wud 2010 d.miniotas - gaze-based interaction

Download WUD 2010 D.Miniotas - Gaze-Based Interaction

Post on 10-Jul-2015

460 views

Category:

Technology

1 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Gaze-Based Interaction

    Darius Miniotas

    Dept. of Electronic Systems, VGTU

    darius.miniotas@el.vgtu.lt

  • Gaze-Based Interaction: Why?*

    The only option for disabledusers

    An option for others in hands-busy situations

    Eye movements

    - are extremely fast

    - are natural

    - require little conscious effort

    * Some of the information in these slides is based on the materials presented in a

    tutorial at NordiCHI 2004 by Kari-Jouko Rih, Aulikki Hyrskykari and Pivi Majaranta

  • Demo from the German Research

    Center for AI

    Text 2.0 [2009] Imagine there were input devices which could allow text to know if and how it is being read

    - how would this change the reading experience?

    http://text20.net/node/4

  • Technological Challenges

    Cost of equipment

    - 2000 25 000 EUR

    - mass production could lower the cost by an order of magnitude

    Usability of equipment

    - remote trackers convenient, but allow only small movements

    - head-mounted trackers more accurate but obtrusive

    Need for calibration

    - for every user at the beginning of a tracking session

    - often recalibration required during prolonged use

  • Types of Eye Tracking Applications

    Off-line applications

    - visualizing gaze data

    - analyzing gaze behavior

    - modifying images based on viewing data

    On-line (interactive) applications

    - command-based

    - attentive

  • Command-based interaction:

    challenges

    Eyes are normally used for observation, not for control

    - humans are not used to activating objects just by

    looking at them

    Gaze behaves very differently from other ways used for controlling computers (hands, voice)

    - intentional control of eyes is difficult and stressful

    - the gaze is easily attracted by external events

    - precise control of eyes is difficult

    - poorly implemented eye control can be extremely

    annoying

  • Midas Touch Problem

    Most of the time the eyes are used for obtaining information with no intent to initiate commands

    Users are easily afraid of looking at the eye-active objects or areas of the window

    Using eyes for commands requires development of new forms of interaction

  • Expanding Targets [CHI 2004]

  • Selecting Standard-Size Menu Items

    [ICMI 2005]

  • Gaze-Aware Applications

    Command-and-Controlapplications

    - typing (conventional)

    - typing (using gaze gestures)

    - drawing

    - other

    Multimodal Applications

    Gaze-Contingent Displays

    Attentive Interfaces

  • Typing by Gaze

    A typical eye typing system has

    - an on-screen keyboard

    - an eye tracker to record eye

    movements

    - a computer to analyze gaze

    behavior

    To type by gaze the user

    - focuses on a letter

    - gets feedback from the system

    - selects the item in focus

    EC Key, a typical keyboard

  • Compact Keyboard Layouts

  • Dasher

    Demo: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0d6yIquOKQ0

  • Using Gaze Gestures for Typing

  • Drawing with the Eye [2003]

  • Other eye-controlled applications

    e-mail

    Internet browsing

    accessing online libraries

    games

    interaction with online virtual communities

  • EyeScroll [2007]

    gaze-enhanced scrolling allows for automatic, adaptive scrolling

    on content being viewed on the

    screen

    supports multiple scrolling modes depending on the user's

    preference and reading style

    users can read the content as is scrolls smoothly or scrolls once

    the user has reached the bottom

    of the screen

  • EyePassword, EyeSaver [2007]

    gaze-based password/pin entry:prevents shoulder surfing and

    does not generate any keyboard

    or mouse events more difficult to use standard event loggers

    screen saver turned on when a user looks away from the

    screen, off when the user looks

    back at the screen

  • EyePhone [2010]

    developed at Dartmouth College (USA)

    tracks a persons eye relative to a phones screen

    users activate applications by blinking

    Demo: http://www.technologyreview.com/computing/25369/

  • Interactive Applications

    Command-based interaction

    - typing (conventional)

    - typing (using gaze gestures)

    - drawing

    Gaze-aware interfaces

    - multimodal input

    - gaze-contingent displays

    - attentive interfaces

  • Gaze-Aware Applications

    Command-and-Controlapplications

    - typing (conventional)

    - typing (using gaze gestures)

    - drawing

    - other

    Multimodal Applications

    Gaze-Contingent Displays

    Attentive Interfaces

  • Gaze as Mouse Accelerator [1999]

    MAGIC pointing

    Two strategies for warping

    - always when the point of gaze moves (liberal)

    - only after moving the mouse a little (cautious)

    Empirical results

    - liked by the users

    - interaction was slightly slowed down by the cautious strategy, but the liberal strategy was faster than using just the mouse

  • Gaze + Hotkeys [2007]

    performs basic mouse operation

    reduces / eliminates dependency on the

    mouse for most everyday

    tasks such as surfing the

    web

    look-press-look-release action to allow for

    increasingly accurate

    selection

    Demo: http://hci.stanford.edu/research/GUIDe/index.html

  • Gaze + Speech [2006]

  • Put-That-There [1982]

    Multimodal input (speech, pointing gestures, gaze)

    Eye gaze used for disambiguation (together with pointing)

    Demo: http://www.poetv.com/video.php?vid=44316

  • Gaze-Aware Applications

    Command-and-Controlapplications

    - typing (conventional)

    - typing (using gaze gestures)

    - drawing

    - other

    Multimodal Applications

    Gaze-Contingent Displays

    Attentive Interfaces

  • Gaze-Aware Applications

    Command-and-Controlapplications

    - typing (conventional)

    - typing (using gaze gestures)

    - drawing

    - other

    Multimodal Applications

    Gaze-Contingent Displays

    Attentive Interfaces

  • iDict [2004]

    automatically detects irregularities in reading

    process

    consults the embedded dictionaries and provides

    assistance

  • Attentive Videoconferencing [1999]

    Multiparty teleconferencing and document sharing system

    Images rotate to show gaze direction (who is talking to whom)

    Document lightspot (look at this reference)

  • PONG: The Attentive Robot [2001]

    A robot that understands and reacts to human presence and visual communication messages

    Detects when a human walks sufficiently close and then greets the person verbally and visually by displaying a

    smile

    Tries to mimic the users facial expressions

  • Attention Sensors: eyePLIANCES

    Eye aRe glasses eyeContact sensor

    Light fixture with

    eyeContact sensor

  • Time for a demo: EyeChess

Recommended

View more >