World War I: Causes, Technologies, And Consequences THE GREAT WAR

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<p>The great war</p> <p>World War I:Causes,Technologies,And ConsequencesThe great warCauses of WwI: militarismNations of Europe believed that to be truly great, they needed to have a power-ful military.By 1914, all the Great Powers except Britain had large standing armiesMilitary experts stressed the importance of being able to quickly mobilizeMilitarism: Policy of glorifying military power and keeping an army prepared for war</p> <p>Causes of Wwi: AlliancesChan. Otto Von Bismarck used war to unify Germany from 1864-1871. Saw France as greatest threat to peace. Formed alliance with Austria-Hungary and Italy Originally made treaty with Russia as well, but newly appointed Kaiser Wilhelm let the treaty expire and Russia eventually formed military alliance with France in 1894.Wilhelm invested heavily in navy to rival Britain. Alarmed, Britain formed entente with France and Russia</p> <p>Causes of wwI: imperialismEuropean nations had formed rivalriesover colonial landsWhat do we know about imperialism?All of the wealth and resources could beput behind a war effortAs European countries continued to compete for overseas empires, their sense of rivalry and mistrust of one another grew</p> <p>Causes of wwI: NationalismDeep devotion to ones nation. Serves as a unifying force within a countryResulted in popular support for military</p> <p>The powder keg of europe[bang bang]BATTLE LINES ARE DRAWNCENTRAL POWERS: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire</p> <p>ALLIED POWERS: Russia, France, Britain (all colonies), Japan, Italy, USA</p> <p>Von schlieffen planDesigned by Alfred von Schlieffen (duh)Took new weapons into account, Mathematical plan based on timetablesHis plan: Attack France before Russia had chance to attack Germany=end war quickly.In order to attack France, needed to invade Belgium and attack from that border.Wilhelm: Paris for lunch, dinner in St. PetersburgWar on 2 frontsWestern front-mainly involved France and Britain against Germany-immobile stalemate, resulting in trench warfareEastern front-mainly involved Russia against Germany/Austria-HungaryTrench warfaRe</p> <p>Technology of warLots of recently invented weapons were utilizedTook nations time to respond and react, but the industrialization shaped how the war was fought.All these innovations made offense very difficultTechnology favored defense Didnt have to keep loading/unloading makes it difficult to attack opposing lines. Longer range weaponsMachine gunsFully automaticCould wipe out waves of attackers, making it difficult for forces to advanceEasy to reload</p> <p>Barbed wireGreatly aided in defenseMade it difficult to charge on foot or on horse</p> <p>Heavy artilleryOne of the most important factors that shaped warfare in WWICould engage targets over 25 miles away. Shells were massive and had extreme potential for destruction. Shells so heavy, had to be transported by railway. (Weakness?)Expensive to produce</p> <p>Poison gasThought to be cowardly at first, but usage gradually increasedQuite deadly, also a psychological weapon3 types:Red star: 1915, invented by BritishWhite star: 1915, invented by FrenchMustard gas: 1917, invented by GermansI wish those people who talk about going on with this war whatever it costs could see the soldiers suffering from mustard gas poisoning. Great mustard-coloured blisters, blind eyes, all sticky and stuck together, always fighting for breath, with voices a mere whisper, saying that their throats are closing and they know they will choke</p> <p>SubmarinesGerman pronunciation: Unterseaboot or U-boat Invented in 1890</p> <p>Communication devicesHad to communicate miles and miles awayTelephone and radio utilizedMotorcyclesCourier pigeonsDog messengersHuman runners</p> <p>aircraftUsed at beginning of war for reconaissance.At first, planes were unarmed, one seater, and they had a top speed of 60 mphLater, planes were used to drop bombs, shoot, and were about 120 mphHelped artillery correct aim</p> <p>Zimmerman TelegramFROM 2nd from London # 5747."We intend to begin on the first of February unrestricted submarine warfare. We shall endeavor in spite of this to keep the United States of America neutral. In the event of this not succeeding, we make Mexico a proposal of alliance on the following basis: make war together, make peace together, generous financial support and an understanding on our part that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. The settlement in detail is left to you. You will inform the President of the above most secretly as soon as the outbreak of war with the United States of America is certain and add the suggestion that he should, on his own initiative, invite Japan to immediate adherence and at the same time mediate between Japan and ourselves. Please call the President's attention to the fact that the ruthless employment of our submarines now offers the prospect of compelling England in a few months to make peace." Signed, ZIMMERMANNEnd of the great warAttrition: a reduction or decrease in numbers, size, or strength.Stalemate turned into a total war, so the nations were contributing the energy of entire nation towards warA gruesome contest to see which country could afford to lose the most soldiers.Attrition of: human lives, resources (food, fuel, ammunition, steel)Armistice: Warring parties agreed to stop fighting</p>