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Page 1: yyy yyy yy yyyyy - Scioto...yy yyyyy yy y y y y Introduction 4-H Poultry Project y y y y y yyy yyy y yyy yyy. Introduction The 4-H poultry project is for boys and girls who want to

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4-H PoultryProject



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IntroductionThe 4-H poultry project is for boys and girls who want to learn to raise and grow

chickens. If you complete this project, you will learn (1) to identify different varietiesof poultry, (2) to feed and manage poultry, (3) to exhibit poultry and (4) to recordyour activities.

The 4-H poultry project includes three kinds of project work. You may do one, two orall three.

Poultry Projects1. Broiler Production Project. Club member raises 25 or more chickens (broilers) to

produce meat. This short-term project lasts only seven to nine weeks. Broilers raisedfor this project arc bought as J-day-old chicks.

2. Egg Production Project. Club member raises a flock of chickens (20 to 25 hens) fortheir eggs. This long-term project generally lasts six months or longer. Hens used forthis project may be bought as pullets (young females) or raised from chicks. The eggsproduced can be for home use or sold to a local market.

3. Exhibition Birds Project. Club member raises a small flock of chickens (15 or morebirds) to exhibit at parish and state poultry shows. All birds exhibited must have beenraised from 1-day-old chicks. Exhibition birds must be purebred and may be standardbred or bantams. Standard bred arc normal-size chickens. Bantams are miniatures.Club member may exhibit both standard and bantams.

Breeds of PoultryA system of classes, breeds and varieties has been established to identify and classify


A class is a group of breeds that originated in the same country or region of the world.The name indicates the region where the breed began, such as English, Mediterranean orAmerican.

Most chickens grown by today's commercial poultry industry are from the American,English or Mediterranean classes. Breeds in the American class have yellow skin andunfeathered shanks. They adapt easily to different conditions and are used to produceboth meat and eggs. Popular breeds in the American class include the Plymouth Rock,Dominique, Rhode Island Red, New Hampshire, Wyandotte, Jersey Giant and others.

Breeds in the English class excel in producing meat. Popular English breeds includethe Cornish, Australorp, Orpington and Dorking.

The Mediterranean class includes breeds that produce eggs, not meat. They arc smalland lay white eggs. Popular breeds include the Leghorn, Minorca, Blue Andalusian andAncona.

Breed refers to a group of fowl, each having the same physical features such as bodyshape, skin color, number of toes and feathered or unfeathered shanks. For example,Plymouth Rock has a long body. Jt has a broad, prominent breast and a deep body.Wyandotte has a round body. Us feathering makes it look like it has a short back.

A variety is a subdivision of a breed. Color patterns, comb type and a beard or muffare used to divide a breed into various varieties. Examples of the varieties of the Plym-outh Rock breed are White, Barred, Buff, Columbian, Blue Partridge and Silver Penciled.In eaeh case, the body shape is identical. Feather color is the only difference.

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The main purpose of growing poultry is to produce meat and eggs. Chicks grown formeat are called broilers. Broilers arc crosses of White Plymouth Rock, White Cornishand other breeds. They convert feeds into meat more efficiently than any other type oflivestock. With good growing conditions, broilers can convert 1 pounds of feed into 1pound of weight gain.

Club members beginning an egg production project should select one of the WhiteLeghorn strains. These birds can produce eggs on a small amount of feed.

Any of the purebred breeds can be grown to exhibit. You may also want to considerraising bantams. Bantams are the miniatures of the poultry world. Most large fowl havea miniature likeness called a bantam. They have the same requirements for shape, colorand physical features as do large fowl. Bantams are raised for their beauty, as pets or forcompanion animals. Often they can be kept in areas too small for large fowl. They areexcellent birds to arow for exhibition.

Activity 1: Understanding Breeds.Instructions: Match the breed with purpose. Circle A, B or C for the purpose thatmatches the breed.

PurposeA. Egg ProductionB. Meat ProductionC. Both Egg & Meat Production


1. Plymouth Rock

2. Rhode Island Red

3. Jersey Giant

4. Leghorn

5. Cornish

6. Minorca

7. Orpington

8. Blue-Ancona

9. Astralorp

10. Broilers























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Selecting a BreedYou must first determine whether you wish to produce broilers for meal or grow out

pullets for egg production or exhibition. The poultry industry has developed "cross-breeds" of poultry specifically for meat production. These birds grow and feather fastand arc ready for market at six weeks of age or less. All birds of this type should 'be usedfor meat. Do not retain these pullets for egg production.

