workplace bullying in japan

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2013 JILPT Seminar on Workplace Bullying and Harassment Tokyo, 27-28 February 2013. Workplace Bullying in Japan. Japan Institute for Labour Policy and Training (JILPT) Department of Industrial Relations Researcher (Labour Law) Shino Naito (naito@jil.go.jp). Contents. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Workplace Bullyingin JapanJapan Institute for Labour Policy and Training (JILPT)Department of Industrial Relations Researcher (Labour Law)Shino Naito (naito@jil.go.jp)2013 JILPT Seminar on Workplace Bullying and HarassmentTokyo, 27-28 February 2013ContentsCurrent situation with regard to workplace bullying - Trend of increase-decrease etc. - Prevalence etc. - ConsequencesBackground and reasons for the occurrence of workplace bullyingNational policies against workplace bullyingIntervention and prevention on the part of companies and trade unionsCritique and conclusion

2Current situation with regard to workplace bullyingIncrease of counseling of bullying in labour bureaux3

FY2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Others

Bullying

Resignation

Other working conditions

Employers suggestion to resign

Lowering working conditions

dismissal

4Current situation with regard to workplace bullyingBullying acts reported in conciliation cases dealt with by Labour Bureaux

Current situation with regard to workplace bullying Compensation for Workers with Mental Injuries5FY2009FY2010FY2011Number of applications for compensation for worker with mental injuries113611811272Number of cases with compensation decision234308325Received (horrible) harassment, bullying or assault16 (of which 1 was suicide)39 (of which 5 were suicide)40 (of which 3 were suicide)Trouble with superior9 (of which 1 was a suicide case)17 (of which 2 were suicide)16 (of which 4 were suicide)Trouble with colleague002 (of which none were suicide)Trouble with subordinate01 (of which 1 was suicide)2 (of which 1 was a suicide)Source: Status of workers compensation paid for brain and heart disorders and mental disorder FY2009-2011, MLHWCurrent situation with regard to workplace bullying Prevalence - 16Experiences of Workplace Bullying25.3% experienced in past 3 years (MHLW, 2012)21.9% in past 3 years (Jichiro, 2010)

by gender26.5% of males and 23.9% of females (MHLW, 2012)19.8% of males and 24.5% of females (Jichiro, 2010)45.0% of male applicants and 54.6% of female applicants in bullying conciliation cases (JILPT, 2010)39.8% of male applicants and 59.9% of female applicants in bullying conciliation cases (JILPT, 2013)Current situation with regard to workplace bullying Prevalence - 27by agehigh in 30-39 and 40-49 age groups (MHLW, 2012; Jichiro, 2010; JILPT, 2010 and 2013)

Number of workplace bullying casesPercentageIf exclude unclear10-1910.40.720-29165.711.230-394114.428.740-494716.532.950-59196.713.360 & older196.713.3Unclear14149.6Total284100100Data: JILPT survey which analysed the contents of 284 bullying conciliation cases handled by six Labour Bureaus in FY2011Current situation with regard to workplace bullying Prevalence - 38by forms of employmentHigher in permanent workers than non-permanent workers (MHLW, 2012)But, high in agency workers (Jichiro, 2010; JILPT, 2010)by occupationHigh in nursing, childcare, medical care and welfare jobs (Jichiro, 2010)by industryHigh in medical and welfare and manufacturing industry (JILPT, 2013)Current situation with regard to workplace bullying Organisational status of bullies and victims9Status of victims Managerial 31.1% and non-managerial 24.8% (MHLW, 2012)

Status of bulliesSupervisors 77.7%, seniors 15.7%, permanent workers (to non-permanent workers) 10.6%, colleagues among permanent workers 4.5%, colleagues among non-permanent workers 2.4% (multiple answers)(MHLW, 2012)

Current situation with regard to workplace bullying Categories of bullying10

Intimidation, defamation, insult, or slander (mental abuse)

Forcing the employee to perform certain tasks which are clearly unnecessary for the business of the company, impossible to be performed, or interfere or interrupt with their normal duties (excessive work demands)

Isolation, ostracization, or neglect (cutting off from human relationships)

Excessively inquiring into the private affairs of the employee (invasion of privacy)

