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  1. 1. 1 91 4-1 91 8:Th e Worldat War
  2. 2. Differing Viewpoints Family Feud The War to End All Wars The War to Make theWorld Safe for Democracy
  3. 3. C au s e s of th eWar
  4. 4. MAIN-IM Militarism & militaryplanning Alliance System Imperialism Nationalism Intellectual Context Mass Politics
  5. 5. Family Feud! Most of the Monarchs of Europe wererelated by blood somehow. Queen Victoria was Tsar Nicholass Aunt,Kaiser Wilhelms grandmother, and manyothers were related. This led to complications with loyaltiesand alliances in strained diplomatic times.
  6. 6. 1. Militarism & Arms RaceTotal Defense Expenditures for the GreatPowers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.]in millions of s.187018801890 19001910 1914 94 130 154268 2893981910-1914 Increase in Defense ExpendituresFrance 10%Britain13%Russia 39% Germany 73%
  7. 7. 2. The Alliance SystemTriple Entente: Triple Alliance:
  8. 8. Two Armed Camps!Allied Powers:Central Powers: Face-off
  9. 9. The Major Players: 1914-17 Allied Powers: Central Powers:Nicholas II [Rus]Wilhelm II [Ger]George V [Br] Victor EmmanuelII [It]Enver Pasha [Turkey] Pres. Poincare [Fr]Franz Josef [A-H]
  10. 10. Europe in 1914
  11. 11. 3. Imperial Rivalries
  12. 12. 4. Aggressive Nationalism
  13. 13. Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914The Powder Keg of Europe
  14. 14. Th e S p arkth at b e ganE ve ryth ing
  15. 15. Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His Family
  16. 16. The Assassination: 1914 Sarajevo
  17. 17. The Assassin: Gavrilo Princip, Black Hand Serbian militant nationalist group
  18. 18. Whos To Blame?
  19. 19. The Schlieffen Plan
  20. 20. Schlieffen Plan-August 1914 The German War Plan To defeat France militarily through Belgium in less thana month, and then turn attentions to Russia Germans sent 78 infantry divisions into France. Met by72 French divisions Germans won initially./Then Russians came in anddistracted and separated the troops. British troops also came in against the Germans. The Battle of The Marne followed in September.
  21. 21. German Atrocities in Belgium
  22. 22. Mobilization Home by Christmas! No major warin 50 years! Nationalism!Its a long way to Tipperary, Its a long way to go; Its a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, Its a long, long way to Tipperary, But my hearts right there!
  23. 23. Recruitment Posters
  24. 24. A Young Australian Recruit
  25. 25. Recruits of theCentral Powers A German Soldier Says Farewell toHis Mother Austro-Hungarians
  26. 26. New French Recruits
  27. 27. A German Boy Pretends to Be a Soldier
  28. 28. Soldiers Mobilized 14 12 10Millions86420France Germany Russia Britain
  29. 29. Wom e nand th eWar E ffort
  30. 30. Financing the War
  31. 31. For Recruitment
  32. 32. Munitions Workers
  33. 33. French Women FactoryWorkers
  34. 34. German Women Factory Workers
  35. 35. Working in the Fields
  36. 36. A Woman Ambulance Driver
  37. 37. Red Cross Nurses
  38. 38. Women in the Army Auxiliary
  39. 39. Russian Women Soldiers
  40. 40. Spies Mata Hari Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle German Spy!
  41. 41. Women in Action
  42. 42. Pos te rs : Wartim eP rop aganda
  43. 43. Australian Poster
  44. 44. American Poster
  45. 45. Financing the War
  46. 46. German Poster Think of Your Children!
  47. 47. Th e We s te rnFront: A War ofAttrition
  48. 48. A Multi-Front War
  49. 49. The Battle of the Marne Sept. 1914 The Schleiffen Plandestroyed! The ideaof defeating France in6 weeks was crushedwhen the Germanswere forced to retreat. At the River Marne inFrance, trenches weredug along on bothsides 300 miles andeventually caused astalemate with yearsof trench warfarefollowing.
  50. 50. The Taxi Brigade Paris taxis transport6,000 French troops tothe front for the Battle ofthe Marne. Communications andtransport not all up andrunning enough totransport soldiers to frontline trenches.