without reference, identify principles relating to intraoral x-ray with at least 70 percent accuracy

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Without reference, identify principles relating to Intraoral X-Ray with at least 70 percent accuracy. Slide 2 Intraoral Techniques As you have probably figured out by now, this techniques involves exposing the X-ray film within (intra) the mouth (oral). There are three common exams considered intraoral: Periapical this exam shows the roots of the teeth, as well as the surrounding bone (peri=around and apical=end). Bitewing this exam shows, on a single film, the upper surface of the teeth and portion of the jaw containing the tooth sockets of a given area. Occlusal this exam shows a cross-section of the upper (hard palate, upper lip, and base of the nose) and lower (tongue, floor of the mouth, and lower lip) dental arches. Slide 3 Periapical Radiograph Slide 4 Bitewing Radiograph Slide 5 Occlusal Radiograph Slide 6 Multiple techniques can be used together to perform what is called a complete mouth survey (CMX). The CMX is a series of individual periapical and bitewing X-rays that completely covers all the teeth and tooth-bearing bone structures. The number of X-rays needed for a CMX depends upon several factors, such as the radiographic technique used, number and condition of the teeth, patient age, and individual anatomical makeup; however,the usual number is around 15 periapicals and 4 bitewings. Slide 7 To perform an intraoral technique, a dental X-ray film must be placed inside the patients mouth and held in place until the radiograph is taken, There are numerous film holders manufactured to perform this duty; each is designed for a specific purpose and to fit the anatomical makeup of various individuals. An X-ray film is placed within the holder; the holder is then placed within the patients mouth. The patient is then instructed to bite down to hold the film in place. Slide 8 Slide 9 There is also a specific type of X-ray unit used to perform intraoral techniques-the fixed system. The fixed dental X-ray system usually has a wall-mounted control and tube head, and provides limited kVp and mA. The tube uses a cone for collimation instead of the elaborate collimator used on a standard radiographic system. It also utilizes a stationary anode due to the small techniques employed. Slide 10 Slide 11 There is also a mobile dental unit, which is a portable radiographic system utilizing a stationary anode and cone type collimator for use within the treatment room. This mobile unit is used to keep the patient from needing to go to another room to have radiographs performed. Its most popular use is during oral surgery or procedures requiring the patient to be sedated. When using the mobile unit, special precautions should be observed due to the hazards associated with radiation because treatment rooms are not X-ray rooms with properly lined lead walls. Slide 12 Slide 13 General Information Always notify the customer and perform a functional test before starting the maintenance work and notify the customer or practice personnel about any defects found. Should it be necessary to replace defective components apart from the parts subject to wear, this must be agreed previously with the customer or practice personnel. Slide 14 Wall mounted units Is the mounting on the wall in a safe condition? Are all cover parts installed and free of damage? Are all shielded connections tight? Is the power cable connected free of damage, firmly and according to regulations? Exposure times and high voltage OK? Is release button OK? Is front panel OK? Slide 15 Arm, tube unit maintenance Is the support arm in order? Can the support arm be moved smoothly, without jolting, easily and without running noises? Is the support arm in an upright position, are the stopper buffers exactly opposite each other? Is the tube unit joint in order? Is the tube unit without oil loss? Are all protective ground connections in the tube assembly tight? Is the grounding strap for the protective conductor OK? Is the tube current in order? Slide 16 Safety check Is the protective ground wire test in order? Is the unit leakage current test in order? Final work Was the complete functional test performed (see service manual) Was the unit cleaned? Always document work performed!