“zoos have evolved from unsophisticated menageries exhibiting exotic creatures from distant and...

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“Zoos have evolved from unsophisticated menageries exhibiting exotic creatures from distant and strange lands to zoological parks established as living museums to conservation centres in which the message is not one of separateness and separation but one of interconnection and unity within biological diversity” The Captive Wild Animal Industry A Potted History

Author: alexandrina-bryan

Post on 25-Dec-2015




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  • Slide 1
  • Zoos have evolved from unsophisticated menageries exhibiting exotic creatures from distant and strange lands to zoological parks established as living museums to conservation centres in which the message is not one of separateness and separation but one of interconnection and unity within biological diversity Mullan, B. & Marvin, G. Zoo Culture (1999). The Captive Wild Animal Industry A Potted History
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  • I shall cause a flood to rise over the land, and you must build an ark. In it you must make room for yourself and your family, and two one male, one female of every kind of creature, every kind of beast, reptile and bird. And you must fill it with enough food for them and for yourselves. For it will rain for forty days and forty nights, and life on earth will be extinct. Anon, sometime BC
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  • Ancient Menageries Future Zoos?? ZOO EVOLUTION Middle Ages Renaissance French Revolution & 19 th Century 20 th Century and the Modern Zoo
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  • Ancient Menageries c. 4000 1700 years ago WEALTH POWER RELIGION GESTURES TRANSPORT
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  • Philosophies Aristotelian Christian Religion Romans supremecy over Nature Capacity to reason Those with less capacity to reason exist for those with more Aversion to showing moral consideration to weak beings Conferred onto people dominion over nature
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  • Egyptians Resources to obtain and keep animals Aids to hunting and war Sacred tended and fed by priests Visitors allowed but collection not set up for this purpose Enthusiasm for wild things by the cultured Recognised as precious Power making contacts, diplomacy Tuthmosis III: brought animals from Syria Expeditions Hapshepsut: precious jewels, spices, animals and plants Huge parks domestic and wild
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  • Ancient Chinese Political power Hunting menageries Possible places for learning Wen Wang Garden of Intelligence 1200BC (600 hectares)
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  • Ancient Greeks Majority of Greek menageries linked to religion i.e. temples Not as much wealth to collect and sustain Not enough power over other lands to ensure supply Not interested in animal shows Possible links with research and study via Aristotle and Alexandra the Great
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  • Romans Nobility not interested in hunting for lower classes Power to keep more powerful to kill Earliest records of gladitorial games c.150 BC - Marcus Nobilitor One celebration 10K gladiators and 11K animals Not just Rome games all across the Empire Also used in processions Massive trade and transport of animals to supply games Growth of menageries to keep animals for games and also huge private menageries Games ended 325 AD Constantine (although resumed in 600 AD in what is now Turkey until 12 th Century)
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  • Middle Ages c. 1700 y.a. 16 th century Prized possessions Hunting Study Symbolic
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  • Philosophies Anthroprocentrism Christian influence highly ambivalent toward nature; animals treated with pity or contempt Utilitarian Developed as a result of other beings considered beastly or uncivilised Philosophical study As evidence of Gods existence and His plans for a designed world
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  • Middle Ages Charlemagne requirement for luxury received and gave as gifts Frederick II renowned naturalist studied and wrote about animals Henry I first great menagerie in W Europe Henry III Tower of London and taxes for menagerie upkeep China Kublai Khan reported by Marco Polo large hunting menageries and animals used for hunting
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  • Renaissance c. 14 th century 17 th century Hunting Parks in Europe Italy as channel for movement and storage of animals Scientific study of natural history French supply and trade Colonisation of New World - Conquest Chinese Expeditions
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  • Philosophies Humanist Contrasted human superiority, dignity and potential with the more limited capacity of lower beings Preservation of species and animal welfare Beginnings of association between scientific study of natural history and zoos. Middle class interest Rise of middle classes with greater resources, status and leisure time cultivated an interest in animals and nature Human rationality and purpose should dominate non- human nature. Descartes
