThis is the first report of time-dependent of these has changed when changes in only track to realizing technological capabilities seismic tomography applied to an erupting two quantities (VP and VS) have been mea- resembling those of the fictional Virtual volcano. It builds on earlier work of the sured is not possible and requires the addi- Geophysical Laboratory by 2025. same kind done in geothermal areas in tion of other kinds of data. Both theoretical California and Iceland and the Long Valley advances and more data from different vol-References and Notes 1. D. Patan, G. Barberi, O. Cocina, P. De Gori, C. Caldera, California. But the seminal exam- canoes are needed before the potential of the Chiarabba, Science 313, 821 (2006). ple of major changes in VP /VS comes from method can be fully assessed. 2. The compressional and shear waves are the fastest and The Geysers geothermal area in northernAt present, monitoring of active volca- second-fastest waves to be radiated from an earthquake California.noes still rests mostly on relatively unso- source, so they arrive first and second on seismograms.Their ratio provides information about pressure and During the 1980s and 1990s, some phisticated seismic networks and the moni-about the presence of gas and liquid in the study volume. 13,600 tons of steam per hour were extracted toring of simple parameters, such as theThus, changes in their ratio can tell us about changes in from The Geysers to generate electricity. As numbers of earthquakes and the amplitudepressure and gas/liquid, which are thought to accompanythe buildup and occurrence of a volcanic eruption. a result of this overexploitation, the reser- of harmonic tremor. Patan et al. show that 3. G. R. Foulger, C. C. Grant, A. Ross, B. R. Julian, Geophys. voir became progressively depleted as pore much more sophisticated methods can now Res. Lett. 24, 135 (1997). water was replaced by steam. Repeat seis- be used. Some of these methods only need to 4. R. C. Gunasekera, G. R. Foulger, B. R. Julian, J. Geophys.Res. 108, 2134 (2003). mic tomography showed the steady growth be automateda critical factor if they are to 5. G. R. Foulger, B. R. Julian, Geotherm. Resour. Counc.Downloaded from www.sciencemag.org on December 1, 2009 of a reservoir-wide negative VP /VS anomaly be useful in situations where information is Bull. 33, 120 (2004). that coincided with the steam-production needed on an hourly basis. It is hoped that6. G. R. Foulger et al., J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2147 (2003). zone. This anomaly was caused by the com- this automation work will be pushed for- bined effects of the replacement of pore liq- ward rapidly in the near future, putting us on10.1126/science.1131790 uid with steam, the resulting decrease in pressure, and the drying of clay minerals. A remarkable series of snapshots showed the COMPUTER SCIENCE relentless growth of a volume of heavy depletion (3, 4). The work helped to increase awareness of the nonsustainability of such high rates of fluid withdrawal. Production at Creating a Science of the Web The Geysers has now been reduced to sus- Tim Berners-Lee, Wendy Hall, James Hendler, Nigel Shadbolt, Daniel J. Weitzner tainable levels. Time-dependent tomogra- phy is currently used to monitor the Coso Understanding and fostering the growth of the World Wide Web, both in engineering and societal Geothermal Area, southern California (5).terms, will require the development of a new interdisciplinary field. Time-dependent seismic tomography S was first applied to a volcano in a study of ince its inception, the World Wide lyzes the natural world, and tries to find Mammoth Mountain, a volcano on the rim Web has changed the ways scientists microscopic laws that, extrapolated to the of Long Valley Caldera, California. In 1989, communicate, collaborate, and edu- macroscopic realm, would generate the an intense swarm of hundreds of earth- cate. There is, however, a growing realiza- behavior observed. Computer science, by quakes accompanied an injection of new tion among many researchers that a clear contrast, though partly analytic, is princi- magma into the roots of this volcano, research agenda aimed pally synthetic: It is concerned with the con- and triggered the outpouring of someat understanding the struction of new languages and algorithms 300 tons of CO2 per day from the vol-Enhanced online atcurrent, evolving, in order to produce novel desired computerwww.sciencemag.org/cgi/ canos surface. Several broad swaths content/full/313/5788/769 and potential Web is behaviors. Web science is a combination of of trees died as a result of high levels needed. If we want to these two features. The Web is an engineered of CO 2 in the soil, and the CO 2model the Web; if we space created through formally specified also presented an asphyxiation hazard want to understand the architectural princi- languages and protocols. However, because to humans. A comparison of VP /VS tomo- ples that