world history advanced placement review time period two 600-1450 c.e. kevin sacerdote mandarin high...

Download World History Advanced Placement Review Time Period Two 600-1450 C.E. Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High School Jacksonville, FL 32258

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World History Advanced Placement Review Time Period Two 600-1450 C.E. Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High School Jacksonville, FL 32258 Slide 2 Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Change over Time Little change in gender roles, although elite women suffered the most (veiling, foot- binding) Long distance trade grew a great deal The Europeans start to emerge with world trade by the end of the time period and China begins to isolate themselves Slide 3 Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Slides based on the Ethel Wood Study Guide Ordering information: www.dsmarketing.com/books_worldhistory.html (10 book minimum for orders) Slide 4 Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL 600 1450 C.E. Introduction Change over time occurs for many reasons, but three phenomena that tend to cause it are: 1.Mass migrations 2.Imperial conquests 3.Cross-cultural trade and exchange Widespread contact brings new goods, ideas, and customs to all areas involved Slide 5 Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Major Events & Developments That Characterized This Era Older belief systems become much more important. Christianity, Hinduism, Confucianism, & Buddhism Two nomadic groups Bedouins and Mongols huge impact on the course of history during this time frame Islam began in the 7 th century and spread rapidly throughout Western Asia (Middle East), N. Africa, Europe, & S.E. Asia Slide 6 Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Major Events & Developments That Characterized This Era Islam forms and spreads rapidly throughout the world. Generally, Europe was not a major civilization area before 600 CE. By 1450, it was connected to major trade routes and some of its kingdoms assert their world power. Major empires grow in South America (Inca) and Mesoamerica (the Maya and Aztec.) China had supremacy over many areas of Asia and became one of the largest and most prosperous empires of the time. Long distance trade continued to develop, and became much more complex Slide 7 Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Major Shifts and Continuities The Islamic World Impacted political and economic structures. Shaped the development of arts, sciences and technology. Interregional networks and contacts Expansion of trade and cultural exchange. Mongols first disrupted, then promoted long- distance trade throughout the world. Chinas internal and external expansion Saw China taken over by the Mongols and then returned to Han Chinese under the Ming Dynasty. Slide 8 Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Major Shifts and Continuities Developments in Europe Feudalism was developed. Christianity splits into two. Catholic Church in the west and Eastern Orthodox Church in the east. Both cases, the Church gains a great deal of power. Social, cultural, economic patterns in the Amerindian world Maya, Aztec, and Inca all grow into empires. Urbanization continues. Slide 9 Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL The Islamic World The founding of Islam Founded in Mecca by Muhammad. Believed to be the last of the prophets. Followers were called Muslims. People who submitted to the will of Allah. City leaders forced Muhammad to flee Mecca in his famous flight to the city of Yathrib Known as the Hijrah. Changed the citys name to Medina or city of the Prophet Called the community the umma. Came to refer all Muslim believers. Slide 10 Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Islamic Beliefs and Practices Five Pillars of Faith Faith Declaration of Faith. Prayer Pray five times a day. Alms Give money to the poor. Fasting Fast sunup to sundown during the month of Ramadan. Pilgrimage Make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their lifetime. The Quran Most important source of religious authority. Believed to be the actual words of Allah. Slide 11 Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Islamic Beliefs and Practices Sunna Muhammad's life is seen as the best model for a proper living. Law of the sharia Body of law which regulates the family life, moral conduct, business, and community life of Muslims. In the early days, the sharia brought a sense of unity to all Muslims. Slide 12 Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Reasons For The Spread of Islam Religious zeal Well-disciplined armies Weakness of the Byzantine and Persian Empires Treatment of conquered peoples Forbid forced conversions. Slide 13 Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL The Sunni-Shia Split Sunni Most Muslims accepted the Umayyads rule. Believe the caliph should be chosen by leaders of the Muslim community (majority sect) Shia This group believe the caliph should be a relative of the prophet. Rejected the Umayyads rule (Majority in Iran & Iraq) Slide 14 Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL The Changing Status of Women The Patriarchal