Leghorn breeds are the ones kept for egg production. These birds live well, grow fastand begin laying eggs at 5 to 5 J/2 months. You can choose from many excellent breedsand strains.

You also have many breeds and varieties to choose from if you raise birds for show.The American Poultry Association and the American Bantam Association issue bookscalled the Standard of Perfection. These books include descriptions and illustrationsof each recognized breed and variety. You can select a breed by studying the AmericanStandard of Perfection. Your 4-H agent should have a copy.

Purchasing ChicksBuy chicks from a reliable hatchery. The hatchery you choose should belong to the

National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP) or should practice a blood-testing program topurchase chicks that are pullorum and typhoid elean. These diseases can be passed fromthe hen through the egg to the baby chick if the hatchery does not follow a continuoustesting program.

Chicks purchased for egg production or exhibition should be started in January,February, March or April. Chicks started in these months will be grown and ready forthe usually higher egg prices in August, September, October and November. They alsowill be in peak condition for showing at the Louisiana State Fair in October.

Chicks purchased for meat production can be started at any time. They shouldbe grown, however, to be eligible for the Parish Broiler Show, State Fair or the LSUAgCenter Livestock Show. Your 4-H agent will be able to tell you these dates each year.

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Poultry TalkMany special terms are used in poultry production and selection. You need to become

familiar with them to develop your selected poultry project. These terms will also helpyou talk to poultry producers to select your breed of poultry.

Broiler - a chicken less than eight weeks old, which will cook tender bybroiling or frying.

Flock - three or more birds kept in one place.

Hen - a female chicken over 1 year of age for exhibition purposes.

Pullet - a female chicken under 1 year of age for exhibition purposes.

Cockerel - a male chicken under I year of age for exhibition purposes.

Cock - a male chicken over 1 year of age for exhibition purposes.

Exhibition - birds shown for their outward genetic expression (colorpatterns, body type and other characteristics).

Standard bred ~ large fowl that weigh more than 3 Ib at maturity.

Bantam - small fowl (or miniature) that weigh less than 2 Ib at maturity.

Crossbred - the offspring of parent stock of different genetic makeup.

Fowl ~ refers to chickens mostly, but also refers to most avian species.

Nutrients - the individual components of a feed or ingredients requiredby an animal.

Protein - any of a large group of complete organic components essentialfor tissue growth and repair.

Ration - a combination of ingredients (feed stuffs) that supply all of ananimal's dietary needs.

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General Management and Care of PoultryRaising poultry successfully for meat, eggs or exhibition depends on your ability to

provide the proper management and care for the birds.

Housing and EquipmentThe basic requirements of a poultry house are that it provide enough space, protection

from weather and predators (dogs, possums, foxes, etc.) and allow for movement of air.Space requirements depend on the type of chicken such as for egg production, exhibitionor meat production.

Egg-production birds require about 3 square feet of floor space per bird. Largerbreeds grown for exhibition need more space. Space also should be provided for separat-ing males and females for exhibition. Bantams need 2 to 3 square feet of floor space perbird. For both standards and bantams, individual cages are required for the adult males.

Poultry house windows should be covered with 1-inch mesh poultry netting. Duringcold weather, the windows can be covered with plastic fi lm if needed. Be sure to provideadequate ventilation.

All young chicks require a heat source. Heat can best be supplied by an electric heatlamp. A 125-watt lamp is suitable for cool and warm weather and a 250-watl lamp orcold weather.

Chicks will need a trough or tube feeder. A trough 2 feet long is adequate for 12-15chickens. One tube feeder will provide enough feeder space for 25 chickens. A I-gallonwatcrcr is adequate for 25 to 30 chicks. Use larger watcrers for older chickens.

Brooding ManagementBrooding refers to the care of young chicks during the first 2 to 3 weeks of life. Good

brooding practices bring out good qualities in chicks.