have provided for its growth; and if humans are the creators of Web pages and graphic images calculated for 1989 and we want to be sure that it supports the basic links between them, their interactions form 1997 showed changes that correlated well social values of trustworthiness, privacy, emergent patterns in the Web at a macro- with areas of tree death on the surface above, and respect for social boundaries, then we scopic scale. These human interactions are, and were attributed to migration of CO2 in must chart out a research agenda that targets in turn, governed by social conventions and the volcano (6).the Web as a primary focus of attention.laws. Web science, therefore, must be inher- By showing that time-dependent seismic When we discuss an agenda for a science ently interdisciplinary; its goal is to both tomography can be used to monitor struc- of the Web, we use the term science in two understand the growth of the Web and to cre- tural changes directly associated with a vol- ways. Physical and biological science ana- ate approaches that allow new powerful and canic eruption cycle, Patan et al. take a crit-more beneficial patterns to occur. ical step toward developing a useful volcano- Unfortunately, such a research area does T. Berners-Lee and D. J. Weitzner are at the Computer Science hazard-reduction tool based on seismic and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute not yet exist in a coherent form. Within tomography. As with all good experiments, of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. W. Hall and computer science, Web-related research has however, it ushers in new challenges. VP /VS N. Shadbolt are in the School of Electronics and Computer largely focused on information-retrieval is affected by several factors, including pore Science, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 algorithms and on algorithms for the routing 1BJ, UK. J. Hendler is in the Computer Science Department, fluid phase, pressure, mineralogy, and frac- University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA. of information through the underlying Inter- ture density. However, determining how each E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Outside of computing, researchers grow www.sciencemag.orgSCIENCE VOL 31311 AUGUST 2006 769Published by AAAS3 4. A New Discipline Model the Webs structure Articulate the architectural principles that have fueled its phenomenal growth Discover how online human interactions are driven by and can change social conventions 4 5. Interdisciplinary Approach5 6. WSRI & Web Science Trust The Web Science Research Initiative (WSRI) is a joint endeavour between the Computer Science and Articial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) at MIT and the School of Electronics and Computer Science (ECS) at the University of Southampton. The goal of WSRI is to facilitate and produce the fundamental scientic advances necessary to inform the future design and use of the World Wide Web Publication: Foundations and Trends in Web Science Events Web Science Summer Graduate School WebSci09 - Society On-Line Directors of WSRI are establishing a charitable body - the Web Science Trust (WST) Working with WWW Foundation6 7. WebSci09: Society On-Line Understanding of both human behavior and Identied the following areas of on-line society and Web technological designdevelopment for particular attention: How do people and organisations behave on-line E-commercewhat motivates them to shop, date, make friends, Government and Political Lifelearn, participate in political life or manage theirhealth or tax on-line? Social Relationships Which Web-based designs will they trust? To which Cybercrime and/or the Prevention Thereofon-line agents will they delegate? Health How can the dark side of the Web such as Culture On-Linecybercrime, pornography and terrorist networks be both understood and held in check without E-Learningcompromising the experience of others? The cross-cutting infrastructure issues on which these What are the effects of varying characteristics of areas depend including, but not limited to:Web-based technologies such as security, privacy, Linked Data and the Semantic Webnetwork structure, the linking of data on on-linebehaviour, both criminal and non-criminal? Trust and Reputation And how can the design of the Web of the future Security and Privacyensure that a system on which as Tim Berners-Lee Networking (Social and Technical)put it democracy and commerce dependsremains 'stable and pro-human'? 7 8. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Web Science which subsequently improved computing significantly. Web EMERGES science was launched as a formal discipline in November 2006, when the two of us and our col- leagues at the Massachusetts In- stitute of Technology and the University of Southampton in England announced the begin- ning of a Web Science Research Initiative. Lead-Studying the Web will reveal bettering researchers from 16 of the worlds top uni- versities have since expanded on that effort. ways to exploit information,This new discipline will model the Webs structure, articulate the architectural principlesprevent identity theft,that have fueled its phenomenal growth, and dis- cover how online human interactions are drivenrevolutionize industry and manageby and can change social conventions. It will elu- cidate the principles that can ensure that the net- our ever growing online lives work continues to grow productively and settle complex issues such as privacy protection and in- By Nigel Shadbolt and Tim Berners-Lee tellectual-property rights. To achieve these ends, Web science will draw on mathematics, physics, computer science, psychology, ecology, sociolo-S ince the World Wide Web blossomed ingy, law, political science, economics, and more. the mid-1990s, it has exploded to moreOf course, we cannot predict what this na- than 15 billion pages that touch almost scent endeavor might reveal. Yet Web science all aspects of modern life. Today more and more has already generated crucial insights, some peoples jobs depend on the Web. Media, bank- presented here. Ultimately, the pursuit aims to ing and health care are being revolutionized by answer fundamental questions: What evolu- it. And governments are even considering howtionary patterns have driven the Webs growth? to run their countries with it. Little appreciated, Could they burn out? How do tipping points however, is the fact that the Web is more than thearise, and can that be altered? KEY CONCEPTSsum of its pages. Vast emergent properties have The relentless rise in Webarisen that are transforming society. E-mail ledInsights Already pages and links is creating emer- to instant messaging, which has led to social net-Although Web science as a discipline is new, gent properties, from social net- works such as Facebook. The transfer of docu- earlier research has revealed the potential value working to virtual identity theft,ments led to le-sharing sites such as Napster, of such work. As the 1990s progressed, search- that are transforming society.which have led to user-generated portals such asing for information by looking for key words A new discipline, Web science,YouTube. And tagging content with labels is cre-among the mounting number of pages was aims to discover how Web traits ating online communities that share everythingreturning more and more irrelevant content. arise and how they can be from concert news to parenting tips.The founders of Google, Larry Page and Sergey harnessed or held in check to But few investigators are studying how such Brin, realized they needed to prioritize the benet society. emergent properties have actually blossomed,results. Important advances are begin- how we might harness them, what new phe- Their big insight was that the importance of ning to be made; more worknomena may be coming or what any of thisa page how relevant it iswas best understood can solve major issues such might mean for humankind. A new branch of in terms of the number and importance of the as securing privacy and science Web science aims to address such is-pages linking to it. The difculty was that part conveying trust.sues. The timing ts history: computers wereof this denition is recursive: the importance ofThe Editors built first, and computer science followed, a page is determined by the importance of the 32 S C I E N T I F I C A M E R I C A N October 20088 9. Model the Webs StructureTECHNICAL COMMENTdata, we can illustrate the same procedure for PageRank by Page and BrinPower-Law Distribution of the the network of movie actors that we dis-cussed (1). When the connectivity of the in- World Wide Webdividual actors is plotted as a function of therelease year of their first movie (Fig. 1A), theresults are very similar to those shown in fig. Barabasiand Albert (1) propose an im- from other sites, and found that the distribu- 1B of Adamic and Hubermans comment. proved version of the Erdos-Renyi (ER) the- tion of links followed a power law (Fig. 1A).The only difference is that the movie industry Web is a scale-free network - ory of random networks to account for the Next, we queried the InterNIC database (us-had its boom not 4 years ago, as did the scaling properties of a number of systems,ing the WHOIS search tool at www.WWW, but rather at the beginning of the including the link structure of the World networksolutions.com) for the date on whichcentury; thus, the apparently structureless re- . Wide Web (WWW). The theory they present,the site was originally registered. Whereasgime persists much longer. When the connec- however, is inconsistent with empirically ob- the BA model predicts that older sites havetivity of the actors that debuted in the same Northeastern Universitys Albert- served properties of the Web link structure.more time to acquire links and gather links at year is averaged, however, the average c...</p>
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