Ordering an employee to perform menial tasks that are unreasonable in relation to the companys business or tasks, which are far below the employees ability or experience. Also includes not providing any work at all for the employee. (insufficient work demands)

Assault (physical abuse)

others

(MHLW, 2012)

((%)Current situation with regard to workplace bullying Consequences - 111Mental healthrisk of psychological stress reaction was 4 to 5 times higher and of onset of PTSD symptoms was 8 times higher in workplace bullying victims, compared to those who were not exposed to bullying (Tsuno et al., 2010)

number of days of sick leave suggest that the more times a victim is bullied, the greater the ill effects on mental health and spiritual quality of life (Hyogo Institute for Traumatic Stress, 2011a)

Current situation with regard to workplace bullying Consequences - 212Work performancemild correlation between time management, power of concentration, social functions and productivity, and the more the exposure, the lower was the performance in these three work aspects (Hyogo Institute for Traumatic Stress, 2011a)

work performance of the victims was much lower than those who were not exposed to workplace bullying (Hyogo Institute for Traumatic Stress, 2011b)

13Background and reasons for the occurrence of workplace bullyingWhat do you think could be backgrounds and causes of harassment? Overwork and stress caused by staff cuts or too few staff Lack of workplace communication Results improvement pressure or results focus from company Managers are too busy, lack free time Diverse forms of employment Related to apprenticeship system unique to industry Business structure changes (resulting in personnel transfers), workplace environment changes Low wage structure of industry Weaker human relations and lack of trusting relations between bosses and subordinates, or between colleagues Disposition of violators and lack of awareness of harassment Lack of training for managers Weak awareness of human rights and respect for individual Disappearance of people in workplace who sought consultation or arbitration Less communication ability Weaker management abilities of managers Sense of right because pay money (when harassers are customers)

Data: JILPT Interview Survey for Employers and Trade Unions on Measures Against Workplace Bullying (2011)

Background and reasons for the occurrence of workplace bullyingCharacteristics which are common among workplaces which had consultations on bullying14Data: MHLW, 2012 (Company Survey)Background and reasons for the occurrence of workplace bullyingWorkplace characteristics (by harassment experience)15Data: MHLW, 2012 (Employee Survey)

Background and reasons for the occurrence of workplace bullying communication in the workplace - 116Data: MHLW, 2012 (Employee Survey)It is easy to communicate to my company that I feel worries, dissatisfaction or problems

Background and reasons for the occurrence of workplace bullying communication in the workplace - 217Data: MHLW, 2012 (Employee Survey)It is easy to communicate to my boss that I feel worries, dissatisfaction or problems

Background and reasons for the occurrence of workplace bullying communication in the workplace - 318Data: MHLW, 2012 (Employee Survey)There is smooth communication between colleagues

Background and reasons for the occurrence of workplace bullying communication in the workplace - 419Data: MHLW, 2012 (Employee Survey)I have a colleague with whom I can discuss issues other than work

3. National policies against workplace bullying20The first national meeting on workplace bullying started in 2012

Round-table Conference on Issues of Workplace Bullying and Harassment and Working Group for Round-table Conference

Working Group published its Report in January 2012, and Round-table Conference published its Recommendations for Prevention and Resolution of Workplace Bullying (Power Harassment) in March 2012.

3. National policies against workplace bullying Working groups report - 121Definition of Workplace bullying (Power Harassment)

The Working Group defines power harassment as an act by an employee using his superiority, such as position of seniority or relationship with a co-worker which causes such co-worker mental or physical stress or a degradation of the working environment beyond the appropriate scope of the companys business.

The term superiority at the workplace is not limited to occupational position; it includes any interactions between seniors and juniors or between colleagues of equal standing or even from subordinates to superiors, based on the various backgrounds of superiority.

3. National policies against workplace bullying Working groups report - 222Categories of bullying (Power Harassment)Assault (physical abuse)Intimidation, defamation, insult, or slander (mental abuse)Isolation, ostracization, or neglect (cutting off from human relationships)Forcing the employee to perform certain tasks which are clearly unnecessary for the business of the company, impossible to be performed, or interfere or interrupt with their normal duties (excessive work demands)Ordering an employee to perform menial tasks that are unreasonable in relation to the companys business or tasks, which are far below the employees ability or experience. Also includes not providing any work at all for the employee. (insufficient wor