Use a disinfectant to sanitize the house and equipment before the chicks arrive. Asolution of chlorine, iodine or quatenary ammonia can be used. When using any disin-fectant, carefully follow the instructions on the label and get an adult to help you. Clean-ing and disinfecting help to control diseases and parasites.

Once the brooding area has dried, place 4-6 inches of dry litter on the floor. Materialssuch as dry pine shavings, rice hulls or chopped straw make good litter.

The brooder lamp should be suspended about 15-18 inches above the litter and turnedon the day before the chicks arrive. The lamp should be an infrared lamp, generally a250-watt lamp bulb. Do not hang it by the electrical cord (see diagram). Secure the lampat the proper height with a rope or chain. Heat lamps get very hot and are a fire hazard.They should not come near or touch the litter.

Place waterers and feeders inside the brooder area nearthe heat source. Do not crowd them under the light. Thediagram will help you place equipment.

Place feed in shallow, flat pans for the first two or threedays. This makes it easy for chicks to find food. After daythree, replace the feed pan with a trough or hanging feeder.Hanging tube feeders are best for small flocks. Height ofhanging feeders can easily be adjusted as the birds grow.

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7th - 8th Grade Poultry ProjectIntroduction

Is your idea of poultry production a few chickens in the back yard?Well, hang on to your hat! You are about to walk through a whole newworld of poultry in 3-D! The ancestors of today's chickens can be tracedback to the wild jungle fowl of Asia. The domestication and distribution ofchickens in the world today were greatly influenced by the sport of cock-fighting. From the red jungle fowl, many colors, sizes and types of chick-ens have been developed. The world of poultry is not just limited to thechickens. The term poultry includes many types of birds such as turkeys,ducks, geese and quail.

The bird is unique in its ability to produce two protein-rich products.Meat and eggs are highly nutritious and relatively inexpensive foods. Eggsare used in many recipes from Crepe Suzettes to Baklava. Egg productionis an important agricultural enterprise producing more than 300 billion eggsannually. Poultry meat consumption in the United States now exceeds allother meat sources.

The average American eats more than 70 pounds of poultry meateach year. This includes whole chicken,chicken nuggets, turkey franks, groundturkey, fast-food chicken sandwichesand much more. Today's poultry industryis constantly changing to meet thedemands of you, the consumer. Convenientand versatile poultry products are being developedfor tomorrow's market.

Poultry is one segment of agriculture with several special features:

Broiler Production - Meat

Egg Production - Eggs

Purebred Exhibition Poultry - Show

Each of these will be discussed in this book and in the advanced poultryproject manual.

The 4-H poultry project involves several activities; some requireowning a bird, and some do not (See Appendix A). No matter what yourlevel of interest, this book will introduce you to many facts about poultryand help you learn more about these animals. Let's take a look at theamazing and fascinating biological creatures called poultry.


In the sixth grade animalscience book, you learned somebasic facts about animals. Theseconcepts will be further exploredhere, with specific informationabout how they apply to poultry.First, a short glossary of termsreferring to birds:

Rooster (Cock) ~ Adult male bird

Hen = Adult female bird

Cockerel = Immature male bird

Pullet = Immature female bird

Chick = Young male or femalechicken

Broiler = A male or femalechicken less than eightweeks of age producedfor meat

Breeder = An adult male or femalechicken used to producefertile eggs

Layer = A hen used to produceeggs for human consump-tion

Poult = A young turkey

Tom = Adult male turkey

Capon = A castrated male chicken

Drake = A mature male duck

Gander - A mature male goose

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The chicken has severalinteresting exterior features (seeFig. 1). The comb and wattles of achicken function as a coolingsystem. Chickens do not sweatlike some animals. They lose heatby circulating blood throughout thecomb and wattles. This process ismuch like the cooling of an engineby the radiator. There are severaldifferent types of combs. Someare shown in Figure 2. The earlobeof the bird does not stand awayfrom the head as in other animals.Just beneath the ear is a flat pieceof skin called the earlobe. Theearlobe color can tell you what coloregg a hen will lay. If the earlobe iswhite, her eggshells will be white.A hen with red earlobes will laybrown-shelled eggs.

