World War I: Causes, Controversies and Consequences The Great War Michael Quiñones, NBCT www.socialstudiesguy.com.

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<ul><li>Slide 1</li></ul><p>World War I: Causes, Controversies and Consequences The Great War Michael Quiones, NBCT www.socialstudiesguy.com Slide 2 Macro Concepts Conflict-problem or troubling issue that can cause problems without compromise. Conflict-problem or troubling issue that can cause problems without compromise. Power-the authority to control citizens by using regulations and laws. Power-the authority to control citizens by using regulations and laws. Leadership-the method of setting examples positive or negative for others to follow. Leadership-the method of setting examples positive or negative for others to follow. Idealism-a way of thinking that stresses optimism and positive thinking. Idealism-a way of thinking that stresses optimism and positive thinking. Micro Concepts Militarism-a focus on heavy build up and use of military equipment. Alliances-the cooperation and organization of nations into teams. Alliances-the cooperation and organization of nations into teams. Imperialism-the act of stronger nations taking over weaker nations. Imperialism-the act of stronger nations taking over weaker nations. Nationalism-an extreme and sometimes dangerous devotion to a nation/country. Nationalism-an extreme and sometimes dangerous devotion to a nation/country. Trade-the act of buying and selling goods between nations. Trade-the act of buying and selling goods between nations. Isolationism-the act of staying away from alliances and foreign nations. Isolationism-the act of staying away from alliances and foreign nations. Mobilization-the act of coming together to gather war supplies to win a war. Mobilization-the act of coming together to gather war supplies to win a war. Slide 3 Key Vocabulary Nationalism Nationalism Propaganda Propaganda Militarism Militarism Causes of WWI Causes of WWI Triple Alliance Triple Alliance Triple Entente Triple Entente Isolationism Isolationism Modern war techniques Modern war techniques Treaty of Paris (Versailles) Treaty of Paris (Versailles) Sussex Pledge Sussex Pledge Idealism Idealism Pacifism Pacifism Bolshevik Revolution Bolshevik Revolution Wilsons 14 Points Wilsons 14 Points Reservationists Reservationists League of Nations League of Nations Slide 4 Alliances [Provide an explanation in your own words for what the above term means and how it may have led to WWI] Militarism [Provide an explanation in your own words for what the above term means and how it may have led to WWI] Nationalism [Provide an explanation in your own words for what the above term means and how it may have led to WWI] Imperialism/Isolationism [Provide an explanation in your own words for what the above term means and how it may have led to WWI] Causes of World War I M.A.I.N. Key incident #2 that provoked the United States- ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ Key incident #1 that provoked the United States- __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Who were the good guys and why?_______________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ Who were the bad guys and why?________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Slide 5 Militarism Two principal reasons for the rise of militarism: Two principal reasons for the rise of militarism: (1) Desire to be powerful in order to take over other countries. (1) Desire to be powerful in order to take over other countries. (2) Desire to defend themselves from powerful countries. (2) Desire to defend themselves from powerful countries. Slide 6 Alliances An alliance is essentially a group of countries that pledges (promises) to offer protection and support each other in case of military attack by another foreign country or alliance. An alliance is essentially a group of countries that pledges (promises) to offer protection and support each other in case of military attack by another foreign country or alliance. Benefits: Members of alliances are not on their own. Benefits: Members of alliances are not on their own. Detriments: Members of alliances are obligated to defend all members even if they disagree or had no role antagonizing a war. Detriments: Members of alliances are obligated to defend all members even if they disagree or had no role antagonizing a war. Example of Pre-World War I Alliance was the Central Powers of Europe: Germany Austria-Hungary Italy Germany Austria-Hungary Italy Goal: Goal: Protect members of their alliance. Protect members of their alliance. To dominate Europe and control it. To dominate Europe and control it. Archduke Franz Ferdinand German Chancellor Bismarck [Led Germany until 1890] Slide 7 Alliances Triple Entente: Triple Entente: Russia, France and England. Russia, France and England. Goal: Goal: