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World War One 1914-1918

World War One1914-19181World War OneWhat makes a war a World War?

What was World War One about?

What impact does it still have on us?2World War OneCauses of World War One: 1. Rivalries:There have been many wars in European History.Many nations didnt like or trust each other. Colonialism increased this tensionNations were competing for dominance around the world

3World War OneCauses of World War One:2. AlliancesAll major European powers made alliances for protectionSome nations had multiple alliances

What did these treaties of alliance say?Why were these alliances bad?

The alliances meant that there could be no small war because everyone would get sucked in.4World War OneAlliances

Allied PowersCentral PowersFranceRussiaGreat BritainGermanyItalyAustria-HungaryRomaniaOttoman EmpireSerbiaJapanBulgaria5World War OneCauses of World War One:3. Arms Race:What is an arms race?

Nations of Europe began to build large militaries for protection.Why was that bad?Made the nations trust each other less.Nations began to build more to stay ahead of their enemiesBritain and Germany had a naval arms race.6World War OneCauses of World War One:4. NationalismWhat is Nationalism?Having extreme pride in your nation or ethnicityWhy would this be bad?

Europeans wanted a war to prove their superiority. JingoismEthnic groups within nations began to push for independence and sometimes used violence.

Why was this dangerous?7World War OneHow did the war begin?

In 1914 Serbia and Austria-Hungary were arguing over borders.Hundreds of years ago Serbia lost land in a war.Austria-Hungary controlled the land and wouldnt give it up.A Serbian terrorist group (The Black Hand) had been causing violence inside Austria-Hungary.Many members of the Black Hand were part of, or trained by, the Serbian Army.

8World War OneJune 1914 Sarajevo, Austria-Hungary

Austro-Hungarian Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the throne of the empire, was visiting Sarajevo.He was assassinated by a 16 year old member of the Black Hand.Austria-Hungary blamed Serbia.

9World War OneThe whole world falling down a flight of stairs

War began in August when a few nations began to fight and all the others became involved.

Britain joined in after Germany invaded neutral Belgium.The war would last over 4 years and kill over 10 million people.Most people throughout Europe were excited about going to war.

10World War OneThe Nature of the WarFirst Industrial war New technologies changed the nature of war foreverMotorized vehicles trucks, airplanesMore advanced weapons machine guns, tanks, submarines, longer range artillery (cannons)Chemical WeaponsPoison Gas11World War OneThe Nature of the WarTrench WarfareIn some areas the war was fast moving.On the Western Front (France and Belgium) the war became a stalemate.Both sides dug trenches to protect their soldiers.The front lines wouldnt move much for four years.12World War OneAmericas RoleThe US was neutral when the war began.Why?It didnt affect us.We saw the war as pointless and stupid.We were trading partners with both sides.Lots of recent immigrants might rebel if we chose sides.America flexed its muscle in 1915Why?13World War OneThe LusitaniaIn 1915 Germany began unrestricted submarine warfare -any ship in British waters would be sunk.This was very successful for Germany.The Lusitania was a luxury liner sunk off the Irish coast thousands of innocent civilians died, including hundreds of AmericansThe US threatened Germany with war if they didnt stop unrestricted submarine warfare.Germany stopped.14World War OneThe War Rages On:Neither side was doing well.Millions were dying in endless battles.Germany was starting to lose.How could Germany survive?15World War OneAmerica at WarThe US declared war in 1917Anti-German propaganda affected Americans The Zimmerman Note angered AmericansWoodrow Wilson made the War worth fighting A war to end all wars16World War OneAmericas Contributions to the War

Supplies and MoneyThe US was the economic power of the globe, produced tons of weapons and supplies lent money to the alliesMilitary ForceUS military helped win the war

17World War OneAmericas Contributions to the WarInspirationAfter 3 years of fighting, the armies in Europe had begun to see the war as pointless.President Woodrow Wilson gave the war a purpose.Wilsons Fourteen PointsThe war became a war to end all wars. Wilson was seen as a savior by people in Europe.

18World War OneThe End of the WarThe Russian Communist RevolutionRussias military did very poorly in the warMany of Russias people were starvingRussian Communists launched a revolt that took over the nation.The Communists signed a peace treaty with Germany.How would this affect the war?Germany turned all its military might against France, Britain, the United States and Italy.

19World War OneThe End of the War1918Germany was worn out, but had never been invaded.Germany decided to ask for peace because they felt the 14 Points would guarantee them fair treatment.The war ended on November 11, 1918 at 11AM.

20World War OneThe war was over but who will win the peace?The Versailles Peace Treaty was supposed to end the war and establish peace.The treaty punished Germany severely and rewarded Britain and France.Italy and Japan were promised new land but didnt get it.Russia wasnt even invited to the Peace Conference.In the US, many are afraid of joining the League of Nations.Why?The US Senate would not ratify the treaty Woodrow Wilson suffered a massive strokeThe US had to sign separate treaties to end the war.

21World War OneLasting Legacy

The War created new nations in EuropeThe US withdrew from international affairsNew weapons and strategiesThe Soviet Union (communist) was createdThe Second World War was just a matter of time22