Feathers serve as protec-tive covering for the bird. Theseinsulate the bird from cold, preventthe skin from getting wet and canbe used for flight. Each region offeathers is defined by a specialterm (see Fig. 1).

Some birds also havespecial feathers about the head.These include crest, beards andmuffs. Some examples are shownin Figure 3.

J"i«man i i ( I ' n "


Figure 1 comb beak

When you look aroundtoday, you can find chickens withmany different physical character-istics. Feather color, size, bodyshape and skin color are examplesof phenotype. The development ofthese different phenotypes wasaccomplished through geneticselection. Remember, all chick-ens are thought to have originatedfrom the red jungle fowl (Fig. 4).Few of today's chickens look muchlike this, but through the process ofgenetic selection and breeding,more than 350 purebred breedsand two major commercial types ofchickens have been developedfrom this one ancestor.

1. List four types of birds raised fortheir meat.





2. List five of your favorite foodswhich contain eggs.






3. Identify the following pictures ofadult male birds:



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Purebred Exhibition Poultry Production

In 1873, the AmericanPoultry Association (first livestockassociation in North America) wasorganized to establish standards ofgenetic excellence and develop asystem of classifying breeds ofchickens. A system of threecategories is used to classifychickens:

1. Class2. Breed3. Variety

A class is a grouping ofbreeds according to the geographicarea of their origin or similarcharacteristics. Breed refers to agroup of birds with similar physicalcharacteristics. Birds of the samebreed when mated produce off-spring with the same characteris-tics. A variety is a sub-division ofa breed. Varieties within a breedhave the same physical shape andfeatures but are separated by combtype or feather color. Examples ofclasses, breeds and varieties areshown inTable I.

The term bantam refers totrue-breeding miniature chickens.One breed of bantams exists foralmost every breed and variety oflarge chickens. There are alsosome breeds of bantams withfeather color and characteristics notfound in larger chickens. Bantamchickens are one-quarter the size oftheir larger counterparts. Bantamshave a special appeal to manypeople, especially to those who livein urban areas. These purebredsare friendly, hardy and are usuallyraised for exhibition or hobby.

For more information aboutbreeds, varieties and characteris-tics of chickens, search the locallibrary for "The American Standardof Perfection." This book containsdescriptions and photos of allrecognized breeds of domesticchickens.

| Table I. Examples of Purebred Class,

Class Breed Variety







Plymouth Rock

Plymouth Rock









Cornish White-Laced Red

Breed and Variety

Comb Shank Feathers











No -

American- Plymouth Rock Asiatic-Brahma

English-Standard Cornish English-Bantam Cornish

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Commercial Broiler ProductionHave you tried a fast-food broiler sandwich? Broiler refers to a

young chicken produced for meat. You may also hear someone use theterm fryer. Both terms refer to the most commonly marketed form ofchicken. The genetic background of today's broiler is a mixture ofseveral purebred breeds. Crossbreeding and selection of the PlymouthRock, Cornish and other large meaty breeds over the years has led to thecommercial stock used to produce today's broilers. This genetic selec-tion has helped to decrease the length of time necessary to produce a 4-pound broiler. In 1940, it took 16 weeks and almost 16 pounds of feed.Today broilers are produced in six weeks with eight pounds of feed.Genetic selection continues to be important in the broiler industry tomaintain and improve this modern chicken.


16 weeksR M T W T F R S M T W T F . S

6 weeksT W T F R

4 poundbroiler

Commercial Egg Production"Commercial egg producers have also used genetic selection to

produce special hybrids with amazing egg-laying abilities. These hybridswere developed primarily from the White Leghorn, a lighter-weight chickenwith high egg-producing abilities. Today's commercial layer can producemore than 300 eggs per year. In the 1940s, the average layer producedfewer than 150 eggs per year.

1940s Today

Activities1. Fill in the blanks:

A.Breeds originating from the samegeographic area are called a

B.Wyandottes have a


C.Birds within a breed but with adifferent feather color are a sub-division called

D.Specific information about breeds,varieties and characteristics ofchickens recognized by the Ameri-can Poultry Association can befound in the publication

2. MatchingA. 16 B. 6D. 150 E. 8

C. 300

1. Pounds of feed needed toproduce a 4-pound broiler today.

2, The number of eggsproduced by the average laying hentoday.

