wwi chapter 27. setting the stage: wwi causes wwi militarism alliances imperialism ...
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Setting the Stage: WWICauses WWIMilitarismAlliancesImperialismNationalism
The Spark = Assassination Archduke Franz FerdinandJune 28, 1914http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-E6e8BW0l-E
Gavril Princep and the Blackhand
Franz Ferdinands Death Set into Motion a Deadly Web of Alliances
WWI Sides: The BelligerentsAllied PowersFranceGBRussiaItalyUnited States and Japan (eventually)
Central PowersGermanyAustria-HungaryOttoman EmpireBulgaria
WWI: A TOTAL WARTotal War = All resources used for warPropaganda
New Industrial weapons/inventions in land, air, sea
Weapons by Sea: DreadnoughtsRevolutionary DesignAll-Big Gun designBrand new race to build the biggest and best Navy
Weapons by Sea: U-BoatUnterseebootSubmarineUtilized by Germany to cut off support for Great Britain
Weapons by Air: Airplanes and Zeppelins Red Baron
Weapons by Land: Machine Gun
Weapons by Land: Railroad Guns
Trench FootOriginally it was thought Trench Foot was caused by poor moraleActual Cause: prolonged exposure to damp cold conditions
Weapons by Land: Gas
Burns from Mustard Gas
Animal Messengers and Gas Masks
Weapons by Land: Tanks
Total War made WWI a War of Attrition: A slow wearing-down war in which each side tried to outlast the other
Theaters of War
Major Battles WWI1914Battle of Marne: W-front France stops German adv. into ParisTrench warfare begins
Battle of TannenbergE-frontHuge German Win!Prob. Germany in 2-front war
Verdun February, 1916 German offensive. Each side had 500,000 casualties.
The Somme July, 1916 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.
Major Battles WWI continued1915Battle of GallipoliTurkish-frontAllies defeated by Ottoman E!Russia remains landlocked
United States Entry into WWIU.S. neutral until April 6th, 1917 / May 28th 1918 our first victory at Cantigny (North of Paris)Events that pushed U.S. into WWI:Unrestricted Germ. submarine warfareSinking of Lusitania Zimmerman Note / O throw of Russian Czar.
Russia Before WWISerfdom ended, but most people poor & uneducated1904 Russia lost Russo-Japanese War1905 Czar ended Absolute Rule; Duma createdBut Duma very weak
By 1914 Russia Ripe for Revolution!!!
Russia in WWIWWI exposed Russias weaknessesNo food, No arms, Terrible roads
Russia Isolated b/c of Ottoman Empire
By 1917 Russian people & army had lost faith in the Czar Eventually, Czar abdicates and provisional gov. created
Problems w/ Provisional Government2 Big Problems:Wanted to stay in WWISocialism Growing2 Socialist FactionsMensheviksModeratesGradual changeBolsheviksRadicalsForce changeLed by Vladimir LeninPeace, Land, Bread
The October Revolution: Nov. 7, 1917Bolsheviks o/throw provisional gov.AfterRename self Communist PartySign Treaty of Brest-Litovisk
But Still Have a ProblemOpposition from Mensheviks and Czars supporters
1918 Russian Civil War2 Sides:Reds CommunistsWhites Mensheviks, all other anti-Red including Allies from WWIReds/Lenin kill Czar and his family1921 Reds Win1922 Russia becomes USSR
Defeat of Central Powers and End of WWI1918:Germ. focuses on W. Front; but had to fight Amer.Bulgaria, AH and Ottomans surrenderGerm. Kaiser steps down; German Weimar Republic formedWeimar Republic signs Armistice in Nov.WWI Fighting OVER!!!
WWI Causalities 16 mill. Dead
Paris Peace ConferenceMeeting of the Big 4:GB: David Lloyd GeorgeFrance: George ClemenceauUnited States: Woodrow WilsonItaly: Vittorio OrlandoWho were these men and what kind of peace did each of them want?
Areas of ConcernBlame?Reparations?Colonies of Central Powers?Rhineland?Alsace-Lorraine?Saar?Poland?Danzig?Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Estonia?Czechoslovakia?
OTHER PROBLEMS W/ PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE
No Russia or Central powers invited!
Other Problems w/ the Paris Peace ConferenceRussia and Central Powers not invitedPolitical ProblemsTerritorial ConflictsReparationsHow to maintain peaceForceWilsons 14 PointsFreedom of seas, no secret treaties, no economic barriers, reduce arms, fair land divisions, establish League of Nations
Treaty of VersaillesOfficially ended WWI 1919
Treated Germany Harsh
Formed Independent Republics
Formed League of Nations
Europe Before WWI
Europe After WWI
**Short video on the black hand and Assassination
**Khan Academy VideoA-H wanted to crush Serbia to set an example but they were worried that this would cause the biggest Slavic state to intervene and declare war on themWho is the biggest slavic state??They then secured the help of the Germans and sent an ultimatum to the Serbs
*When Russia comes to the aide of Serbia they also send troops to the border of GermanyGermany order Russia to stop their militarization or face war-Russia ignores them and Germany declares war on RussiaIn an effort to stay ahead of the game we then see Germany declare war on France anticipating that they would side with the RussiansJapan enters the war on the side of GB hoping to gain German holdings in China and the PacificItaly remains neutral for ten months-avioding giving aid to AH because they were the aggressors but they sign secret treaty with GBBulgaria was a Slavic rival of Serbia-sided with Germany*Great Britain gets into this war because the neutrality of Belgium was disrespected by GermanyGermany was hoping for a quick victory against France so they could focus on RussiaOttomans get involved because of their strategic location and the control of the Dardanelles-the straight between the Black Sea and Med Sea-why is this important?**U-Boats- Submarines that are perfected by the Germans and used to patrol, protect and blockade for the Germans-Ends up bringing the US into WWIDreadnoughts-Navies believed that battles would be fought at farther distances now so equipping long range guns to ships would benefit their navy in the long run-*Germany had twenty-nine U-boats at the start of WWI-they sank 5 British cruisers in the first ten weeks of the war7 May 1915- Lusitantia sinking 128 Americans on board the ship-Germans fired because they though there was weapons on board*Red Baron: very successful dogfight pilot who is believed to have shot down some 80 aircraft during the war
What do you think the Zeppelins were used for?*Machine guns made killing a lot of people very easy and quick because they could fire much faster than a rifle couldAlthough lighter machine guns came out towards the end of the war the early guns needed numerous people to move them.
Being that machine guns are hard to move and very efficient at killingwhat is the easiest way to save yourself from them?Trenches**The natural defence for machine gun and artileray fire was trenchesThese trenches often became so advanced that they were almost like below ground citiesMoist ground and un equipped soldiers lead to numerous helth problems developing*The result of ***************************