protect themselves from the Triple alliance. protect themselves from the Triple alliance. Slide 8 Isolationism: American Involvement France got their butts kicked by Germany and needed help. France got their butts kicked by Germany and needed help. The United States wanted to remain neutral and isolate [isolationism] itself from the rest of the world. The United States wanted to remain neutral and isolate [isolationism] itself from the rest of the world. The United States came to their aid and joined their alliance in 1917. The United States came to their aid and joined their alliance in 1917. American firepower and industrial power was the key the Triple Ententes victory. American firepower and industrial power was the key the Triple Ententes victory. Slide 9 Nationalism Extreme feelings of pride for a country. Extreme feelings of pride for a country. What can this lead to? What can this lead to? Feeling jealous, envious, suspicious, fearful or hateful toward another country. Feeling jealous, envious, suspicious, fearful or hateful toward another country. These feelings can be exploited by a governments leadership. These feelings can be exploited by a governments leadership. Slide 10 Some causes of WWI In June of 1914 The Archduke of Autria-Hungary was assassinated by a crazy person who did not like him. In June of 1914 The Archduke of Autria-Hungary was assassinated by a crazy person who did not like him. Germany, his countrys ally, believed its enemies were behind his murder and started to get its troops ready to attack countries such as France and England. Germany, his countrys ally, believed its enemies were behind his murder and started to get its troops ready to attack countries such as France and England. Slide 11 Sinking of RMS Lusitania In May of 1915 a passenger cruise ship, RMS Lusitania, was sunk by a German U-Boat [submarine] off the coast of Ireland killing nearly 2,000 people including almost 200 Americans. This aggression caused the Americans to be even angrier at Germany and made them confident they made the correct decision to fight them and eventually win. Slide 12 Taking Sides Europe had a trouble maker from the 1850s- 1914. Europe had a trouble maker from the 1850s- 1914. Who was it? Who was it? Many people believed that to be Germany because of its imperialist tendencies. Many people believed that to be Germany because of its imperialist tendencies. The Kaiser [German monarch] wanted more land and power. The Kaiser [German monarch] wanted more land and power. Slide 13 Weapons of War Many new weapons were invented for use during the Great War. Many new weapons were invented for use during the Great War. Such as? Such as? Machine guns, warplanes, land mines, tanks, chemical gas and gas masks. Machine guns, warplanes, land mines, tanks, chemical gas and gas masks. Purpose? Purpose? To kill or injure as many people as possible. To kill or injure as many people as possible. Slide 14 Weapons of War Tanks- Soldiers were able to travel on the battlefield quickly with protection and heavy firepower. Tanks- Soldiers were able to travel on the battlefield quickly with protection and heavy firepower. Landmines- Soldiers were able to place explosive devices beneath the ground in order to injure, maim or kill without great risk to themselves. Landmines- Soldiers were able to place explosive devices beneath the ground in order to injure, maim or kill without great risk to themselves. Mines activated by weight pressure of person walking on top of mine. Mines activated by weight pressure of person walking on top of mine. Exception: Landmines would sometimes malfunction and kill the person placing it. Exception: Landmines would sometimes malfunction and kill the person placing it. Slide 15 Striving to be the best The principal goal of war is to destroy the enemy. The principal goal of war is to destroy the enemy. Two basic goals during war. Two basic goals during war. Attacking (offense) or defending against attack (defense). Attacking (offense) or defending against attack (defense). Tactic used both on offense and defense were trenches. Tactic used both on offense and defense were trenches. Slide 16 No Mans Land The most dangerous area on the World War I battlefield was No Mans Land. The most dangerous area on the World War I battlefield was No Mans Land. The area between enemy trenches exposed troops to enemy fire and land mines. The area between enemy trenches exposed troops to enemy fire and land mines. Stalemates were often ended when troops entered No Mans Land. Stalemates were often ended when troops entered No Mans Land. Slide 17 How can a government convince its people to think or feel a certain way? Using propaganda. Using propaganda. What is that? What is that? Speeches, books, posters or images used to influence someone. Speeches, books, posters or images used to influence