World War II: Causes of the War – Part 3

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World War II: Causes of the War Part 3. Policy of Appeasement Neville Chamberlain. Believed he could trust Hitler and liked that he was trying to make Germany a better place - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<ul><li><p>World War II: Causes of the War Part 3</p></li><li><p>Policy of Appeasement Neville ChamberlainBelieved he could trust Hitler and liked that he was trying to make Germany a better placeHe didnt like war (and the public was against it). His main focus was on the ills that had beset Britains industrial life, in particular unemploymentHe had faith in the triumph of reason and believing himself to be fighting the good fight for peace, he was prepared to be patient, stubborn, and optimistic</p></li><li><p>British Foreign PolicyThere were so many dictatorships in Europe that one could scarcely take issue with them allAustria was regarded as fascistCzechoslovakia was a random collection of nationalities under Czech dominationPoland was a military dictatorship, frequently anti-Semitic, and oppressive in its treatment of national minorities</p></li><li><p>British Foreign PolicyThe discussion of whether fascism or communism was more dangerous to Britain was like determining the relative disagreeableness of mumps and measlesIf Nazis and fascists were opposed to communism, then there was something to be said for them (until it became an obvious danger to British security)At the last moment, the Labour Party awoke to the realization that the greatest danger lay not in armaments but in Britains lack of them</p></li><li><p>French Foreign PolicyPolicy of armaments was hard to pursue in a country devoted to peaceSearch for allies was hampered at almost every turn by ideological sympathies and antipathies of the FrenchTheir foreign policy between the wars was in principle based on a network of alliance with east European states Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and RomaniaThe hope was that these allies would help to protect France against Germany, but in practice it was more likely that France would have to protect them</p></li><li><p>Policy of Appeasement Austrian AnschlussIn July 1934, Austrian Nazis broke into the Chancellery in Vienna, shot the Chancellor, Dollfuss, and proclaimed over the radio that he had resignedOther members of the government rallied, and the assassins had to surrenderThe Austrian army and police defeated risings in five of the nine provincesThe defeat of the rising showed that determined opposition, even in a small country, could check Nazi aggression</p></li><li><p>Policy of Appeasement Austrian AnschlussIn 1936 and 1937, Mussolini diminished his support for Austria and stopped supplying arms to the Austrian armyIn Apr. 1937, Mussolini told Schuschnigg that he could no longer undertake to defend Austria by forceThe Austrian Chancellor announced a plebiscite whether the public wanted a free and German, an independent and social, a Christian and united Austria everything pointed to a massive yes vote. The vote was to be taken on Mar. 13, 1938</p></li><li><p>Policy of Appeasement Austrian AnschlussHitler had secret news of the plebiscite before it was announced in AustriaOn Mar. 11, Hitler called for the plebiscite be postponed. Goering telephoned Vienna with the demand that Schuschnigg must resign and be replaced as Chancellor by Seyss-InquartThis was resisted for a time, until Schuschnigg announced the resignation of his whole Cabinet except Seyss-InquartGerman forces entered Austria early on Mar. 12, in a seemingly friendly mannerBehind the army with its bands and flags there came the Gestapo. 10-20,000 arrests, ranging from Schuschnigg himself to Socialist Party members and Jews</p></li><li><p>Policy of Appeasement Austrian AnschlussFrance and Britains ReactionHad long expected the Anschluss, which was thought to be inevitable and in principle rightIn Britain in particular, there was a widespread belief that the enforced separation of Germany and Austria had been among the errors of VersaillesAustrians were in no real position to sacrifice themselves to awaken the rest of Europe</p></li><li><p>Policy of Appeasement Sudeten Crisis/CzechoslovakiaThe bulk of the German population lived in a horseshoe-shaped area along the frontiers with Germany and AustriaThe main problem was that the Germans, who in 1919 had abruptly lost a position of predominance and became a subordinate minority, were discriminated against in education, jobs, and the distribution of public fundsGerman industrial areas tended to blame the government in Prague for their misfortunes, and by the growth of ideological conflictA quasi-Nazi party in Czechoslovakia, called Heimatsfront, polled nearly 1.25 million votes in May 1935, more than any other party (the Nazi Party provided a large amount of funds)</p></li><li><p>Policy of Appeasement Sudeten Crisis/CzechoslovakiaThe government held that a democratic state could not entrust its administration to representatives of a totalitarian partyKonrad Henlein, the leader of the Nazi party in Czechoslovakia, demanded the removal of all discrimination against the German populationEarly in 1937, Henlein began to demand autonomy for the German areas, which the government refused because any