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www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCa rthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Page 1: Www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008

www.mhhe.com/fourps

Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior

Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior

CHAPTER SIXCHAPTER SIX

For use only withPerreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts.© 2008 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Page 2: Www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008

1. Describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

2. Understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

3. Understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

4. Explain how characteristics of the purchase situation influence consumer behavior.

5. Explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions

When we finish this lecture you should

Page 3: Www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008

Consumer Behavior for Marketing Strategy Planning (Exhibit 6-1)

Page 4: Www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008

Consumer Behavior for Marketing Strategy Planning (Exhibit 6-1)

CH 5: DemographicCH 5: DemographicDimensions of FinalDimensions of FinalConsumer MarketsConsumer Markets

Global Consumer MarketsGlobal Consumer Markets•Population trendsPopulation trends•Income growth & distributionIncome growth & distribution•Urbanization, literacy, & otherUrbanization, literacy, & other differencesdifferences

The U.S. MarketThe U.S. Market•Population trendsPopulation trends•Income growth & distributionIncome growth & distribution•Spending patternsSpending patterns•Ethnic dimensionsEthnic dimensions

CH 6: Buying BehaviorCH 6: Buying BehaviorOf Final ConsumersOf Final Consumers

FinalFinalConsumersConsumers

Page 5: Www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008

CH 6: Buying CH 6: Buying Behavior of Final Behavior of Final ConsumersConsumers

FinalFinalConsumersConsumers

Consumer Behavior for Marketing Strategy Planning (Exhibit 6-1)

Economic needsEconomic needs PsychologicalPsychological variablesvariables Social influencesSocial influences PurchasePurchase

SituationSituation

Marketing mixes All other stimuliMarketing mixes All other stimuli

Consumer decision processConsumer decision process

Person making a buying decision

Person does or does not purchase (response)Person does or does not purchase (response)

Page 6: Www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008

How We Will View Consumer Behavior (Exhibit 6-2)

Person Making DecisionPerson Making Decision

Economic needsEconomic needs•Economy of Economy of purchasepurchase•ConvenienceConvenience•Efficiency in useEfficiency in use•DependabilityDependability

PsychologicalPsychological variablesvariables•MotivationMotivation•PerceptionPerception•LearningLearning•AttitudeAttitude•Personality/Personality/ lifestylelifestyle

Social influenceSocial influence•FamilyFamily•Social classSocial class•ReferenceReference groupsgroups•CultureCulture

PurchasePurchasesituationsituation•Purchase reasonPurchase reason•TimeTime•SurroundingsSurroundings

Marketing mixes All other stimuliMarketing mixes All other stimuli

Consumer decision processConsumer decision process

Person does or does not purchase (response)Person does or does not purchase (response)

Page 7: Www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008

Economic Needs Affect Many Buying Decisions—But They’re Not the Whole Story

They call it a They call it a crash test. We crash test. We call it a product call it a product demonstration.demonstration.

Page 8: Www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008

WantsWantsWantsWants

NeedsNeedsNeedsNeeds

Psychological Influences within an Individual

DrivesDrives

Consumers seek benefits to match Consumers seek benefits to match needs and wants!needs and wants!

DrivesDrives

Page 9: Www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008

Physiological Needs

Several Needs at the Same Time: PSSP Hierarchy of Needs (Exhibit 6-4)

Safety Needs

Social Needs

PersonalNeeds

Page 10: Www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008

Checking your knowledge

Ads for Haynes Jeep-Chrysler feature the slogan, “Come to Haynes, where the fun begins.” This is an appeal to the consumer’s:

A. physiological need.

B. safety need.

C. personal need.

D. social need.

E. information need.

Page 11: Www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008

© 2008 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Interactive Exercise: Needs

Page 12: Www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008

Personal Needs

If you have If you have a fauceta faucet

You can You can have a have a facial.facial.

Page 13: Www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008

Selective Exposure

Selective Exposure

Selective Perception

Selective Perception

Selective Exposure

Selective Exposure

Selective Perception

Selective Perception

Perception Determines What Consumers See and Feel

Selective Retention

Selective Retention

Page 14: Www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008

Pat purchased a Ford Taurus, but traded it for another brand before it was out of warranty because it constantly needed repairs. Now, every time Pat sees an ad that mentions the quality of Ford’s new vehicles all she can think about is the problems she had with her Taurus. This an example of:

A. need-based thinking.B. selective retention.C. selective exposure.D. selective perception.E. psychographics.

Checking your knowledge

Page 15: Www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008

DriveDriveDriveDrive

CuesCuesCuesCues

ResponseResponseResponseResponse

Learning Determines What Response Is Likely (Exhibit 6-5)

ReinforcementReinforcement

Page 16: Www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008

© 2008 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Cue

Page 17: Www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008

Work with Existing Attitudes

Work with Existing Attitudes

Work with Existing Attitudes

Need To Understand Attitudes &

Beliefs

Need To Understand Attitudes &

Beliefs

Need To Understand Attitudes &

Beliefs

Belief: An Opinion

Belief: An Opinion

Belief: An Opinion

Attitude: A Point of ViewAttitude: A

Point of ViewAttitude: A

Point of ViewAttitude: A

Point of View

Attitudes Relate to Buying

Ethical Issues May Arise

Ethical Issues May Arise

Ethical Issues May Arise

Meeting Expectations Is Important

Meeting Expectations Is Important

KeyConcepts

KeyConcepts

Page 18: Www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008

InterestsInterests

ActivitiesActivitiesActivitiesActivities

InterestsInterests

Personality and Lifestyle Analysis

Personality: How People See Things

Personality: How People See Things

OpinionsOpinions

Page 19: Www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008

Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Page 20: Www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008

Simple Approaches for Measuring Social Class in the U.S.