someone. Sometimes they are meant to scare, warn, help or encourage people. Sometimes they are meant to scare, warn, help or encourage people. Slide 18 The Zimmerman Note [telegram] The foreign secretary of Germany, Arthur Zimmerman, in January of 1917 sent a telegram [old version of a text message] to the president of Mexico in code asking him to attack the U.S. in exchange for return of territories [Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona]. The telegram was intercepted and angered the U.S. to the point of joining the allies against Germany. Slide 19 What are these things and how and why were they used during World War I? Slide 20 Unrestricted Submarine Warfare To attempt to control Germanys up and coming powerful navy the British decided to blockade German ports. To attempt to control Germanys up and coming powerful navy the British decided to blockade German ports. Every ship German or not was stopped by England and inspected for contraband [illegal cargo including military weapons]. Every ship German or not was stopped by England and inspected for contraband [illegal cargo including military weapons]. Germany responded by declaring it would sink any ship around English waters using U-boats [submarines]. Germany responded by declaring it would sink any ship around English waters using U-boats [submarines]. Germany sank many ships including the Lusitania in 1915. Germany sank many ships including the Lusitania in 1915. Slide 21 The Idealism of Wilson President Wilson for several years attempted to keep the U.S. neutral and isolated from European conflict. President Wilson for several years attempted to keep the U.S. neutral and isolated from European conflict. He hoped his idealism could be viewed as constructive to world peace. He hoped his idealism could be viewed as constructive to world peace. However, after German aggression via unrestricted U-boat submarine warfare and plotting with Mexico to invade the U.S. he had no choice but to enter WWI. However, after German aggression via unrestricted U-boat submarine warfare and plotting with Mexico to invade the U.S. he had no choice but to enter WWI. Wilson promised to break off connections with Germany if they continued unrestricted submarine warfare. Germany got nervous and promised to end its bombing called the Sussex Pledge. Wilson promised to break off connections with Germany if they continued unrestricted submarine warfare. Germany got nervous and promised to end its bombing called the Sussex Pledge. To supply military personnel the U.S. Congress passed the Selective Service Act in 1917 requiring men 21-30 to register for the draft. To supply military personnel the U.S. Congress passed the Selective Service Act in 1917 requiring men 21-30 to register for the draft. A random lottery would determine who was called to serve first. A random lottery would determine who was called to serve first. Slide 22 President Wilsons 14 Points Towards the very end of World War I President Woodrow Wilson gave a speech to a joint session of Congress on January 8, 1918. Towards the very end of World War I President Woodrow Wilson gave a speech to a joint session of Congress on January 8, 1918. The purpose of the speech was to assure the United States that Americas purpose in the war and its aftermath was just. The purpose of the speech was to assure the United States that Americas purpose in the war and its aftermath was just. Wilson laid out 14 main points but perhaps the most important were points 1-5 and 14. Wilson laid out 14 main points but perhaps the most important were points 1-5 and 14. [1] There should be an end to all secret diplomacy amongst countries. [2] Freedom of the seas in peace and war [3] The reduction of trade barriers among nations [4] The general reduction of armaments [5] The adjustment of colonial claims in the interest of the inhabitants as well as of the colonial powers [14] A league of nations to protect "mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small nations alike." Slide 23 Election of 1916 Because of the power of Big Business and his crusade against them Wilson almost lost his re-election bid in 1916. Because of the power of Big Business and his crusade against them Wilson almost lost his re-election bid in 1916. However, because many citizens did not want to change president during the war Wilson won the election by less that 500,000 votes. However, because many citizens did not want to change president during the war Wilson won the election by less that 500,000 votes. Democrat Woodrow Wilson Republican Charles Evan Hughes Slide 24 Isolationism and Pacifism Isolationism was rejected by most Americans after Americans died aboard the Lusitania and the Zimmerman Telegram was made public. Isolationism was rejected by most Americans after Americans...</p>

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