xanthan gum2003

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  • 1. A Review Article of Xanthan Gum Prepared by : Guided By : Mr. Hardik U. Patel Mr. Nishant Upadhyay M.Pharm (2ndSEM) Asst. Professor, BMCP, SURAT. Bhagwan Mahavir College of Pharmacy, SURAT.04/18/12 JOURNAL CLUB 1
  • 2. Content Introduction Review of Literature Conclusion References04/18/12 JOURNAL CLUB 2
  • 3. Introduction 1. Nonproprietary Names BP: Xanthan gum PhEur: Xanthani gummi USPNF: Xanthan gum 2. Synonyms Corn sugar gum; E415; Keltrol; polysaccharide B-1459; Rhodigel; Vanzan NF; Xantural.04/18/12 JOURNAL CLUB 3
  • 4. Introduction 3. Molecular Formula : (C35H49O29)n 4. Molecular weight : 2106 The USPNF 23 describes xanthan gum as a high molecular weight polysaccharide gum. It contains D-glucose and D-mannose as the dominant hexose units, along with D- glucuronic acid and is prepared as the sodium, potassium, or calcium salt.04/18/12 JOURNAL CLUB 4
  • 5. Chemical Structure04/18/12 JOURNAL CLUB 5
  • 6. Introduction 6. Functional Category : Stabilizing Agent, Suspending Agent, Viscosity increasing agent (1%). 7. Applications in Pharmaceutical Formulation or Technology : Xanthan gum is widely used in oral and topical pharmaceutical formulations, cosmetics, and foods as a suspending and stabilizing agent. It is also used as a thickening and emulsifying agent. It is nontoxic, compatible with most other pharmaceutical ingredients, and has good stability and viscosity properties over a wide pH and temperature range.04/18/12 JOURNAL CLUB 6
  • 7. Introduction Xanthan gum has been incorporated in an ophthalmic liquid dosage form, which interacts with mucin, thereby helping in the prolonged retention of the dosage form in the precorneal area. Xanthan gum can also be used as an Excipients for spray- drying and freeze-drying processes for better results. Xanthan gum can be used to increase the bioadhesive strength in vaginal formulations and as a binder in colon specific drug delivery systems. Xanthan gum is also used as a hydrocolloid in the food industry, and in cosmetics it has been used as a thickening agent in shampoo.04/18/12 JOURNAL CLUB 7
  • 8. Introduction 8. Description : Xanthan gum occurs as a cream- or white-coloured, odorless, free-flowing, fine powder. 9. Typical Properties : Acidity/alkalinity: pH = 6.08.0 for a 1% w/v aqueous solution. Freezing point: 0* c for a 1% w/v aqueous solution. Melting point: 270*c. Solubility: practically insoluble in ethanol and ether; soluble in cold or warm water. Viscosity (dynamic): 12001600 mPa s for a 1% w/v aqueous solution at 25*c.04/18/12 JOURNAL CLUB 8
  • 9. ..Introduction 10. Stability and Storage Conditions : Xanthan gum is a stable material. Aqueous solutions are stable over a wide pH range (pH 312), although they demonstrate maximum stability at pH 410 and temperatures of 1060*C. Xanthan gum solutions of less than 1% w/v concentration may be adversely affected by higher than ambient temperatures Solutions are also stable in the presence of enzymes, salts, acids, and bases. The bulk material should be stored in a well-closed container in a cool, dry place.04/18/12 JOURNAL CLUB 9
  • 10. ..Introduction 11. Incompatibilities : Xanthan gum is an anionic material and is not usually compatible with cationic surfactants, polymers, or preservatives as precipitation occurs. Anionic and amphoteric surfactants at concentrations above 15% w/v cause precipitation of xanthan gum from a solution. Xanthan gum is compatible with most synthetic and natural viscosity-increasing agents. If it is to be combined with cellulose derivatives, then xanthan gum free of cellulase should be used to prevent depolymerization of the cellulose derivative.04/18/12 JOURNAL CLUB 10
  • 11. Introduction 12. Safety : Xanthan gum is widely used in oral and topical pharmaceutical formulations, cosmetics, and food products and is generally regarded as nontoxic and nonirritant at the levels employed as a pharmaceutical excipient. The estimated acceptable daily intake for xanthan gum has been set by the WHO at up to 10 mg/kg body-weight.04/18/12 JOURNAL CLUB 11
  • 12. Review Articles04/18/12 JOURNAL CLUB 12
  • 13. XanthanAlginate composite gel Beads Bead Preparation : SA (1.5%, w/v) and XG (0.3, 0.5 and 1.0%, w/v) were dispersed in distilled water. XGSA dispersion (80 ml) was dropped through a 1.2mm inner diameter needle, from hypodermic syringe into 0.45M calcium chloride solution (200 ml). These beads were cured , filtered and rinsed with distilled water. Then dried at room temperature for 48hrs. To prepare the DCA beads, DS (1%, w/v) was added into the dispersion and completely dissolved with a homogenizer for 5 min before cross-linking process, and then the preparation was proceeded as described above.04/18/12 JOURNAL CLUB 13
  • 14. Effect of XG on rheology and viscosity of SA dispersion04/18/12 JOURNAL CLUB 14
  • 15. It can be seen that relationship between shear rate and shear stress of SA and XGSA dispersions showed a straight line, whereas non-linear curve of 0.3% and 0.5%XG dispersions was found. Incorporation of XG did not affect the flow behavior of SA dispersion. Viscosity coefficient of SA dispersion increased significantly with increasing amount of XG.04/18/12 JOURNAL CLUB 15
  • 16. Water uptake of the composite DCA beads(In Phosphate buffer & Distilled Water)04/18/12 JOURNAL CLUB 16
  • 17. DS release profile of DCA beads with different % of XG(In Phosphate buffer & Distilled Water)04/18/12 JOURNAL CLUB 17
  • 18. Conclusion Incorporation of XG into the DCA beads caused a change in matrix structure of the beads due to intermolecular hydrogen bonding between XG and SA, and formation of small aggregates of XG after dispersing into SA dispersion. The XGDCA beads gave higher entrapment efficiency of DS and increased water uptake and swelling in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer and distilled water. In contrast, the 0.3%XGDCA beads could retard the drug release in distilled water. However , higher content of XG in the DCA beads increased the release rate of DS. This was due to erosion of small aggregates of XG on the surface of the DCA beads. This finding suggested that XG could modulate physicochemical properties and drug release of the DCA beads, which based on the existence of molecular interaction of XG and SA. 04/18/12 JOURNAL CLUB 18
  • 19. Referance Xanthanalginate composite gel beads: Molecular interaction and in vitro characterization. (International Journal of Pharmaceutics 331 (2007) 6171) Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. (Page: 821-823) : http://www.livestrong.com/article/315249-xanthan-gum/#ixzz1r9d www.Sciencedirect.com http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/xanthan_gum04/18/12 JOURNAL CLUB 19
  • 20. Thank you