3. The number of weeksrequired to produce a4-pound broilerin 1940.

. 4. The number of weeksrequired to produce a 4-pound broilertoday.

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For the chicken, the hatching process begins after 20 days ofincubation. The chick must break the eggshell to free himself from theegg. The initial break in the eggshell is made with the chick's eggtooth.This is a special feature of the embryo's beak. Most chicks break the - ieggshell in a circular pattern at the large end. This process is calledpipping.

After breaking the shell, thechick projects by kicking with itsfeet to break free from the shell.When the chick first hatches, it willbe wet and weak. Within a fewhours it wilrdry and scurry aboutinvestigating its new world. Detailsof embryonic development arediscussed in the advanced poultryproject manual ancNn embryologypublications.

rms concerning reproduction:1. Unscramble the following

2. Fill irv the appropriate incubationlength foVeach:

Turkey^. .days

Nutrition andFeeding

Birds require propernutrition, just like other animals.The health and performance of abird depend on the feed or nutri-ents it eats. The amount and typeof feed a bird consumes greatlyinfluences its performance. Specialrations are produced for each typeand age of bird. These rationscontain many different ingredientsto provide specific nutrients.


NutrientsSix types of nutrients are

required by all animals. They are:

1. Water2. Proteins3. Carbohydrates4. Lipids5. Minerals6. Vitamins

Water is made up ofhydrogen and oxygen, in a two toone (2:1) ratio. This means oneoxygen is attached to two hydro-gens. You may see it representedas (H20). Water is one of thecheapest nutrients. Often it is alsothe one given the least amount ofattention. Most of the body fluidsare water based, such as blood,sweat, tears, saliva, urine, etc.The bird's body is 92% water.Birds need a constant, cleansource of water. Water is requiredfor many bodily functions, such as

1. Maintenance of bodytemperature

2. Production of eggs3. Digestion and absorption

of feeds4. Lubrication of feed by

saliva5. Transport of nutrients via


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Proteins are used to formmany body tissues such asmuscle, red blood cells, feathersandtoenaiis. Proteins are made upof individual building blocks knownas amino acids. Amino acidscontain carbon, hydrogen, oxygenand nitrogen. The combination ofamino acids, in different ways andamounts, determines the specificprotein. More than 1000 proteinsare found within the animal body.For the bird's body to use theseproteins, they must be broken downinto amino acids during digestion.The amino acids are absorbed and reformed into proteins within the bodycells.

Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Thebasic unit for most carbohydrates is glucose. Sugars are one common typeof carbohydrate. Refined sugar like table sugar is known as sucrose.Fruits taste sweet because of the carbohydrate fructose. Starches areanother type of carbohydrate. Starch is the primary component of co"rn, f>,milo, potatoes, beans, breads and pasta. Carbohydrates are primarily usedfor energy. Energy can be thought of as power or ability to do work.Energy is required for such activities as walking, clucking, producing eggs,digesting foods, etc.

Lipids, also known as fats, are made of carbon, hydrogen andoxygen. The basic unit of all fats or lipids is fatty acids. Just as aminoacids are common to all protein, fatty acids are common to all lipids.Lipids contain two and one-half times as much energy as carbohydrates f

but are more difficult to digest and use. *Vitamins are special compounds needed in small amounts for

specific bodily activities. Vitamins help regulate many processes. VitaminD is necessary for bone and shell formation. Vitamin K is required for "•proper blood clotting.

There are two general types of vitamins: those which can bedissolved in water (water-soluble) and those dissolvable only in fat (fat-soluble).

Water-soluble Fat-soluble

Vitamin C-complex vitamins

Vitamin AVitamin DVitamin EVitamin K

Minerals are also divided into two general groups based on therelative amount needed by the body. Macro-minerals are those mineralsneeded in relatively large amounts; micro-minerals are needed in smallamounts. Examples of each are:

M aero-minerals Micro-minerals

Calcium (Ca)Phosphorus (P)Potassium (K)Sodium (Na)Chlorine (Cl)

Iodine (I)Zinc (Zn)

Copper (Cu)Cobalt (Co)

Selenium (Se)


ctivities1 .What element(s) do all nutrients,except minerals, have in' common?