system characterized most early civilizations Islamic women had rights some other women did not have: Could inherit property, divorce husbands, engage in business But, the Quran allowed men to follow Muhammads example to take up to four wives, and women could only have one husband Slide 15 Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL The Changing Status of Women Muslims also adopted the long-standing custom of veiling women Upper class women in Mesopotamia wore veils as early as the 13 th century B.C.E. This practice had spread to Persia and the entire Mediterranean long before Muhammad lived. As Islam spread, so to did the custom Slide 16 Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Arts, Sciences, and Technologies dar al Islam: Lands ruled by Islamics Islam was always a missionary religion By the 10 th century C.E, higher level schools known as madrasas had appeared By the 12 th century these schools were supported by the wealthy and a flowering of arts, sciences, and new technologies spread throughout the Islamic world Slide 17 Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Arts, Sciences, and Technologies When Persia became part of the caliphate, the conquerors adapted much of their rich culture: Literary, artistic, philosophical and scientific traditions Persian became the language of literature, poetry, history, and political theory Slide 18 Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Arts, Sciences, and Technologies Islamic states in northern India also adapted mathematics from the people they conquered Hindi numerals were later called Arabic numerals by the Europeans This number system also included a symbol for zero Slide 19 Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Arts, Sciences, and Technologies Muslims are credited with the origins of algebra, and were interested in Greek philosophy, science, and medical writings Ibn Khaldum (14 th century Moroccan) wrote a comprehensive history of the world Nasir al-Din- studied and improved the cosmological model of Ptolemy (al-Dins work was later used by Copernicus). Slide 20 Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL Interregional Networks and Contacts Contacts between the Middle East (West Asia), the Indian sub-continent, and Asia (long distance trade) increased a great deal between 600 1450 C.E. Via the Indian Ocean and the Silk Roads Venice and Genoa eventually tied into this network by way of the Mediterranean Trans-Saharan African trade became more important as major civilizations began to develop south of the Sahara Slide 21 Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL African Societies & Empires Until about 600 C.E. most African societies based their economies on foraging or simple agriculture and herding The family was the center of political and social life, and none had a centralized government The spread of Islam began to change all of this, the unifying forces of religion and the sharia helped Africa to develop centralized states This gradual, nonviolent spread of Islam was very conducive to trade, especially due to gold south of the Sahara Slide 22 Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL West African Empires:(600 1450 CE) Ghana c.a. 700s CE By the 700s the Soninke, a farming people, created an empire called Ghana (war chief) They taxed goods traders brought through their area (the Berbers and Arab merchants) They also had gold & controlled its supply /price from the Niger River that they traded for salt from the Sahara people An impressive army Many converted to Islam, but native religions also remained, conquered by the Almoravids of N. Afr. Slide 23 Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL West African Empires:(600 1450 CE) Mali 13 th century CE People south of Ghana move in and enlarged the former empire of Ghana, it became known as Mali Larger, richer and more powerful Gold was the base of their wealth Sundiata- First great ruler who inspired an epic poem, the other was Mansa Musa of hajj fame Slide 24 Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL West African Empires:(600 1450 CE) Mali 13 th century CE Mansa Musa Famous hajj Gold price drops due to his journey Malis capital city, Timbuktu, became a world center of trade, education, and sophistication Slide 25 Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL East Africa :(600 1450 CE) The Swahili States Politically independent trade cities along Africas east coast, very sophisticated Collectively known as the Swahili, based on the language that they spoke which was a combination of Bantu & Arabic They were an important link for long distance trade. Most were Muslims and very talented sailors able to manipulate the Indian Ocean to India, and other areas of the Middle East via the Red Sea Slide 26 Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL The Crusades (late 11 th 13 th Centuries) By the late 13 th century, the Crusades had ended, with no permanent gains made for Christians. The Crusades DID unite Europeans, and opened up new trade routes putting them squarely into the major trade networks of the world. Slide 27 Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jac

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