Income Is Not the Main Determinant!Income Is Not the Main Determinant!

OccupationOccupation EducationEducation Type of HousingType of Housing

Location of Housing

Location of Housing

Page 21: Www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008

Reference GroupsReference GroupsReference GroupsReference Groups

Opinion LeadersOpinion LeadersOpinion LeadersOpinion Leaders

CultureCulture

Other Social Influences

Page 22: Www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008

Anime, the cartoon-like Japanese art form, has generated significant interest among Generation Y consumers in the U.S. Anime conventions occur frequently and the largest ones draw more than 20,000 attendees. Anime fans, many in costume, come to these conventions to shop, participate in anime workshops, and to simply hang out with people with similar interests. Promotion of these conventions capitalizes mainly on:

A. learning.B. psychological needs.C. selective processes.D. reference group influences.E. culture.

Checking your knowledge

Page 23: Www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008

Purchase Reason

Purchase Reason

Time Available

Time Available

Purchase Reason

Purchase Reason

Time Available

Time Available

Individuals Are Affected by the Purchase Situation

Physical Surroundings

Physical Surroundings

Page 24: Www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008

Expanded Model of Consumer Behavior (Exhibit 6-7)

Marketing mixes All other stimuliMarketing mixes All other stimuli

Economic needsEconomic needs PsychologicalPsychologicalVariablesVariables Social influencesSocial influences PurchasePurchase

situationsituation

Consumer decision processConsumer decision process

NeedNeedawarenessawareness

Problem SolvingProblem Solving•Information searchInformation search•Identify alternativesIdentify alternatives•Set criteriaSet criteria•Evaluate alternativesEvaluate alternatives

ExperienceExperienceAfter theAfter thepurchasepurchase

Postpone decisionPostpone decisionFeedback based on experienceFeedback based on experience

PurchasePurchasedecisiondecision

Routinized responseRoutinized response

Page 25: Www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008

Problem Solving Continuum (Exhibit 6-9)

Routinized Response Behavior

Routinized Response Behavior

Low involvementFrequently purchasedInexpensiveLittle riskLittle information

Limited Problem Solving

Limited Problem Solving

Extensive Problem Solving

Extensive Problem Solving

High involvementInfrequently purchased

Expensive High risk

Much information desired

Low involvement High involvement

Page 26: Www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008

Limited or Extensive Problem Solving?

Try Triaminic – the widest range of symptom-specific children’s cold formulas. So you can choose exactly the medicine your child needs, with no side effects from unnecessary ingredients.

Page 27: Www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008

AwarenessAwareness

InterestInterest

AwarenessAwareness

InterestInterest

EvaluationEvaluationEvaluationEvaluation

TrialTrialTrialTrial

DecisionDecision

ConfirmationConfirmation

DecisionDecision

Adoption Process Steps

Dissonance may set in after the decision!

Page 28: Www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008

© 2008 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Problem Solving

Page 29: Www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008

Alice was a bit unsure about her decision after buying a new car. Her uneasiness was diminished after receiving a congratulatory note from the owner of the dealership. The note contained a coupon stating that her first scheduled maintenance on the vehicle would be free. These tactics are part of the dealer’s strategy to reduce:

A. dissonance.B. low involvement purchasing.C. routinized response behavior.D. social influences.E. information search.

Checking your knowledge

Page 30: Www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008

Decision Making (Exhibit 6-10)

Decision-making steps Adoption process steps Learning steps Decision-making steps Adoption process steps Learning steps

DriveDrive

CuesCues

ResponseResponse

Rein

forcem

ent

Rein

forcem

ent

1.1. Becoming Becoming aware of needaware of need

2.2. Gathering info Gathering info about choicesabout choices

3.3. Setting criteria, Setting criteria, evaluation, evaluation, possible trialpossible trial

4.4. Deciding on Deciding on the solutionthe solution

5.5. Evaluating the Evaluating the purchase purchase experienceexperience

Awareness and Awareness and interestinterest

Interest and Interest and evaluationevaluation

Evaluation, maybe Evaluation, maybe trialtrial

DecisionDecision

ConfirmationConfirmation

Page 31: Www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008

1. Describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

2. Understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

3. Understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

4. Explain how characteristics of the purchase situation influence consumer behavior.

5. Explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions

You now

Page 32: Www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008

• Economic buyers

• Economic needs

• Needs

• Wants

• Drive

• Physiological needs

• Safety needs

• Social needs

• Personal needs

• Perception

• Selective exposure

Key Terms

• Selective perception

• Selective retention

• Learning

• Cues

• Response

• Reinforcement

• Attitude

• Belief

• Expectation

• Psychographics

• Lifestyle analysis

Page 33: Www.mhhe.com/fourps Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior CHAPTER SIX For use only with Perreault/Cannon/McCarthy or Perreault/McCarthy texts. © 2008

• Social class

• Reference group

• Opinion leader

• Culture

• Extensive problem solving

• Limited problem solving

• Routinized response behavior

• Low-involvement purchases

• Dissonance

• Adoption process

Key Terms