concessions made to the Germans would be demanded by the Slovaks, Magyars, and Poles, and would end in the disintegration of the stateThe Anschluss in Austria sharpened the conflict</p></li><li><p>Policy of Appeasement Sudeten Crisis/CzechoslovakiaOn May 19-21, there were widespread rumors of German troop movements in areas to the north of the Czech borderTwo Sudeten Germans were shot by a Czech officer, so on May 21 Ribbentrop told the British Ambassador in Berlin that there had been 100 German casualties in the Sudetenland, and that if such provocation continued the German people would intervene as one manGermany had no intention of launching an attack, but the danger of war appeared to be realBritain and France increased their pressure on the Czechs to make concessions</p></li><li><p>Policy of Appeasement Sudeten Crisis/CzechoslovakiaHitler proclaimed that he would protect the Sudeten Germans, who were unable to protect themselvesThe Czechs made far-reaching attempts to satisfy the German minority, but as Hitler instructed, Ribbentrop was to always ask for more than the Czechs would accede toAfter much criticism of German officials against Hitlers policy with Czechoslovakia, they appealed to Britain for support if they tried to overthrow HitlerChamberlain was not prepared to risk the issue of war on the success of a few conspirators in Germany who were trying to remove their powerful and popular dictator</p></li><li><p>Policy of Appeasement Czechoslovakia/Munich ConferenceA conference was called at Munich and Hitler, Mussolini, Daladier (PM of France), and Chamberlain assembled on September 29thGerman occupation of the Sudeten area was agreed to. Chamberlain even got Hitler to sign the a paper promising to settle all future Anglo-German differences by diplomacyThe Czechs were not allowed to participate nor the Russians, who were still enemies of Nazi Germany</p></li><li><p>Policy of Appeasement - CzechoslovakiaIn March 1939, Hitler got the Czech President to sign away what was left of the independent countryGoering threatened that he would obliterate Prague with bombs. The Czech will to resist was brokenOn March 15, 1939, the Wehrmacht moved. However, Hitlers breach of the Munich settlement caused the West to want to do something to stop HitlerPeople in Britain started to move towards a determination to resist a German attempt to dominate Europe by force </p></li><li><p>Policy of Appeasement - CzechoslovakiaBritain doubled the strength of the armyChamberlain accused Hitler of breaking his word and taking the law into his own handsHitler signed the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact on August 23, 1939, but nothing was done about it</p></li><li><p>Policy of Appeasement Memel &amp; AlbaniaSoon afterward, Germany annexed Memel, a German city seized by Lithuania in 1923Albania had long been under Italian political and economic influence, and in some circumstances the action might have been seen as little more than consolidationHowever, three weeks after annexing Czechoslovakia and a fortnight after the German occupation of Memel, with the air full of rumors of war, the event assumed a very different aspectIt indicated a degree of coordination between Germany and Italian plans far greater than was actually the caseThe states created in the post-war settlement were crumbling away</p></li><li><p>Danzig DisputeWas overwhelmingly German in population (96%) and after 1933 its internal administration was run by the Nazi PartyDanzig represented a fundamental issue:For Germany, it was a matter of historic right and a German populationFor Poland, it was a guarantee of access to the sea and a symbol of security</p></li><li><p>Danzig DisputeGermany proposed to Poland that Danzig should be incorporated in Germany, and a German-controlled road and rail link with East Prussia be established. Finally, Poland should join the Anti-Comintern Pact, signed between Germany, Japan, and ItalyIn return, Germany would guarantee her frontier with Poland, and extend the 1934 Non-Aggression Pact for 25 yearthe Poles refused</p></li><li><p>Invasion of PolandBritain and France guaranteed their support to Poland, hoping that the guarantee would act as a deterrent so that it wouldnt have to be carried outNazi S.S. troops wearing Polish uniforms staged a phony invasion of Germany, damaging several minor installations on the German side of the borderThey also left behind a handful of dead German prisoners in Polish uniforms to serve as further evidence of the alleged Polish attackWar resulted on September 1st, 1939</p></li><li><p>Failure of the League of NationsThe U.S. didnt accept the Versailles Treaty/League of Nations. These factors played a part:Isolationism (the U.S. didnt want to be drawn into another war)Disillusionment (shock, disappointment, and dismay at the war, causing the U.S. to not want to get into another one)Partisanship (political parties voting according to party lines)</p></li><li><p>Summary of the Causes of WWIIThe clash of ideologiesEconomic pressures and opportunitiesRoom to cultivate food and move undesirables Changes in military technology and strategic thoughtLong-standing territorial disputes, conflicts of interest, psychological tensions between peoplesPropaganda and coercionPrestige and material interestsAppeasement and confidence</p></li></ul>