2.Complete the nutrient terms:

v e

_ a r ;. y _e

•t r

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Once food is consumed,the bird's digestive tract mustbreak it down into nutrients thebody can absorb. Birds areclassified as monogastric orsimple-stomached animals, buttheir digestive system has severalunique features. The mouth ofthe bird differs from that of otheranimals. The bird does not havelips or teeth. Birds have a hardbeak for grasping food. Whenfood is brought into the mouth, itis moistened by saliva andswallowed. The esophagus of thebird has a special feature, calledthe crop, where feed can bestored for a short period.

The stomach of the bird isdivided into two sections: the

' proventriculus, or true-stomach,and the ventriculus, or gizzard.The proventriculus is a glandularregion like the stomach of mostmonogastrics. The glands of theproventriculus produce digestivejuices which begin the breakdownof feeds into nutrients. Theventriculus, or gizzard, is amuscular region where feedmaterial is ground, it was once acommon practice to feed grit tobirds to help the gizzard grindfeeds. Today we grind the rationbefore feeding, so it is not neces-sary to add grit to the diet.

Ground food mixed withsaliva and digestive juices calledchyme moves from the gizzardinto the small intestine. Withinthe small intestine, juices from thepancreas, liver and wall of thesmall intestine are added to thechyme for further breakdown ofthe feed. As this breakdownoccurs, individual nutrients moveacross the intestinal wall into theblood and body tissue. Thisprocess is called absorption.

Following absorption,these individual nutrients arecarried by the bloodstream to allbody cells-. Food and juices not

Large Intestine


Small Intestine


absorbed from the small intestine move into the large intestine. The bird hastwo special features of the large intestine called ceca. These are longnarrow pouches where special bacteria use the undigested material. Someof the by-products of this bacterial activity can be absorbed by the bird.Most of the water in the digestive system is absorbed in the large intestine.The remaining material in the large intestine is released from the body asmanure.

Nutrient Requirements

The amount of each nutrient needed by a bird is determined by thetype of bird and its activities. Several tables of nutrient requirements bybird and activity have been developed. The National Academy of Sciencepublishes an updated list of nutrient requirements by species based onresearch conducted at university and private laboratories. Using thesetables we can determine how much of a nutrient a particular bird needs.Table III lists nutrient requirements for different birds performing differentactivities.

f " ~ -N.

Table III. Examples of Nutrient Requirements

Bird Purpose Protein Calcium

Meat Production 18-21

Meat Production 20-28

Egg Production 16-18





The feeds or diet the bird consumes must contain the basic nutri-ents. Feeds are chemically analyzed to determine the amount of eachnutrient they contain. By knowing the amount of a nutrient in each feed, we

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can calculate the amount of feed needed to meet the bird's nutrient require-ment. Tables listing the amount of nutrients in a feed are published. Thesecan be used to determine which feeds need to be combined to give the righlamount of nutrients. Some feeds used in poultry rations are in Table IV.

Most birds today are fed a complete diet containing all of thenutrients required in the proper amounts. These complete diets are madeup of several different feeds in different amounts to meet the nutrientrequirements. Poultry rations are prepared by grinding and mixing orblending the feed ingredients, as you do when making a cake. Eachmouthful of diet the bird consumes contains the right amount of nutrients.

Table IV. Sources of Nutrients Required by Poultry

Nutrient Source


Protein Soybean meai, corn gluten meal, fish meal, blood meal,meat meal and feather meal

Carbohydrates Corn, milo, barley, rye, oats and wheat

Fats Animal tallow, corn oil and other vegetable oils

Minerals Meat and bone meal, fish rneal, limestone, salt


A ration refers to the combination of feeds or ingredients fed abird daily. To meet the daily nutrient requirements of a bird, several feedsmust be mixed together. In this ration, eight different ingredients arenecessary to meet the nutritional requirements of the broiler.

