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  • WORDNETReporter: Nguyen Duc Minh Khoi@ Ho Chi Minh City University of TechnologyThursday, November 01, 2012
  • 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 2Contents Intro to WordNet Nouns Modifiers Verbs WordNet system
  • 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 3 INTRODUCTION TO WORDNET
  • 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 4Overview WordNet is lexical database for the English language that groups English word into set of synonyms called synset Authors: the Cognitive Science Laboratory of Princeton University under the direction of psychology professor George A. Miller Used by: Linguistics Scientist Psychologist Artificial intelligence Scientist Natural Language Processing Scientist
  • 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 5Contents of WordNet WordNet distinguish between nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs 4 major syntactic categories WordNet contains basic units: Compounds Phrasal verbs Collocations Idiomatic phrases WordNet as a dictionary: Give definitions Sample sentences Contains synonym sets WordNet as a thesaurus: Conceptual level: semantic conceptual relations Lexical level: lexical relation
  • 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 6Other information Lexical database can be built by: Automatic acquisition Craft one dictionary by hand Knowledge engineering: Lexical level: contains information about synonyms, antonyms... Domain level: refer to the topic of discourse Application specific level: relates objects and events Tennis problem: Contains no relations that indicate the words shared membership in a topic of discourse E.g. not link racquet, ball, net => court game
  • 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 7 NOUNS
  • 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 8Introduction to nouns in WordNet WordNet is machine readable dictionary Noun in WordNet doesnt give: pronunciation Derivative morphology Etymology Usage notes Pictorial illustration WordNet try to make semantic relations by extract synonym from thesaurus manually WordNet lexicalized concept by making synset relate to that concept
  • 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 9Lexical hierarchy Tree graph: graph without circular loop Assumptions: Longer distance in hierarchy longer traverse in thoughts More lexical information must be stored in every lexicalized concepts than is required to establish in hierarchy. Nouns unique beginner:
  • 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 10Lexical hierarchy (cont.) Examples:
  • 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 11Noun relations Hyponyms (~): A word of more specific meaning than a general or superordinate term applicable to it. For example,{bowl}is a hyponym of{dish}: {bowl} ~-> {dish} Hypernyms (@): A word with a broad meaning that more specific words fall under; a superordinate. For example,{color}is a hypernym of{red}: {color} @-> {red} Meronyms (#): The semantic relation that holds between a part and the whole. For example, {beak} and {wing} are meronyms of {bird}: {beak, wing} #-> bird Three kinds: component, member, made from Holonyms (%): The semantic relation that holds between a whole and its parts For example, {building} is a holonym of {window}: {building} %-> {window}
  • 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 12Noun relations (cont.) Antonyms (!): A word opposite in meaning to another For example, {man} !-> {woman} Polysemous nouns: Nous that have many meanings For example, {mouse} living animal or computer device Rules: two meanings of a word are similar then the meaning of their hyponyms should also be similar in the same way. Attribute (=) and modifications: Values of attribute are expressed by adjectives Modification can also be nouns For examples, chair -> small chair, big chair
  • 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 13 MODIFIERS
  • 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 14Adjectives Main functions: modifying nouns Types: Descriptive adjectives Participle adjectives Relational adjectives Format: A(x) = adj E.g.: WEIGHT(package) = heavy
  • 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 15Adjectives Relations Antonyms (!): Basic semantic relation among descriptive adjectives Means IS ANOYNYMOUS TO, e.g. heavy is anonymous to light Can be direct, e.g. heavy/light Or can be indirect, e.g. heavy/airy
  • 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 16Adjectives Relations (cont.) Other relations Troponym (~): Hypernym (@): Entailment (*): Cause (>): Also see (^):
  • 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 17Gradation Contrary: one of propositions can be true or both are false Adjectives can be use to express different level of action For example:
  • 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 18Other stuffs Markedness: Normal linguistic unit (unmarked term) compare to unit possible irregular forms (marked term) E.g.: The pool is 5 feet deep, NOT: The pool is 5 feet shallow So deep marked term, shallow unmarked term Polysemy and selectional preferences: E.g.: old can be not young modify persons old can be not new modify things Some adjectives can modify almost any nouns E.g.: good / bad, desirable / undesirable Some adjectives can strictly restricted to some nouns E.g.: editable / ineditable
  • 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 19Other types of descriptive adjectives Color adjectives: Server as nouns and adjectives Quantifiers: E.g.: all, some, many, few Participle adjectives: Means PRINCIPLE PART OF E.g.: breaking is principle part of break Can be ing/-ed: running water, elapsed time
  • 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 20Relational adjectives Differ from descriptive adjectives by Do not relate to attribute of nouns Can not be gradable Occur only attribute position Lack of direct antonym E.g.: criminal behavior
  • 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 21Adverbs Derived from adjectives by suffixation: -ly: Specify manner: e.g.: beautifully Specify degree: e.g.: extremely Other suffix: -wise, -way, -ward E.g.: northward, forward Inherit their adjectives about: Antonym Gradation
  • 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 22 VERBS
  • 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 23Organizations Types of semantic verbs: motion, perception, communication, competition, change, cognitive, consumption, creation, emotion, possession, body care, functions, social behavior, interaction. Stative verb: Collaborate with be: resemble, belong, suffice Control verb: want, fail, prevent, succeed, begin Cannot group all verbs in unique beginner like nouns English has fewer verb than nouns BUT approximate twice as polysemous as noun Verb synset: Synonym and near synonym: e.g.: pass away vs. die vs. kick the bucket Idiom and metaphors: Kick the bucket include synset Die include synonym: break, break down (for car and computer)
  • 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 24Verb Relations Entailment (*): The verb Y is entailed by X if by doing X you must be doing Y E.g.: to snore entails to sleep Not mutual: V1 * V2 NOT V2 V1
  • 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 25Verb relations Troponym (~): The verb Y is a troponym of the verb X if the activity Y is doing X in some manner E.g.: to lisp is a troponym of to talk Special case of entailment Most frequently coded in WordNet Antonym (!): E.g.: give/take, buy/sell, lend/borrow, teach/learn Can also be troponym: fail/succeed entails try, forget entails know Hypernym (@): The verb Y is a hypernym of the verb X if the activity X is a (kind of) Y E.g.: to perceive is an hypernym of to listen
  • 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 26 WORDNET SYSTEM
  • 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 27WordNet system

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