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  • Renaissance China - Trade, diplomacy, and fascination. Travel and expedition. Yung Lo Giraffe from Africa started trade between China and E Africa Italy early renaissance prosperous, important ports- ideally placed between orient and occident huge storage Medicis added people to menageries. France - Rene of Anjou and Provence most complete menagerie at Angers placed throughout gardens and separate keepers for each section Portugal few menageries to this time expanded hugely due to exploration, colonisation and opening of routes to E Indies by Vasco da Gama, and Cabral (Brazil) Holland Dutch travel and recolonisation Amsterdam became important port for movement of animals, prosperity, curiosity and ease of communication led to all wealthy citizens owning menageries
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  • Renaissance contd New World Montezuma (Aztec Leader) large menagerie at Tenochtitln. Reported by Corts well looked after and 300 keepers. Hunting Parks Britain, France and Saxony: John George Elector in 24 years killed 42,649 red deer. Maximilian II created deer parks which led to the beginnings of Schnbrunn Zoo, near Vienna Menagerie at Versailles Louis XIV
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  • French Revolution and 19 th Century c. 18 th and 19 th Century Private to Public Institutions Establishment of Zoological Society of London Disciplines in Zoology and Botany Instigation of Paris Zoo
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  • French Revolution and 19 th Century contd Formation of RSPCA and RSPB Public awareness of conditions Hagenbeck
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  • Philosophies Changes in class system The zoo industry became the domain of the ordinary person Raffles Animals would be gathered .from every part of the globe to be applied either to some useful purpose, or as objects of scientific research, not of vulgar admiration Scientific Reason By virtue of Linnaeus and Darwins work, the gap between humans and animals narrows Taxonomic Race Postage stamp collections
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  • Philosophies contd Civic Pride Every town should have a zoo Justification and Accountability Zoos looked at their raison detre Growth of Animal Welfare Outcry by public re: detrimental effects
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  • French Revolution Louis XVI inherited Versailles 1789 Louis moves to Paris as revolution imminent Revolutionaries demand animals be set free Some killed for food, some left Remnants offered to Jardin de Roi (renamed Jardin des Plantes) where scientific study was underway already 1793, animals and plants united at Jardin des Plantes to become Musum National dHistoire Naturelle Seizure of all travelling shows animals Site of critical research Cuvier, Lamarck et al Paid entry for all persons at all times
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  • Zoological Society of London Stamford Raffles and Joseph Banks provide impetus for inception of Society - 1817 Humphrey Davy 1825 prospectus for Zoological Society. Zoological Gardens opened to Fellows in 1827 1857, opened fully to public Word Zoo becomes common Vance Huge number of zoos follow suit
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  • 20 th Century and the Modern Zoo Conservation and Resource Management World Wars Crowd Pleasers Dual Zoo Concept Four Arm Strategy Advancement of Firearm technology
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  • Philosophies Change in environmental values From worth attributed to conservation on the basis of human benefit, to worth attributed to conservation for the sake of the animals and plants Commitment to reduce stereotypic behaviours and promote natural behaviours Animal Welfare Principles of Good Zoo, Bad Zoo Zoos ask the question. What makes a good zoo?
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  • The Twentieth Century Zoo - The Modern Ark Post-war Boom Phase + Awareness of Mass Extinctions Changes in Philosophy
  • Slide 26
  • Growing awareness that zoos need to be more responsive to animals physiological and behavioural needs. Heini Hediger Applied Ethology to Zoos 1960 and 1970s - Ethology used to foster natural behaviours in captivity and eradicate sterotypic behaviours Foster better understanding of animal behaviour in viewing public
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  • Biological science advance in 1970s and 1980s ID of Stress as a threat equal in impact to disease Growing awareness that zoos need to be more responsive to animals physiological and behavioural needs. Understanding of flight distances Understanding of social interactions to improve breeding and welfare
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  • Zoo Exhibit Design Naturalistic Hi-Tec and Interactive Immersion
  • Slide 29
  • Zoo Visitor Behaviour and Interpretation Applied to Zoo Context Development of Informal Learning Experiences Appreciation of Wildlife in addition to school curricula Environmental Education Ecological Interpretation and Nature Conservation Communication of Messages to Motivate Public to act on behalf of Conservation Education
  • Slide 30
  • Todays zoo, tomorrows zoo and future zoos.. Thats up to!