Broiler Starter Ration

IngredientCornSoybean MealCorn Gluten MealDicalcium phosphateGround LimestoneDL-MethionineAnimal FatSalt

Nutrient Ration

Protein 24Fat 8Fiber 2Calcium.8 = .8Phosphorus AMethionine .4






>22< 10< 3

= .4

1. Circle the term or phrase whichdoes not belong:

A. Protein, Water, Vitalamines,Fats

B. Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen,Water

C. Calcium, Sodium, Chlorine,Cobalt

D. Proventriculus, Gizzard,Ear, Small Intestine

E. Limestone, Milo, Corn, Barley

F. Digestion, Filtration, Absorption,Nutrition

2. What do each of the threesimilar terms in the precedingexercises have in common?



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ealth CareGood management is essential for poultry health. Raising

many birds together in close quarters produces an environment suitedto rapid spread of diseases. Prevention is the key to a healthy birdflock. Sanitation is important to reduce disease. Keeping the litterdry by removing the wet and adding fresh material will help reduceproblems. Removal of wire and sharp or foreign objects will preventinjuries. Vaccination for specific common diseases is also an effectivepreventive measure. Diseases for which birds should be vaccinated are

Common Diseases of Poultry


Disease Symptoms Treatment

Pullorum Acute, white diarrhea FurazolidoneSwollen hock joints

Fowl Pox Scabs about head & faceSores in mouth &nasal passage None

Coryza Nasal dischargeWatery eyes Sulfonamides

Coccidiosis Bloody dropping, poor Coccidiostatappetite, poor feathers


Blood TestingBreeding Flock





Parasite control is also important in poultry flocks. Birds easilycontract internal parasites from others by pecking and consuming fecalmaterial. Some common internal parasites and their treatment are:

Common Internal Parasites of Poultry lllBBHBHBP

J Parasite Site of Infection

Large Roundworm Intestines

Cecal Worm Ceca

Capillaria Worm Small Intestine

Tapeworm Intestine








External parasites are also easily transferred by close contact. Commonexternal parasites and treatments are:

Common External Parasites of Poultn

Poor management can resultin unhealthy chicks

It is often difficultto tell when a bird is sick.Close observation of thebird's behavior and feedingactivities will provide cluesto its health. When adisease problem issuspected, note thesymptoms. Talk with aprofessional (county agent,4-Hagentorveterinarian)for proper diagnosis andtreatment.

Parasite Site of Infection Treatment



External Surfaces

Body, Feather Shaft

Sevin Dust

Sevin Dust

Page 16: yyy yyy yy yyyyy - Scioto...yy yyyyy yy y y y y Introduction 4-H Poultry Project y y y y y yyy yyy y yyy yyy. Introduction The 4-H poultry project is for boys and girls who want to


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E Poultry Projects

There are three major projects which require bird ownership. These ,projects correspond directly to three primary segments of the poultryindustry: broiler production, egg production and exhibition bird production.

Each project involves a commitment of time and responsibilities.Birds must have special housing and care daily. Ask your 4-H agent forhelp in deciding which project or projects to complete. The rewards of asuccessful poultry project can include trophies, ribbons, money and moreself-esteem. Begin planning today a project which will be rewarding andfun.

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This project gives S^fe ̂4-H'erstheopportunityto 4T\ ^ Jprovide a nutritious v^\inexpensive meat for .2^^N\\ // /the family and to compete {^^-VvU J ^///Pin broiler shows. Check \/^'" "̂ "^"^with your agent to sched- ^v^c"""" **~~~ > Iule this project to be I// / $//S'/Pf^ / J /Jfl/eligible to compete in one Swtt^^y^ / Js$Zs {'iliof the parish and/or state ^\ WtJrbroiler shows. ^^ '̂ / itmir

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Egg Productionf^ • •Project

This project involves theproduction of table eggs for con-sumption. Certain breeds of birdshave better egg-laying abilities.These include the Leghorn, Mi-norca, Andalusian and Ancona.With most breeds, birds begin eggproduction at 21 -24 weeks of age.This project can be effectively

;:. combined with an exhibition projectif you use purebred stock.

Exhibition Bird Projectj

This project involvesraising birds for exhibition. Manyindividuals enjoy raising purebredpoultry for show. Bantams areespecially popular in urban areasbecause of their small size andshowy colors. Often exhibitionbirds become pets or companionanimals for their owners. Whenchoosing a purebred breed andvariety for exhibition, refer to theAmerican Poultry Association andAmerican Bantam Association'sStandard of Perfection publica-tions. These books contain written